Project description:BACKGROUND: Chickens represent an important animal genetic resource and the conservation of local breeds is an issue for the preservation of this resource. The genetic diversity of a breed is mainly evaluated through its nuclear diversity. However, nuclear genetic diversity does not provide the same information as mitochondrial genetic diversity. For the species Gallus gallus, at least 8 maternal lineages have been identified. While breeds distributed westward from the Indian subcontinent usually share haplotypes from 1 to 2 haplogroups, Southeast Asian breeds exhibit all the haplogroups. The Vietnamese Ha Giang (HG) chicken has been shown to exhibit a very high nuclear diversity but also important rates of admixture with wild relatives. Its geographical position, within one of the chicken domestication centres ranging from Thailand to the Chinese Yunnan province, increases the probability of observing a very high genetic diversity for maternal lineages, and in a way, improving our understanding of the chicken domestication process. RESULTS: A total of 106 sequences from Vietnamese HG chickens were first compared to the sequences of published Chinese breeds. The 25 haplotypes observed in the Vietnamese HG population belonged to six previously published haplogroups which are: A, B, C, D, F and G. On average, breeds from the Chinese Yunnan province carried haplotypes from 4.3 haplogroups. For the HG population, haplogroup diversity is found at both the province and the village level (0.69).The AMOVA results show that genetic diversity occurred within the breeds rather than between breeds or provinces. Regarding the global structure of the mtDNA diversity per population, a characteristic of the HG population was the occurrence of similar pattern distribution as compared to G. gallus spadiceus. However, there was no geographical evidence of gene flow between wild and domestic populations as observed when microsatellites were used. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to other chicken populations, the HG chicken population showed very high genetic diversity at both the nuclear and mitochondrial levels. Due to its past and recent history, this population accumulates a specific and rich gene pool highlighting its interest and the need for conservation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Maintaining maximum genetic diversity and preserving breed viability in conserved populations necessitates the rigorous evaluation of conservation schemes. Three chicken breeds (Baier Yellow Chicken (BEC), Beijing You Chicken (BYC) and Langshan Chicken (LSC)) are currently in conservation programs in China. Changes in genetic diversity were measured by heterozygosity, genomic inbreeding coefficients, and autozygosity, using estimates derived from runs of homozygosity (ROH) that were identified using SNPs. RESULTS:Ninety DNA samples were collected from three generations for each breed. In the most recent generation, the highest genetic diversity was observed in LSC, followed by BEC and BYC. Inbreeding coefficients based on ROH for the three breeds declined slightly between the first and middle generations, and then rapidly increased. No inbreeding coefficients exceeded 0.1. Population structure assessments using neighbor-joining tree analysis, principal components analysis, and STRUCTURE analysis indicated that no genetic differentiation existed within breeds. LD decay and ROH at different cut-off lengths were used to identify traces left by recent or ancient inbreeding. Few long ROH were identified, indicating that inbreeding has been largely avoided with the current conservation strategy. The observed losses in genetic diversity and occurrences of inbreeding might be consequences of sub-optimal effective population sizes. CONCLUSIONS:The conserved Chinese chicken populations have high genomic diversity under the current conservation program (R: F). Furthermore, this study highlights the need to monitor dynamic changes in genetic diversity in conserved breeds over successive generations. Our research provides new insights into genetic diversity dynamics in conserved populations, and lays a solid foundation for improving conservation schemes.
Project description:In this study, we aimed to evaluate the genetic diversity within and among chicken breeds from the northeast region of Brazil (states of Bahia and Piauí) using microsatellite markers. In addition, we assessed the identity and genetic relationships of chickens from Europe, Africa, and South America, as well as their influence on the formation of the Brazilian breeds. A total of 25 microsatellite markers and a panel containing 886 samples from 20 breeds (including the Brazilian chickens) were used in this study. Different statistical parameters were used to estimate the genetic diversity and relationship among the genetic groups studied. Our study indicates that the Brazilian Creole chickens have high genetic variability. The results show that chickens reared in the states of Bahia and Piauí could have originated from different ancestors. The Brazilian breeds studied have an evolutionary relationship with chickens from Portugal, Nigeria, Chile, and Spain. Our results will contribute directly to the conservation and recognition of Brazilian Creole chicken breeds and provide a solid basis for the demonstration of their genetic identity and genetic conservation of American Creole chicken populations.
