ABSTRACT: These samples include exome sequences of samples from patients who suffered Sudden Unexplained Death in Epilepsy. They all are of European descent. .
This dataset contains all the data available for this study on 2019-08-21.
Project description:Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and sudden unexplained death in childhood (SUDC) are defined as sudden death in a child remaining unexplained despite autopsy and death scene investigation. They are distinguished from each other by age criteria, i.e. with SIDS under 1 year and SUDC over 1 year. Our separate studies of SIDS and SUDC provide evidence of shared hippocampal abnormalities, specifically focal dentate bilamination, a lesion classically associated with temporal lobe epilepsy, across the 2 groups. In this study, we characterized the clinicopathologic features in a retrospective case series of 32 children with sudden death and hippocampal formation (HF) maldevelopment. The greatest frequency of deaths was between 3 weeks and 3 years (81%, 26/32). Dentate anomalies were found across the pediatric age spectrum, supporting a common vulnerability that defies the 1-year age cutoff between SIDS and SUDC. Twelve cases (38%) had seizures, including 7 only with febrile seizures. Subicular anomalies were found in cases over 1 year of age and were associated with increased risk of febrile seizures. Sudden death associated with HF maldevelopment reflects a complex interaction of intrinsic and extrinsic factors that lead to death at different pediatric ages, and may be analogous to sudden unexplained death in epilepsy.
Project description:Sudden unexplained death in infants, including the sudden infant death syndrome, is likely due to heterogeneous causes that involve different intrinsic vulnerabilities and/or environmental factors. Neuropathologic research focuses upon the role of brain regions, particularly the brainstem, that regulate or modulate autonomic and respiratory control during sleep or transitions to waking. The hippocampus is a key component of the forebrain-limbic network that modulates autonomic/respiratory control via brainstem connections, but its role in sudden infant death has received little attention. We tested the hypothesis that a well-established marker of hippocampal pathology in temporal lobe epilepsy-focal granule cell bilamination in the dentate, a variant of granule cell dispersion-is associated with sudden unexplained death in infants. In a blinded study of hippocampal morphology in 153 infants with sudden and unexpected death autopsied in the San Diego County medical examiner's office, deaths were classified as unexplained or explained based upon autopsy and scene investigation. Focal granule cell bilamination was present in 41.2% (47/114) of the unexplained group compared to 7.7% (3/39) of the explained (control) group (p < 0.001). It was associated with a cluster of other dentate developmental abnormalities that reflect defective neuronal proliferation, migration, and/or survival. Dentate lesions in a large subset of infants with sudden unexplained death may represent a developmental vulnerability that leads to autonomic/respiratory instability or autonomic seizures, and sleep-related death when the infants are challenged with homeostatic stressors. Importantly, these lesions can be recognized in microscopic sections prepared in current forensic practice. Future research is needed to determine the relationship between hippocampal and previously reported brainstem pathology in sudden infant death.
Project description:Mutations in several genes encoding ion channels can cause the long-QT (LQT) syndrome with cardiac arrhythmias, syncope and sudden death. Recently, mutations in some of these genes were also identified to cause epileptic seizures in these patients, and the sudden unexplained death in epilepsy (SUDEP) was considered to be the pathologic overlap between the two clinical conditions. For LQT-associated KCNQ1 mutations, only few investigations reported the coincidence of cardiac dysfunction and epileptic seizures. Clinical, electrophysiological and genetic characterization of a large pedigree (n = 241 family members) with LQT syndrome caused by a 12-base-pair duplication in exon 8 of the KCNQ1 gene duplicating four amino acids in the carboxyterminal KCNQ1 domain (KCNQ1dup12; p.R360_Q361dupQKQR, NM_000218.2, hg19). Electrophysiological recordings revealed no substantial KCNQ1-like currents. The mutation did not exhibit a dominant negative effect on wild-type KCNQ1 channel function. Most likely, the mutant protein was not functionally expressed and thus not incorporated into a heteromeric channel tetramer. Many LQT family members suffered from syncopes or developed sudden death, often after physical activity. Of 26 family members with LQT, seizures were present in 14 (LQTplus seizure trait). Molecular genetic analyses confirmed a causative role of the novel KCNQ1dup12 mutation for the LQT trait and revealed a strong link also with the LQTplus seizure trait. Genome-wide parametric multipoint linkage analyses identified a second strong genetic modifier locus for the LQTplus seizure trait in the chromosomal region 10p14. The linkage results suggest a two-locus inheritance model for the LQTplus seizure trait in which both the KCNQ1dup12 mutation and the 10p14 risk haplotype are necessary for the occurrence of LQT-associated seizures. The data strongly support emerging concepts that KCNQ1 mutations may increase the risk of epilepsy, but additional genetic modifiers are necessary for the clinical manifestation of epileptic seizures.
