ABSTRACT: In this experiment we have sequenced tumour normal pairs from patients presenting with CRC who have a prior history of inflammatory bowel disease. The idea is to identify driver mutations, new genes and novel pathways associated with the development of these malignancies.
Project description:In this experiment we have sequenced tumour normal pairs from patients presenting with CRC who have a prior history of inflammatory bowel disease. The idea is to identify driver mutations, new genes and novel pathways associated with the development of these malignancies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Most clinical trials on colorectal cancer (CRC) exclude cases who have history of a prior malignancy. However, no prior research studied this history's actual impact on the survival of CRC. In the paper, we study the effects of having a malignancy preceding CRC diagnosis on its survival outcomes. METHODS:CRC patients diagnosed during 1973-2008 were reviewed using the SEER 18 database. We calculated overall survival and cancer-specific survival of subsequent CRC, and more specifically stage IV CRC, using Kaplan-Meier test and adjusted Cox models. RESULTS:A total 550,325 CRC patients were reviewed, of whom 31,663 had history of a prior malignancy. The most commonly reported sites of a prior malignancy were: prostate, breast, urinary bladder, lung, and endometrium. Patients with history of a prior non-leukemic malignancy or history of a prior leukemia were found to have worse overall survival (HR = 1.165 95%CI = 1.148-1.183, P < 0.001) and (HR = 1.825 95%CI = 1.691-1.970, P < 0.001), respectively. However, CRC patients with history of a prior non-leukemic malignancy showed an improved colorectal cancer-specific survival (HR = .930 95%CI = .909-.952, P < 0.001). Analysis of stage IV CRC patients showed that patients with history of any non-leukemic malignancy did not have a significant change in overall survival. Whereas, patients with a prior leukemia showed a worse overall survival (HR = 1.535, 95%CI = 1.303-1.809, P < 0.001). When analyzed separately, right CRC and left CRC showed similar survival patterns. CONCLUSION:A prior malignancy before CRC -in general- can be associated with worse clinical survival outcomes. These worse outcomes are not observed in stage IV CRC. Considering these results when including/excluding stage IV CRC patients with prior malignancies in clinical trials may play help improve their generalizability.
Project description:<h4>Background and aims</h4>The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in patients taking aminosalicylates (5-ASA) for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).<h4>Methods</h4>The General Practice Research Database (GPRD) which contains the primary care records of five million people in the UK was used to identify users of mesalazine, balsalazide, olsalazine, or sulfasalazine with a history of IBD. In a nested case control analysis, each incident CRC case with any use of a 5-ASA in the six months before the CRC diagnosis was matched by age, sex, and calendar time to six control patients who were also currently using a 5-ASA. Patients were then classified according to regularity of use. The analysis was controlled for body mass index, IBD duration, history of colorectal polyps, use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, paracetamol, aspirin, immunosuppressants, oral and rectal glucocorticoids, prior gastrointestinal hospitalisation, recorded colonoscopy, and number of visits to the general practitioner for IBD symptoms in the 6-24 months before diagnosis.<h4>Results</h4>The study population included 18 969 patients, of whom 100 had developed CRC during 5-ASA exposure. Most of these cases had a history of ulcerative colitis (76 patients). In the case control analysis, regular users, defined as having six or more 5-ASA prescriptions in the previous 12 months, were found to have a decreased risk of CRC compared with irregular users (crude odds ratio (OR) 0.7 (0.44-1.03); adjusted OR 0.60 (0.38-0.96)). Regular users of sulfasalazine with 6-12 prescriptions before had an adjusted OR of 0.95 (0.22-4.11); with 13-30 prior prescriptions this was 0.41 (0.14-1.20) and with >30 prior prescriptions this was 0.77 (0.37-1.60). For mesalazine users, these values were 1.13 (0.49-2.59), 0.30 (0.11-0.83), and 0.31 (0.11-0.84), respectively.<h4>Conclusion</h4>These results show that regular 5-ASA use is associated with some reduction in the risk of CRC developing in ulcerative colitis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening might be improved by using a measure of prior risk to modulate screening intensity or the faecal immunochemical test threshold. Intermediate molecular biomarkers could aid risk prediction by capturing both known and unknown risk factors. METHODS:We sampled normal bowel mucosa from the proximal colon, distal colon and rectum of 317 individuals undergoing colonoscopy. We defined cases as having a personal history of colorectal polyp(s)/cancer, and controls as having no history of colorectal neoplasia. Molecular analyses were performed for: telomere length (TL); global methylation; and the expression of genes in molecular pathways associated with colorectal tumourigenesis. We also calculated a polygenic risk score (PRS) based on CRC susceptibility polymorphisms. RESULTS:Bowel TL was significantly longer in cases than controls, but was not associated with blood TL. PRS was significantly and independently higher in cases. Hypermethylation showed a suggestive association with case:control status. No gene or pathway was differentially expressed between cases and controls. Gene expression often varied considerably between bowel locations. CONCLUSIONS:PRS and bowel TL (but not blood TL) may be clinically-useful predictors of CRC risk. Sample collection to assess these biomarkers is feasible in clinical practice, especially where population screening uses flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:With almost 50% of cases preventable and the Australian National Bowel Cancer Screening Program in place, colorectal cancer (CRC) is a prime candidate for investment to reduce the cancer burden. The challenge is determining effective ways to reduce morbidity and mortality and their implementation through policy and practice. Pathways-Bowel is a multistage programme that aims to identify best-value investment in CRC control by integrating expert and end-user engagement; relevant evidence; modelled interventions to guide future investment; and policy-driven implementation of interventions using evidence-based methods. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Pathways-Bowel is an iterative work programme incorporating a calibrated and validated CRC natural history model for Australia (Policy1-Bowel) and assessing the health and cost outcomes and resource use of targeted interventions. Experts help identify and prioritise modelled evaluations of changing trends and interventions and critically assess results to advise on their real-world applicability. Where appropriate the results are used to support public policy change and make the case for optimal investment in specific CRC control interventions. Fourteen high-priority evaluations have been modelled or planned, including evaluations of CRC outcomes from the changing prevalence of modifiable exposures, including smoking and body fatness; potential benefits of daily aspirin intake as chemoprevention; increasing CRC incidence in people aged <50 years; increasing screening participation in the general and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations; alternative screening technologies and modalities; and changes to follow-up surveillance protocols. Pathways-Bowel is a unique, comprehensive approach to evaluating CRC control; no prior body of work has assessed the relative benefits of a variety of interventions across CRC development and progression to produce a list of best-value investments. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:Ethics approval was not required as human participants were not involved. Findings are reported in a series of papers in peer-reviewed journals and presented at fora to engage the community and policymakers.
Project description:Background:The wnt/APC/?-catenin pathway is a critical initiator in colorectal carcinogenesis in both hereditary and sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC). The progression of this process remains incompletely understood, although inflammation is pivotal. Drivers of inflammation are elevated in malignant tissue and have been shown to regulate ?-catenin expression. Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is protumorigenic at elevated levels via COX-2 stimulation. Elevated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) expression has reduced risk of carcinogenesis and good overall prognosis in established CRC. Activation of PPAR? has inhibitory effect on ?-catenin. Methods:Using qPCR and IHC, we compared ?-catenin, PPAR?, COX-2, and IL-17A in the colonic mucosa of patients with sporadic CRC, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), against a normal control population. Results:?-catenin mRNA and protein expression progressively increased from the Normal group, through IBS and IBD reaching statistical significance in CRC. COX-2 mRNA levels increased similarly with statistical significance in IBD and CRC. However, COX-2 protein expression was inverted with significant expression in the Normal and IBS groups and reduced levels in IBD and CRC. PPAR? mRNA expression was unchanged in IBD and CRC but was significantly elevated in the IBS. IL-17A mRNA was significantly reduced in IBS and CRC but unchanged in IBD. There were no differences in all parameters tested in the Normal and IBS groups. Conclusion:?-catenin is confirmed as a major driver of colorectal carcinogenesis but is controlled by many more players other than APC. Elevated levels of PPAR? may have an anticarcinogenic effect. The role of COX-2 expression, especially its posttranscriptional regulation in colorectal cancer, needs further elucidation.
Project description:Diagnosis of low-grade dysplasia (LGD) is important in the management of ulcerative colitis (UC), but it is often difficult to distinguish LGD from inflammatory regenerative epithelium. The unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated in inflammatory bowel disease and malignancies. We aimed to identify a UPR-related gene that is involved in the development of non-UC and UC-associated colorectal cancer (CRC), and to investigate whether the target gene is useful for the diagnosis of LGD.Using our microarray gene expression database of 152 CRCs, we identified activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) as a target gene. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) of ATF6 were analyzed in 137 surgically resected CRCs, 95 endoscopically resected adenomas and pTis cancers, and 136 samples from 51 UC patients (93 colitis without neoplasia, 31 dysplasia, and 12 UC-associated CRC). The diagnostic accuracy of ATF6 and p53 as markers of LGD was assessed.ATF6 expression was detectable in all CRCs but not in normal colonic mucosa, was elevated with increase in cellular atypia (adenoma with moderate atypia < severe atypia < pTis CRC, p < 0.001), and higher in dysplasia and CRC than in non-neoplastic colitis (p < 0.001). Notably, the difference between colitis and LGD was significant. Compared to p53-IHC, ATF6-IHC had better diagnostic accuracy for distinguishing LGD from background inflammatory mucosa (sensitivity 70.8 vs. 16.7%, specificity 78.5 vs.71.0%, respectively).ATF6 was expressed in lesions undergoing pre-cancerous atypical change in both non-UC and UC-associated CRC and may be used to distinguish LGD from inflammatory regenerative epithelium in UC patients.