Project description:To obtain a full understanding of the genetic diversity of the cytochrome oxidase III gene (COX-III) and its association with high altitude adaptation in Tibetan chickens, we sequenced COX-III in 12 chicken populations (155 Tibetan chickens and 145 other domestic chickens). We identified a total of 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 12 haplotypes (Ha1-Ha12). Low genetic diversity (haplotype diversity = 0.531 ± 0.087, nucleotide diversity = 0.00125) was detected for COX-III, and haplotype diversity of Tibetan chicken populations (0.750 ± 0.018) was markedly higher than lowland chicken populations (0.570 ± 0.028). Obvious genetic differentiation (nucleotide divergence = 0.092~0.339) and conspicuous gene communication (gene flow = 0.33~32.22) among 12 populations suggested that Tianfu black-bone fowl (white feather) was possibly introduced from Tibetan chicken. SNP m.10587 T>C affects the specific functions of the COX enzyme. Haplotype Ha3 was found in Tibetan chickens, and SNP m.10115G>A caused an amino acid substitution (Val62Ile) associated with phospholipid binding, while mutations m.10017C>A and m.10555G>A and the previously reported SNP m.10065T>C reduced the hydropathy index to some extent. Together, this indicates that the mitochondrial membrane is more hydrophobic in Tibetan chickens.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Since domestication, chickens did not only disperse into the different parts of the world but they have also undergone significant genomic changes in this process. Many breeds, strains or lines have been formed and those represent the diversity of the species. However, other than the natural evolutionary forces, management practices (including those that threaten the persistence of genetic diversity) following domestication have shaped the genetic make-up of and diversity between today's chicken breeds. As part of the SYNBREED project, samples from a wide variety of chicken populations have been collected across the globe and were genotyped with a high density SNP array. The panel consists of the wild type, commercial layers and broilers, indigenous village/local type and fancy chicken breeds. The SYNBREED chicken diversity panel (SCDP) is made available to serve as a public basis to study the genetic structure of chicken diversity. In the current study we analyzed the genetic diversity between and within the populations in the SCDP, which is important for making informed decisions for effective management of farm animal genetic resources. RESULTS:Many of the fancy breeds cover a wide spectrum and clustered with other breeds of similar supposed origin as shown by the phylogenetic tree and principal component analysis. However, the fancy breeds as well as the highly selected commercial layer lines have reduced genetic diversity within the population, with the average observed heterozygosity estimates lower than 0.205 across their breeds' categories and the average proportion of polymorphic loci lower than 0.680. We show that there is still a lot of genetic diversity preserved within the wild and less selected African, South American and some local Asian and European breeds with the average observed heterozygosity greater than 0.225 and the average proportion of polymorphic loci larger than 0.720 within their breeds' categories. CONCLUSIONS:It is important that such highly diverse breeds are maintained for the sustainability and flexibility of future chicken breeding. This diversity panel provides opportunities for exploitation for further chicken molecular genetic studies. With the possibility to further expand, it constitutes a very useful community resource for chicken genetic diversity research.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Norfolk Island has a population of feral chickens which could be the result of domestic stock introduced onto the island by British settlers in 1788. However, there is ongoing debate about their origins because multiple human arrivals to the island may have brought chickens with them. Here we investigate the genetic origins of these feral chickens by sequencing their mitochondrial control region. We infer their phylogenetic relationships using a large dataset of novel sequences from Australian mainland domestic chickens and published sequences from around the world. RESULTS: Eleven control region haplotypes were found among the Norfolk Island feral and Australian mainland domestic chickens. Six of the Norfolk Island haplotypes fall within haplogroup E, but given the worldwide distribution of this haplogroup, the putative European origin of these chickens requires further investigation. One haplotype common among Norfolk Island and Australian samples belonged to a subgroup of haplogroup D, which appears to be restricted to chickens from Indonesia, Vanuatu and Guam. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that at least two mitochondrial DNA haplogroups (D and E) have contributed to the genetic make-up of Norfolk Island feral chickens. In addition, we have provided insights into the discrete geographical distribution and diversity of the chicken haplogroup D. In view of the worldwide interest in the characterisation of poultry resources, further assessment of chicken populations of Island Southeast Asia and the Pacific region is warranted.
Project description:Chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) from the Americas have long been recognized as descendants of European chickens, transported by early Europeans since the fifteenth century. However, in recent years, a possible pre-Columbian introduction of chickens to South America by Polynesian seafarers has also been suggested. Here, we characterize the mitochondrial control region genetic diversity of modern chicken populations from South America and compare this to a worldwide dataset in order to investigate the potential maternal genetic origin of modern-day chicken populations in South America. The genetic analysis of newly generated chicken mitochondrial control region sequences from South America showed that the majority of chickens from the continent belong to mitochondrial haplogroup E. The rest belongs to haplogroups A, B and C, albeit at very low levels. Haplogroup D, a ubiquitous mitochondrial lineage in Island Southeast Asia and on Pacific Islands is not observed in continental South America. Modern-day mainland South American chickens are, therefore, closely allied with European and Asian chickens. Furthermore, we find high levels of genetic contributions from South Asian chickens to those in Europe and South America. Our findings demonstrate that modern-day genetic diversity of mainland South American chickens appear to have clear European and Asian contributions, and less so from Island Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands. Furthermore, there is also some indication that South Asia has more genetic contribution to European chickens than any other Asian chicken populations.