Project description:Several studies have identified copy number variants (CNVs) as responsible for cardiac diseases associated with sudden cardiac death (SCD), but very few exhaustive analyses in large cohorts of patients have been performed, and they have been generally focused on a specific SCD-related disease. The aim of the present study was to screen for CNVs the most prevalent genes associated with SCD in a large cohort of patients who suffered sudden unexplained death or had an inherited cardiac disease (cardiomyopathy or channelopathy). A total of 1765 European patients were analyzed with a homemade algorithm for the assessment of CNVs using high-throughput sequencing data. Thirty-six CNVs were identified (2%), and most of them appeared to have a pathogenic role. The frequency of CNVs among cases of sudden unexplained death, patients with a cardiomyopathy or a channelopathy was 1.4% (8/587), 2.3% (20/874), and 2.6% (8/304), respectively. Detection rates were particularly high for arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (5.1%), long QT syndrome (4.7%), and dilated cardiomyopathy (4.4%). As such large genomic rearrangements underlie a non-neglectable portion of cases, we consider that their analysis should be performed as part of the routine genetic testing of sudden unexpected death cases and patients with SCD-related diseases.
Project description:Sudden unexplained death is a catastrophic complication of human idiopathic epilepsy, causing up to 18% of patient deaths. A molecular mechanism and an identified therapy have remained elusive. Here, we find that epilepsy occurs in mouse lines bearing dominant human LQT1 mutations for the most common form of cardiac long QT syndrome, which causes syncopy and sudden death. KCNQ1 encodes the cardiac KvLQT1 delayed rectifier channel, which has not been previously found in the brain. We have shown that, in these mice, this channel is found in forebrain neuronal networks and brainstem nuclei, regions in which a defect in the ability of neurons to repolarize after an action potential, as would be caused by this mutation, can produce seizures and dysregulate autonomic control of the heart. That long QT syndrome mutations in KCNQ1 cause epilepsy reveals the dual arrhythmogenic potential of an ion channelopathy coexpressed in heart and brain and motivates a search for genetic diagnostic strategies to improve risk prediction and prevention of early mortality in persons with seizure disorders of unknown origin.
Project description:Sudden unexplained death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the most common cause of premature mortality in epilepsy and was linked to mutations in ion channels; however, genes within the channel protein interactome might also represent pathogenic candidates. Here we show that mice with partial deficiency of Sentrin/SUMO-specific protease 2 (SENP2) develop spontaneous seizures and sudden death. SENP2 is highly enriched in the hippocampus, often the focus of epileptic seizures. SENP2 deficiency results in hyper-SUMOylation of multiple potassium channels known to regulate neuronal excitability. We demonstrate that the depolarizing M-current conducted by Kv7 channel is significantly diminished in SENP2-deficient hippocampal CA3 neurons, primarily responsible for neuronal hyperexcitability. Following seizures, SENP2-deficient mice develop atrioventricular conduction blocks and cardiac asystole. Both seizures and cardiac conduction blocks can be prevented by retigabine, a Kv7 channel opener. Thus, we uncover a disease-causing role for hyper-SUMOylation in the nervous system and establish an animal model for SUDEP.
