Project description:Since estrogen is thought to protect pre-menopausal women from age-related hearing loss, we investigated whether variation in estrogen-signalling genes is linked to hearing status in the 1958 British Birth Cohort. This analysis implicated the estrogen-related receptor gamma (ESRRG) gene in determining adult hearing function and was investigated further in a total of 6134 individuals in 3 independent cohorts: (i) the 1958 British Birth Cohort; (ii) a London ARHL case-control cohort; and (iii) a cohort from isolated populations of Italy and Silk Road countries. Evidence of an association between the minor allele of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2818964 and hearing status was found in females, but not in males in 2 of these cohorts: p = 0.0058 (London ARHL) and p = 0.0065 (Carlantino, Italy). Furthermore, assessment of hearing in Esrrg knock-out mice revealed a mild 25-dB hearing loss at 5 weeks of age. At 12 weeks, average hearing thresholds in female mice((-/-)) were 15 dB worse than in males((-/-)). Together these data indicate ESRRG plays a role in maintenance of hearing in both humans and mice.
Project description:Systematic differences in voter turnout limit the capacity of public institutions to address the needs of under-represented groups. One critical question relates to the role of health as a mechanism driving these inequalities. This study explores the associations of self-rated health (SRH) and limitations in everyday activities with voting over the course of adulthood in the 1958 National Child Development Study and the 1970 British Cohort Study. We used data from participants who reported voting in the last general election at least once between the ages of 23 and 55 in the 1958 cohort and between the ages of 30 and 42 in the 1970 cohort. We examined associations controlling for a range of early-life and adult circumstances using random-effects models. Compared with those in good or better health: those in fair health had 15% and 18% lower odds of voting in the 1958 and 1970 cohorts; those in poor or worse health had 17% and 32% lower odds of voting in the 1958 and 1970 cohorts. These effects varied with age and were most marked among those in poor health at the ages of 23/30 in the 1958 and 1970 cohorts. Controlling for SRH, having limitations in everyday activities was not associated with voting in main models. Examining age-based differences, however, we found that reporting limitations was associated with a higher probability of voting at the age of 55 in the 1958 cohort and at the age of 30 in the 1970 cohort. Building on the qualities of the British birth cohorts, we offer nuanced evidence about the role of health on voting, which involves considerable life-course processes. Future studies need to examine how these findings progress after the age of 55, extend to mental wellbeing and health practices, and contribute to explain social inequalities in voter turnout.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Few studies have investigated the prevalence of multiple gastrointestinal diseases in the general British population. AIM:To examine the prevalence of Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), gall stones (GS), and peptic ulcer disease (PUD). SUBJECTS:The 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70) and the National Child Development Study (NCDS) are two one week national birth cohorts born in 1970 and 1958, respectively. All cohort members living in Great Britain were interviewed in 1999/2000. METHODS:The prevalence rates of the five diseases were calculated, and associations with sex and childhood social class were investigated using logistic regression. RESULTS:At age 30 years, the prevalence rates per 10,000 (95% confidence interval (CI)) in the 1970 and 1958 cohorts, respectively, were: CD 38 (26-49), 21 (13-30); UC 30 (20-41), 27 (18-37); IBS 826 (775-877), 290 (267-330); GS 88 (71-106), 78 (62-94); and PUD 244 (214-273), 229 (201-256). There was a significantly higher proportion with CD (p=0.023) and IBS (p=0.000) in the 1970 cohort compared with the 1958 cohort at age 30 years. Comparing the cohorts in the 1999/2000 sweep, UC, GS, and PUD were significantly (p=0.001, p=0.000, p=0.000) more common in the 1958 cohort. There was a statistically significant trend for a higher risk of GS with lower social class in both cohorts combined (p=0.027). CONCLUSION:The study indicates an increasing temporal trend in the prevalence of CD and suggests a period effect in IBS, possibly due to adult life exposures or variation in recognition and diagnosis of IBS.