Project description:To evaluate genetic diversity and genetic structure of wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) populations in Myanmar, seven research sites were selected based on various ecological conditions. A large number of samples under natural growth conditions were collected and studied using six simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and two chloroplast DNA markers. A total of 77 alleles were detected from 1559 samples over six SSR loci. The mean number of alleles per population ranged from 3.167 to 8.667, and the mean expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.140 to 0.701. Wild rice populations survived under various environmental conditions and retained different levels of genetic diversity. The large number of samples was effective to confirm the spatial genetic structure of wild rice populations in a relatively small area. Regarding chloroplast DNA polymorphisms, four populations possessed only one pattern, while the other three showed two or five combinations of haplotypes, even within the same population. Additionally, the existence of a new genotype was revealed. Considerable variations in chloroplast DNA exist in the wild rice populations of Myanmar. A high proportion of genetic variation was detected within, rather than among, populations. To ensure maintenance of allelic diversity, it is advisable to preserve many individuals from a large population.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable region (HVR) sequences of prehistoric Polynesian chicken samples reflect dispersal of two haplogroups--D and E--by the settlers of the Pacific. The distribution of these chicken haplogroups has been used as an indicator of human movement. Recent analyses suggested similarities between prehistoric Pacific and South American chicken samples, perhaps reflecting prehistoric Polynesian introduction of the chicken into South America. These analyses have been heavily debated. The current distribution of the D and E lineages among contemporary chicken populations in the Western Pacific is unclear, but might ultimately help to inform debates about the movements of humans that carried them. OBJECTIVES: We sought to characterize contemporary mtDNA diversity among chickens in two of the earliest settled archipelagos of Remote Oceania, the Marianas and Vanuatu. METHODS: We generated HVR sequences for 43 chickens from four islands in Vanuatu, and for 5 chickens from Guam in the Marianas. RESULTS: Forty samples from Vanuatu and three from Guam were assigned to haplogroup D, supporting this as a Pacific chicken haplogroup that persists in the Western Pacific. Two haplogroup E lineages were observed in Guam and two in Vanuatu. Of the E lineages in Vanuatu, one was identical to prehistoric Vanuatu and Polynesian samples and the other differed by one polymorphism. Contrary to our expectations, we observed few globally distributed domesticate lineages not associated with Pacific chicken dispersal. This might suggest less European introgression of chickens into Vanuatu than expected. If so, the E lineages might represent lineages maintained from ancient Pacific chicken introductions. The Vanuatu sample might thus provide an opportunity to distinguish between maintained ancestral Pacific chicken lineages and replacement by global domesticates through genomic analyses, which could resolve questions of contemporary haplogroup E chicken relationships and inform interpretations of debated sequences from archaeological samples.
Project description:Rwanda has about 4.5 million of indigenous chicken (IC) that are very low in productivity. To initiate any genetic improvement programme, IC needs to be accurately characterized. The key purpose of this study was to ascertain the genetic diversity of IC in Rwanda using microsatellite markers. Blood samples of IC sampled from 5 agro-ecological zones were collected from which DNA was extracted, amplified by PCR and genotyped using 28 microsatellite markers. A total of 325 (313 indigenous and 12 exotic) chickens were genotyped and revealed a total number of 305 alleles varying between 2 and 22 with a mean of 10.89 per locus. One hundred eighty-six (186) distinct alleles and 60 private alleles were also observed. The frequency of private alleles was highest in samples from the Eastern region, whereas those from the North West had the lowest. The influx of genes was lower in the Eastern agro-ecological zone than the North West. The mean observed heterozygosity was 0.6155, whereas the average expected heterozygosity was 0.688. The overall inbreeding coefficient among the population was 0.040. Divergence from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was significant (p<0.05) in 90% of loci in all the populations. The analysis of molecular variance revealed that about 92% of the total variation originated from variation within populations. Additionally, the study demonstrated that IC in Rwanda could be clustered into four gene groups. In conclusion, there was considerable genetic diversity in IC in Rwanda, which represents a crucial genetic resource that can be conserved or optimized through genetic improvement.