CIC and ATXN1L knockout gene expression data [NHA]
ABSTRACT: CIC has recently been implicated as a negative prognostic factor in multiple cancers. CIC and ATXN1L have been reported as interactors in several cellular contexts including development and disease state. To investigate the relationship between CIC and ATXN1L on a transcriptomic level, CIC-KO and ATXN1L-KO cell lines were generated. Gene expression profiling of CIC-KO and ATXN1L-KO cell lines was performed by microarray and differentially expressed genes were compared. We found a high degree of overlap in differentially expressed genes in CIC-KO and ATXN1L-KO suggesting loss of either interacting partner to lead to similar transcriptomic changes. Overall design: The parental CIC/ATXN1L-WT NHA, two CIC-KO NHA derived (A2, H9) and one ATXN1L-KO NHA derived (B82) cell lines were generated using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology. Gene expression profiling was performed in 3 biological triplicates for each cell line.
INSTRUMENT(S): [HuGene-2_0-st] Affymetrix Human Gene 2.0 ST Array [transcript (gene) version]
Project description:CIC has recently been implicated as a negative prognostic factor in multiple cancers. CIC and ATXN1L have been reported as interactors in several cellular contexts including development and disease state. To investigate the relationship between CIC and ATXN1L on a transcriptomic level, CIC-KO and ATXN1L-KO cell lines were generated. Gene expression profiling of CIC-KO and ATXN1L-KO cell lines was performed by microarray and differentially expressed genes were compared. We found a high degree of overlap in differentially expressed genes in CIC-KO and ATXN1L-KO suggesting loss of either interacting partner to lead to similar transcriptomic changes. Overall design: Three ATXN1L-WT HEK derived (parental HEK, and CRISPR controls N4, N8) and three ATXN1L-KO HEK derived (A10, A30, B21) cell lines were generated using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology. Gene expression profiling was performed in 3 biological triplicates for each cell line.
Project description:Intrinsic resistance and RTK-RAS-MAPK pathway reactivation has limited the effectiveness of MEK and RAF inhibitors (MAPKi) in RAS- and RAF-mutant cancers. To identify genes that modulate sensitivity to MAPKi, we performed genome-scale CRISPR-Cas9 loss-of-function screens in two KRAS mutant pancreatic cancer cell lines treated with the MEK1/2 inhibitor trametinib. Loss of CIC, a transcriptional repressor of ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5, promoted survival in the setting of MAPKi in cancer cells derived from several lineages. ATXN1L deletion, which reduces CIC protein, or ectopic expression of ETV1, ETV4, or ETV5 also modulated sensitivity to trametinib. ATXN1L expression inversely correlates with response to MAPKi inhibition in clinical studies. These observations identify the ATXN1L-CIC-ETS transcription factor axis as a mediator of resistance to MAPKi.
Project description:Aberrations in Capicua (CIC) have recently been implicated as a negative prognostic factor in a multitude of cancer types through activation of the MAPK signalling cascade and derepression of oncogenic ETS transcription factors. The Ataxin-family protein ATXN1L has previously been reported to interact with CIC in developmental and disease contexts to facilitate the repression of CIC target genes. To further investigate this relationship, we performed functional in vitro studies utilizing ATXN1LKO and CICKO human cell lines and characterized a reciprocal functional relationship between CIC and ATXN1L. Overall design: 3 biological replicates for each sample, two monoclonal knockouts per knockout condition. The parental line is a polyclonal normal human astrocyte immortalized with E6/E7 and overexpressing wildtype IDH1. CIC knockout monoclonal lines are labeled A2 and H9. ATXN1L knockout monoclonal lines are labeled B82 and B16
Project description:BACKGROUND:Aberrations in Capicua (CIC) have recently been implicated as a negative prognostic factor in a multitude of cancer types through the derepression of targets downstream of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade, such as oncogenic E26 transformation-specific (ETS) transcription factors. The Ataxin-family protein ATXN1L has previously been reported to interact with CIC in both developmental and disease contexts to facilitate the repression of CIC target genes and promote the post-translational stability of CIC. However, little is known about the mechanisms at the base of ATXN1L-mediated CIC post-translational stability. RESULTS:Functional in vitro studies utilizing ATXN1LKO human cell lines revealed that loss of ATXN1L leads to the accumulation of polyubiquitinated CIC protein, promoting its degradation through the proteasome. Although transcriptomic signatures of ATXN1LKO cell lines indicated upregulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, ERK activity was found to contribute to CIC function but not stability. Degradation of CIC protein following loss of ATXN1L was instead observed to be mediated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM25 which was further validated using glioma-derived cell lines and the TCGA breast carcinoma and liver hepatocellular carcinoma cohorts. CONCLUSIONS:The post-translational regulation of CIC through ATXN1L and TRIM25 independent of ERK activity suggests that the regulation of CIC stability and function is more intricate than previously appreciated and involves several independent pathways. As CIC status has become a prognostic factor in several cancer types, further knowledge into the mechanisms which govern CIC stability and function may prove useful for future therapeutic approaches.
