Heterogeneous Genomic Evolution and Immune Microenvironments in Metastatic Lung Cancer
ABSTRACT: The mechanism underlying the occurrence of lung cancer metastasis to different tissues/organs remains elusive. We investigated the genomic evolution and immune microenvironments of paired primary-metastatic tumors by employing multi-region whole-exome sequencing in 179 samples of 106 tumors from 51 lung cancer patients and subsequent immunohistochemistry assays in 70 of them. Our data revealed differences in genomic landscapes, molecular determinants, evolutionary dynamics, and lymphocyte infiltration among different metastatic sites. We demonstrated commonly late arising of metastatic seeding of lung cancer with quantitative evidence. Most distant metastases originated from independent origins of earlier lymph node spreads. Immune-heterogeneity and -homogeneity were primarily driven by arm-level and focal copy number events in primary tumors, respectively. These findings implied the combinatorial role of multiple factors in shaping patterns of dissemination and advanced the clinical evaluation and intervention of lung cancer metastasis.
Project description:Metastatic cancers produce exosomes that condition pre-metastatic niches in remote microenvironments to favor metastasis. In contrast, here we show that exosomes from poorly metastatic melanoma cells can potently inhibit metastasis to the lung. These "non-metastatic" exosomes stimulate an innate immune response through the expansion of Ly6Clow patrolling monocytes (PMo) in the bone marrow, which then cause cancer cell clearance at the pre-metastatic niche, via the recruitment of NK cells and TRAIL-dependent killing of melanoma cells by macrophages. These events require the induction of the Nr4a1 transcription factor and are dependent on pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) on the outer surface of exosomes. Importantly, exosomes isolated from patients with non-metastatic primary melanomas have a similar ability to suppress lung metastasis. This study thus demonstrates that pre-metastatic tumors produce exosomes, which elicit a broad range of PMo-reliant innate immune responses via trigger(s) of immune surveillance, causing cancer cell clearance at the pre-metastatic niche.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Metastasis is the primary cause of cancer mortality accounting for 90% of cancer deaths. Our understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving metastasis is rudimentary. RESULTS:We perform whole exome sequencing (WES), RNA sequencing, methylation microarray, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) on 8 pairs of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) primary tumors and matched distant metastases. Furthermore, we analyze published WES data from 35 primary NSCLC and metastasis pairs, and transcriptomic data from 4 autopsy cases with metastatic NSCLC and one metastatic lung cancer mouse model. The majority of somatic mutations are shared between primary tumors and paired distant metastases although mutational signatures suggest different mutagenesis processes in play before and after metastatic spread. Subclonal analysis reveals evidence of monoclonal seeding in 41 of 42 patients. Pathway analysis of transcriptomic data reveals that downregulated pathways in metastases are mainly immune-related. Further deconvolution analysis reveals significantly lower infiltration of various immune cell types in metastases with the exception of CD4+ T cells and M2 macrophages. These results are in line with lower densities of immune cells and higher CD4/CD8 ratios in metastases shown by IHC. Analysis of transcriptomic data from autopsy cases and animal models confirms that immunosuppression is also present in extracranial metastases. Significantly higher somatic copy number aberration and allelic imbalance burdens are identified in metastases. CONCLUSIONS:Metastasis is a molecularly late event, and immunosuppression driven by different molecular events, including somatic copy number aberration, may be a common characteristic of tumors with metastatic plasticity.
Project description:Metastatic tumors have been shown to establish permissive microenvironments for metastases via recruitment of bone marrow-derived cells. Here, we show that metastasis-incompetent tumors are also capable of generating such microenvironments. However, in these situations, the otherwise prometastatic Gr1(+) myeloid cells create a metastasis-refractory microenvironment via the induction of thrombospondin-1 (Tsp-1) by tumor-secreted prosaposin. Bone marrow-specific genetic deletion of Tsp-1 abolished the inhibition of metastasis, which was restored by bone marrow transplant from Tsp-1(+) donors. We also developed a 5-amino acid peptide from prosaposin as a pharmacologic inducer of Tsp-1 in Gr1(+) bone marrow cells, which dramatically suppressed metastasis. These results provide mechanistic insights into why certain tumors are deficient in metastatic potential and implicate recruited Gr1(+) myeloid cells as the main source of Tsp-1. The results underscore the plasticity of Gr1(+) cells, which, depending on the context, promote or inhibit metastasis, and suggest that the peptide could be a potential therapeutic agent against metastatic cancer.The mechanisms of metastasis suppression are poorly understood. Here, we have identified a novel mechanism whereby metastasis-incompetent tumors generate metastasis-suppressive microenvironments in distant organs by inducing Tsp-1 expression in the bone marrow–derived Gr1+myeloid cells. A 5-amino acid peptide with Tsp-1–inducing activity was identified as a therapeutic agent against metastatic cancer.