Project description:Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the most frequent cancer entities worldwide. Multiple factors are causally associated with CRC development, such as genetic and epigenetic alterations, inflammatory bowel disease, lifestyle and dietary factors. During malignant transformation, the cellular energy metabolism is reprogrammed in order to promote cancer cell growth and proliferation. In this review, we first describe the main alterations of the energy metabolism found in CRC, revealing the critical impact of oncogenic signaling and driver mutations in key metabolic enzymes. Then, the central role of mitochondria and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in this process is highlighted, also considering the metabolic crosstalk between tumor and stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment. The identified cancer-specific metabolic transformations provided new therapeutic targets for the development of small molecule inhibitors. Promising agents are in clinical trials and are directed against enzymes of the TCA cycle, including isocitrate dehydrogenase, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) and ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (KGDH). Finally, we focus on the ?-lipoic acid derivative CPI-613, an inhibitor of both PDC and KGDH, and delineate its anti-tumor effects for targeted therapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:It is unclear whether intensive surveillance protocols have resulted in a decreased incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). AIMS:To determine the prevalence and characteristics of IBD associated high-grade dysplasia (HGD) or CRC that was undetected on prior colonoscopy. METHODS:This is a single-center, retrospective study from 1994 to 2013. All participants had a confirmed IBD diagnosis and underwent a colectomy with either HGD or CRC found in the colectomy specimen.The undetected group had no HGD or CRC on prior colonoscopies. The detected group had HGD or CRC identified on previous biopsies. RESULTS:Of 70 participants, with ulcerative colitis (UC) (n = 47), Crohn's disease (CD) (n = 21), and indeterminate colitis (n = 2), 29% (n = 20) had undetected HGD/CRC at colectomy (15 HGD and 5 CRC). In the undetected group, 75% had prior LGD, 15% had indefinite dysplasia, and 10% had no dysplasia (HGD was found in colonic strictures). Patients in the undetected group were more likely to have pancolitis (55 vs. 20%) and multifocal dysplasia (35 vs. 8%). The undetected group was less likely to have CRC at colectomy (25 vs. 62%). There was a trend toward right-sided HGD/CRC at colectomy (40 vs. 20%; p = 0.08). In addition, 84% of the lesions found in the rectum at colectomy were not seen on prior colonoscopy in the undetected group. CONCLUSIONS:The prevalence of previously undetected HGD/CRC in IBD found at colectomy was 29%. The high proportion of undetected rectal and right-sided HGD/CRC suggests that these areas may need greater attention during surveillance.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of cancer morbidity and mortality. In previous epidemiologic studies, the respective correlation between lifestyle factors and comorbidity and CRC has been extensively studied. However, little is known about their joint effects on CRC.<h4>Methods</h4>We conducted a retrospective case-control study of 1,144 diagnosed CRC patients and 60,549 community controls. A structured questionnaire was administered to the participants about their socio-demographic factors, anthropometric measures, comorbidity history and lifestyle factors. Logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for each factor. According to the results from logistic regression model, we further developed healthy lifestyle index (HLI) and comorbidity history index (CHI) to investigate their independent and joint effects on CRC risk.<h4>Results</h4>Four lifestyle factors (including physical activities, sleep, red meat and vegetable consumption) and four types of comorbidity (including diabetes, hyperlipidemia, history of inflammatory bowel disease and polyps) were found to be independently associated with the risk of CRC in multivariant logistic regression model. Intriguingly, their combined pattern- HLI and CHI demonstrated significant correlation with CRC risk independently (ORHLI: 3.91, 95%CI: 3.13-4.88; ORCHI: 2.49, 95%CI: 2.11-2.93) and jointly (OR: 10.33, 95%CI: 6.59-16.18).<h4>Conclusions</h4>There are synergistic effects of lifestyle factors and comorbidity on the risk of colorectal cancer in the Chinese population.