Project description:The majority of oligodendrogliomas (ODGs) exhibit combined losses of chromosomes 1p and 19q and mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH1-R132H or IDH2-R172K). Approximately 70% of ODGs with 1p19q co-deletions harbor somatic mutations in the Capicua Transcriptional Repressor (CIC) gene on chromosome 19q13.2. Here we show that endogenous long (CIC-L) and short (CIC-S) CIC proteins are predominantly localized to the nucleus or cytoplasm, respectively. Cytoplasmic CIC-S is found in close proximity to the mitochondria. To study wild type and mutant CIC function and motivated by the paucity of 1p19q co-deleted ODG lines, we created HEK293 and HOG stable cell lines ectopically co-expressing CIC and IDH1. Non-mutant lines displayed increased clonogenicity, but cells co-expressing the mutant IDH1-R132H with either CIC-S-R201W or -R1515H showed reduced clonogenicity in an additive manner, demonstrating cooperative effects in our assays. Expression of mutant CIC-R1515H increased cellular 2-Hydroxyglutarate (2HG) levels compared to wild type CIC in IDH1-R132H background. Levels of phosphorylated ATP-citrate Lyase (ACLY) were lower in cell lines expressing mutant CIC-S proteins compared to cells expressing wild type CIC-S, supporting a cytosolic citrate metabolism-related mechanism bof reduced clonogenicity in our in vitro model systems. ACLY or phospho-ACLY were similarly reduced in CIC-mutant 1p19q co-deleted oligodendroglioma patient samples.
Project description:Polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases are caused by expansion of translated CAG repeats in distinct genes leading to altered protein function. In spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1), a gain of function of polyQ-expanded ataxin-1 (ATXN1) contributes to cerebellar pathology. The extent to which cerebellar toxicity depends on its cognate partner capicua (CIC), versus other interactors, remains unclear. It is also not established whether loss of the ATXN1-CIC complex in the cerebellum contributes to disease pathogenesis. In this study, we exclusively disrupt the ATXN1-CIC interaction in vivo and show that it is at the crux of cerebellar toxicity in SCA1. Importantly, loss of CIC in the cerebellum does not cause ataxia or Purkinje cell degeneration. Expression profiling of these gain- and loss-of-function models, coupled with data from iPSC-derived neurons from SCA1 patients, supports a mechanism in which gain of function of the ATXN1-CIC complex is the major driver of toxicity.
Project description:Capicua (CIC), a member of the high mobility group-box (HMG-box) superfamily of transcriptional repressors, is frequently mutated in human oligodendrogliomas. However, its functions in brain development and tumorigenesis remain poorly understood. Here, we report that brain-specific deletion of Cic compromises developmental transition of neuroblasts to immature neurons in mouse hippocampus and compromises normal neuronal differentiation. Combined gene expression and ChIP-seq analyses identified VGF as an important CIC-repressed transcriptional surrogate involved in neuronal lineage regulation. Aberrant VGF expression promotes neural progenitor cell proliferation by suppressing their differentiation. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that CIC represses VGF expression by tethering SIN3-HDAC to form a transcriptional corepressor complex. Mass spectrometry analysis of CIC-interacting proteins further identified the BRG1-containing mSWI/SNF complex whose function is necessary for transcriptional repression by CIC. Together, this study uncovers a potentially novel regulatory pathway of CIC-dependent neuronal differentiation and may implicate these molecular mechanisms in CIC-dependent brain tumorigenesis.
Project description:CIC-DUX4 sarcoma (CDS) is a group of rare, mesenchymal, small round cell tumours that harbour the unique CIC-DUX4 translocation, which causes aberrant gene expression. CDS exhibits an aggressive course and poor clinical outcome, thus novel therapeutic approaches are needed for CDS treatment. Although patient-derived cancer models are an essential modality to develop novel therapies, none currently exist for CDS. Thus, the present study successfully established CDS patient-derived xenografts and subsequently generated two CDS cell lines from the grafted tumours. Notably, xenografts were histologically similar to the original patient tumour, and the expression of typical biomarkers was confirmed in the xenografts and cell lines. Moreover, the xenograft tumours and cell lines displayed high Src kinase activities, as assessed by peptide-based tyrosine kinase array. Upon screening 119 FDA-approved anti-cancer drugs, we found that only actinomycine D and doxorubicin were effectively suppress the proliferation among the drugs for standard therapy for Ewing sarcoma. However, we identified molecular targeting reagents, such as bortezomib and crizotinib that markedly suppressed the growth of CDS cells. Our models will be useful modalities to develop novel therapeutic strategies against CDS.
Project description:Approximately 60-70% of EWSR1-negative small blue round cell sarcomas harbour a rearrangement of CIC, most commonly CIC-DUX4. CIC-DUX4 sarcoma (CDS) is an aggressive and often fatal high-grade sarcoma appearing predominantly in children and young adults. Although cell lines and their xenograft models are essential tools for basic research and development of antitumour drugs, few cell lines currently exist for CDS. We successfully established a novel human CDS cell line designated Kitra-SRS and developed orthotopic tumour xenografts in nude mice. The CIC-DUX4 fusion gene in Kitra-SRS cells was generated by t(12;19) complex chromosomal rearrangements with an insertion of a chromosome segment including a DUX4 pseudogene component. Kitra-SRS xenografts were histologically similar to the original tumour and exhibited metastatic potential to the lungs. Kitra-SRS cells displayed autocrine activation of the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)/IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) pathway. Accordingly, treatment with the IGF-1R inhibitor, linsitinib, attenuated Kitra-SRS cell growth and IGF-1-induced activation of IGF-1R/AKT signalling both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, upon screening 1134 FDA-approved drugs, the responses of Kitra-SRS cells to anticancer drugs appeared to reflect those of the primary tumour. Our model will be a useful modality for investigating the molecular pathology and therapy of CDS.