Project description:High concentrations of adenosine in tumor microenvironments inhibit antitumor cytotoxic lymphocyte responses. Although T cells express inhibitory adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) that suppress their activation and inhibit immune killing of tumors, a role for myeloid cell A2ARs in suppressing the immune response to tumors has yet to be investigated. In this study, we show that the growth of transplanted syngeneic B16F10 melanoma or Lewis lung carcinoma cells is slowed in Adora2a(f/f)-LysMCre(+/-) mice, which selectively lack myeloid A2ARs. Reduced melanoma growth is associated with significant increases in MHCII and IL12 expression in tumor-associated macrophages and with >90% reductions in IL10 expression in tumor-associated macrophages, dendritic cells (DC), and Ly6C(+) or Ly6G(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). Myeloid deletion of A2ARs significantly increases CD44 expression on tumor-associated T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. Depletion of CD8(+) T cells or NK cells in tumor-bearing mice indicates that both cell types initially contribute to slowing melanoma growth in mice lacking myeloid A2A receptors, but tumor suppression mediated by CD8(+) T cells is more persistent. Myeloid-selective A2AR deletion significantly reduces lung metastasis of melanomas that express luciferase (for in vivo tracking) and ovalbumin (as a model antigen). Reduced metastasis is associated with increased numbers and activation of NK cells and antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells in lung infiltrates. Overall, the findings indicate that myeloid cell A2ARs have direct myelosuppressive effects that indirectly contribute to the suppression of T cells and NK cells in primary and metastatic tumor microenvironments. The results indicate that tumor-associated myeloid cells, including macrophages, DCs, and MDSCs all express immunosuppressive A2ARs that are potential targets of adenosine receptor blockers to enhance immune killing of tumors.
Project description:Hematogenous metastasis is initiated by a subset of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) shed from primary or metastatic tumors into the blood circulation. Thus, CTCs provide a unique patient biopsy resource to decipher the cellular subpopulations that initiate metastasis and their molecular properties. However, one crucial question is whether CTCs derived from patients recapitulate human metastatic disease in an animal model. Here, we show that CTC lines established from breast cancer patients are capable of generating metastases in mice with a pattern recapitulating most major organs from corresponding patients. To investigate the tumor microenvironment changes in different metastases, we used RNA-seq to analyze expression changes in stromal cells after tumor formation in the brain, lung and bone microenvironments relative to control stromal cells from tumor free mice. Overall design: Expression changes in stromal cells after CTC-derived tumor formation in the brain (3 samples), lung (7 samples), and bone (13 samples) microenvironments relative to control stromal cells from tumor free mice (3 replicates for bone and 2 replicates for lung and brain)
Project description:Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) is aggressive, metastatic and drug-resistant, limiting the spectrum of effective therapeutic options for breast cancer patients. To date, anti-angiogenic agents have had limited success in the treatment of systemic breast cancer, possibly due to the exacerbation of tumor hypoxia and increased metastasis. Hypoxia drives increased expression of downstream effectors, including Carbonic Anhydrase IX (CAIX), a critical functional component of the pro-survival machinery required by hypoxic tumor cells. Here, we used the highly metastatic, CAIX-positive MDA-MB-231 LM2-4 orthotopic model of TNBC to investigate whether combinatorial targeting of CAIX and angiogenesis impacts tumor growth and metastasis in vivo to improve efficacy. The administration of a small molecule inhibitor of CAIX, SLC-0111, significantly reduced overall metastatic burden, whereas exposure to sunitinib increased hypoxia and CAIX expression in primary tumors, and failed to inhibit metastasis. The administration of SLC-0111 significantly decreased primary tumor vascular density and permeability, and reduced metastasis to the lung and liver. Furthermore, combining sunitinib and SLC-0111 significantly reduced both primary tumor growth and sunitinib-induced metastasis to the lung. Our findings suggest that targeting angiogenesis and hypoxia effectors in combination holds promise as a novel rational strategy for the effective treatment of patients with TNBC.