Project description:We present the case of a patient with syncope with repetition over 12 years, with a clinical profile not clearly related with a cardiogenic origin, who was studied by several medical specialties without any accurate diagnosis. After subcutaneous loop recorder implantation, we were able to demonstrate how seizures acted as a trigger in the genesis of an exaggerated cardio inhibitory reflex. A new entity has been described, known as "ictal asystole", in patients with focal epilepsy mostly from the temporal lobes and has been implicated as a cardiac cause of sudden unexplained death in epilepsy. We think this case could add new information about some patients who are at high risk of death but they are misdiagnosed.
Project description:Background Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the leading cause of epilepsy-related death. SUDEP shares many features with sudden cardiac death and sudden unexplained death in the young and may have a similar genetic contribution. We aim to systematically review the literature on the genetics of SUDEP. Methods and Results PubMed, MEDLINE Epub Ahead of Print, Ovid Medline In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Scopus were searched through April 4, 2017. English language human studies analyzing SUDEP for known sudden death, ion channel and arrhythmia-related pathogenic variants, novel variant discovery, and copy number variant analyses were included. Aggregate descriptive statistics were generated; data were insufficient for meta-analysis. A total of 8 studies with 161 unique individuals were included; mean was age 29.0 (±SD 14.2) years; 61% males; ECG data were reported in 7.5% of cases; 50.7% were found prone and 58% of deaths were nocturnal. Cause included all types of epilepsy. Antemortem diagnosis of Dravet syndrome and autism (with duplication of chromosome 15) was associated with 11% and 9% of cases. The most frequently detected known pathogenic variants at postmortem were in Na+ and K+ ion channel subunits, as were novel potentially pathogenic variants (11%). Overall, the majority of variants were of unknown significance. Analysis of copy number variant was insignificant. Conclusions SUDEP case adjudication and evaluation remains limited largely because of crucial missing data such as ECGs. The most frequent pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants identified by molecular autopsy are in ion channel or arrhythmia-related genes, with an ?11% discovery rate. Comprehensive postmortem examination should include examination of the heart and brain by specialized pathologists and blood storage.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sudden Unexpected Death in Pediatrics (SUDP) is a tragic event, likely caused by the complex interaction of multiple factors. The presence of hippocampal abnormalities in many children with SUDP suggests that epilepsy-related mechanisms may contribute to death, similar to Sudden Unexplained Death in Epilepsy. Because of known associations between the genes SCN1A and SCN5A and sudden death, and shared mechanisms and patterns of expression in genes encoding many voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs), we hypothesized that individuals dying from SUDP have pathogenic variants across the entire family of cardiac arrhythmia- and epilepsy-associated VGSC genes. METHODS:To address this hypothesis, we evaluated whole-exome sequencing data from infants and children with SUDP for variants in VGSC genes, reviewed the literature for all SUDP-associated variants in VGSCs, applied a novel paralog analysis to all variants, and evaluated all variants according to American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) guidelines. RESULTS:In our cohort of 73 cases of SUDP, we assessed 11 variants as pathogenic in SCN1A, SCN1B, and SCN10A, genes with long-standing disease associations, and in SCN3A, SCN4A, and SCN9A, VGSC gene paralogs with more recent disease associations. From the literature, we identified 82 VGSC variants in SUDP cases. Pathogenic variants clustered at conserved amino acid sites intolerant to variation across the VGSC genes, which is unlikely to occur in the general population (p < .0001). For 54% of variants previously reported in literature, we identified conflicting evidence regarding pathogenicity when applying ACMG criteria and modern population data. CONCLUSION:We report variants in several VGSC genes in cases with SUDP, involving both arrhythmia- and epilepsy-associated genes. Accurate variant assessment as well as future studies are essential for an improved understanding of the contribution of sodium channel-related variants to SUDP.