Project description:The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a critical cue to direct tumorigenesis and metastasis. Although two-dimensional (2D) culture models have been widely employed to understand breast cancer microenvironments over the past several decades, the 2D models still exhibit limited success. Overwhelming evidence supports that three dimensional (3D), physiologically relevant culture models are required to better understand cancer progression and develop more effective treatment. Such platforms should include cancer-specific architectures, relevant physicochemical signals, stromal-cancer cell interactions, immune components, vascular components, and cell-ECM interactions found in patient tumors. This review briefly summarizes how cancer microenvironments (stromal component, cell-ECM interactions, and molecular modulators) are defined and what emerging technologies (perfusable scaffold, tumor stiffness, supporting cells within tumors and complex patterning) can be utilized to better mimic native-like breast cancer microenvironments. Furthermore, this review emphasizes biophysical properties that differ between primary tumor ECM and tissue sites of metastatic lesions with a focus on matrix modulation of cancer stem cells, providing a rationale for investigation of underexplored ECM proteins that could alter patient prognosis. To engineer breast cancer microenvironments, we categorized technologies into two groups: (1) biochemical factors modulating breast cancer cell-ECM interactions and (2) 3D bioprinting methods and its applications to model breast cancer microenvironments. Biochemical factors include matrix-associated proteins, soluble factors, ECMs, and synthetic biomaterials. For the application of 3D bioprinting, we discuss the transition of 2D patterning to 3D scaffolding with various bioprinting technologies to implement biophysical cues to model breast cancer microenvironments.
Project description:Metastasis is a characteristic behavior of malignant tumor cells. It is determined by the mutual interaction between primary tumor cells and the state of the microenvironment at sites of metastasis, particularly the liver, bone, lungs and brain. In the present review, a novel pattern is defined and termed the IEO model (prI-, prE- and pOst-metastatic niche), for the hepatic metastatic microenvironment which characterizes the complete metastatic process. In the IEO model, the components of the hepatic metastatic niche, including the extracellular matrix, hepatocytes, mesenchymal cells, Kupffer cells, hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells, hepatic stellate cells and immunocytes are continually remodelled by tumor cells to form various microenvironments during different stages of hepatic metastasis. The IEO model explains the plasticity of the hepatic microenvironment and provides novel insights into the role of different stages of the metastatic niche. This novel concept may provide a basis for advances in theoretical cancer research and for improvements in the complete course management of malignant tumors.
Project description:To study the homogeneity and heterogeneity of CD4+CD25+ T cells receptor ?-chain complementarity determining region 3 (TCR ? CDR3) repertoires in breast tumor tissues, lung metastatic tissues, and spleens from 4T1 tumor-bearing BALB/c mice. We used high-throughput sequencing to analyze the characteristics and changes of CD4+CD25+ TCR ? CDR3 repertoires among tumor tissues, lung metastatic tissues, and spleens. The diversity of the CD4+CD25+ TCR ? CDR3 repertoires in breast tumor tissue was similar to that of lung metastatic tissues and less pronounced than that of spleen tissues. Breast tumor tissues and lung metastatic tissues had a greater number of high-frequency CDR3 sequences and intermediate-frequency CDR3 sequences than those of spleens. The proportion of unique productive CDR3 sequences in breast tumor tissues and lung metastatic tissues was significantly greater than that in the spleens. The diversity and frequency of the CDR3 repertoires remained homogeneous in breast tumors and lung metastatic tissues and showed great heterogeneity in the spleens, which suggested that the breast tissues and lung metastatic tissues have characteristics of CD4+CD25+ T cells that relate to the tumor microenvironment. However, the number and characteristics of overlapping CDR3 sequences suggested that there were some different CD4+CD25+ T cells in tumors and in the circulatory immune system. The study may be used to further explore the characteristics of the CDR3 repertoires and determine the source of the CD4+CD25+ T cells in the breast cancer microenvironment.
Project description:The inflammatory microenvironment has been shown to play important roles in various stages of tumor development including initiation, growth, and metastasis. The inflammasome is a critical innate immune pathway for the production of active IL-1?, a potent inflammatory cytokine. Although inflammasomes are essential for host defense against pathogens and contribute to autoimmune diseases, their role in tumor progression remains controversial. Here, our results demonstrate that the inflammasome and IL-1? pathway promoted tumor growth and metastasis in animal and human breast cancer models. We found that tumor progression was associated with the activation of inflammasome and elevated levels of IL-1? at primary and metastatic sites. Mice deficient for inflammasome components exhibited significantly reduced tumor growth and lung metastasis. Furthermore, inflammasome activation promoted the infiltration of myeloid cells such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) into tumor microenvironments. Importantly, blocking IL-1R with IL-1R antagonist (IL-Ra) inhibited tumor growth and metastasis accompanied by decreased myeloid cell accumulation. Our results suggest that targeting the inflammasome/IL-1 pathway in tumor microenvironments may provide a novel approach for the treatment of cancer.