PTEN loss in the fallopian tube induces hyperplasia and ovarian tumor formation
ABSTRACT: The goals of this study are to compare mouse oviductal transcriptome profiling (RNA-seq) of PTEN-depleted cells by shRNA versus a scr shRNA control expressing PTEN. Overall design: mRNA profiles of PTEN-deficient and control scramble Mouse oviductal cells were generated by deep sequencing, in triplicate, using Illumina HiSeq2500.
Project description:The signaling events involved in the onset of ovarian cancer from the fallopian tube epithelium (FTE) are crucial for early detection and treatment of the disease, but they remain poorly defined. Conditional homozygous knockout of PTEN mediated by PAX8-cre recombinase was sufficient to drive endometrioid and serous borderline ovarian carcinoma, providing the first model of FTE-derived borderline tumors. In addition, heterozygous PTEN deletion in the FTE resulted in hyperplasia, providing a model to study early events of human ovarian pathogenesis. To uncover the mechanism underlying the invasion of cancerous oviductal cells to the ovary, PTEN-deficient murine oviductal cells were developed and tagged with green fluorescent protein. Loss of PTEN increased cell migration, invasion, and upregulated WNT4, a key regulator of Müllerian duct development during embryogenesis. Further investigation revealed that WNT4 was required for increased migration and colonization of the ovary by PTEN-deficient oviductal cells in a ?-catenin independent manner. Human tumor microarrays and ovarian cancer cells lines confirmed WNT4 expression in cancer and its role in migration. Together, these findings provide a novel model to study the mechanism of fallopian tube tumor initiation and invasion to the ovary mediated by loss of PTEN, which may help to define early events of human ovarian carcinogenesis.
Project description:The fallopian tube epithelium (FTE) is one of the progenitor populations for high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC). Loss of PAX2 is the earliest known molecular aberration in the FTE occurring in serous carcinogenesis followed by a mutation in p53. Pathological studies report consistent loss of PAX2 in benign lesions as well as serous tumors. In the current study, the combined loss of PAX2 and expression of the R273H p53 mutant protein in murine oviductal epithelial (MOE) cells enhanced proliferation and growth in soft agar in vitro but was insufficient to drive tumorigenesis in vivo. A serially passaged model was generated to investigate the role of aging, but was also insufficient to drive tumorigenesis. These models recapitulate early benign lesions and suggest that a latency period exists between loss of PAX2, p53 mutation and tumor formation. Stathmin and fut8 were identified as downstream targets regulated by loss of PAX2 and mutation of p53 in MOE cells. Re-expression of PAX2 in PAX2-null human HGSC cells reduced cell survival via apoptosis. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)shRNA negatively regulated PAX2 expression and stable re-expression of PAX2 in MOE:PTENshRNA cells significantly reduced proliferation and peritoneal tumor formation in athymic nude mice. PAX2 was determined to be a direct transcriptional target that was activated by wild-type p53, whereas mutant p53 inhibited PAX2 transcription in MOE cells. A small molecule screen using the proximal PAX2 promoter driving luciferase identified four small molecules that were able to enhance PAX2 mRNA expression in MOE cells. PAX2 re-expression in HGSC cells and PTEN-deficient oviductal tumors may have the potential to induce apoptosis. In summary, mutant p53 and PTEN loss negatively regulated PAX2 and PAX2 re-expression in HGSC cells induced cell death.
Project description:Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy, primarily because its origin and initiation factors are unknown. A secretory murine oviductal epithelial (MOE) model was generated to address the hypothesis that the fallopian tube is an origin for high-grade serous cancer. MOE cells were stably altered to express mutation in p53, silence PTEN, activate AKT, and amplify KRAS alone and in combination, to define if this cell type gives rise to tumors and what genetic alterations are required to drive malignancy. Cell lines were characterized in vitro and allografted into mice. Silencing PTEN formed high-grade carcinoma with wide spread tumor explants including metastasis into the ovary. Addition of p53 mutation to PTEN silencing did not enhance this phenotype, whereas addition of KRAS mutation reduced survival. Interestingly, PTEN silencing and KRAS mutation originating from ovarian surface epithelium generated endometrioid carcinoma, suggesting that different cellular origins with identical genetic manipulations can give rise to distinct cancer histotypes. Defining the roles of specific signaling modifications in tumorigenesis from the fallopian tube/oviduct is essential for early detection and development of targeted therapeutics. Further, syngeneic MOE allografts provide an ideal model for pre-clinical testing in an in vivo environment with an intact immune system.
Project description:High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) can originate in the fallopian tube and then spread to the ovary. Our objective was to evaluate the role of multicellular tumor spheroids (MTS) in ovarian metastasis. By testing a panel of murine oviductal epithelial (MOE) cells with genetic alterations mimicking those seen in HGSOC, we found that loss of PTEN allowed MTS formation under ultra-low adhesion conditions. Confirming these results in vivo, MTS-like structures were observed in the oviducts of PAX8Cre/+ PTENflox/flox mice. MOE PTENshRNA cells could incorporate up to 25% wild type cells into MTS, while higher percentages of wild type cells resulted in a loss of MTS formation. MTS formation allowed MOE PTENshRNA cells to survive better under ultra-low adhesion conditions than control cells. MTS also attached to the ovarian stroma, as would be exposed during ovulation. Interestingly, MTS more robustly cleared monolayers of murine ovarian surface epithelia than murine ovarian fibroblasts. When xenografted into the ovarian bursa, OVCAR8 MTS were able to form tumors in the ovary at a similar rate as an equal number of OVCAR8 cells grown on traditional cell culture plastic. In conclusion, loss of a single gene (PTEN) allows the fallopian tube epithelia to form MTS, which survive better under ultra-low adhesion conditions, attach to the extracellular matrix exposed during ovulation, and colonize the ovary. These results suggest that MTS may contribute to seeding of the ovary in HGSOC patients.
Project description:High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) can originate in the fallopian tube epithelium (FTE), but the role of the ovary in these tumors is unclear. Tumorigenic murine oviductal epithelial (MOE) cells allografted in the ovarian bursa resulted in aggressive tumors that spread throughout the peritoneum whereas intraperitoneal xenografting the same number of cells did not form tumors, indicating that colonization of the ovary may play a role in metastasis. Physical tearing of the ovarian surface to mimic rupture of the ovary during ovulation (independent of hormonal changes) resulted in more MOE and HGSOC cells adhering to the ovary compared with intact ovaries. More MOE cells also adhered to three-dimensional (3D) collagen and primary ovarian stromal cells than to ovarian surface epithelia, indicating that FTE cells adhered to the extracellular matrix exposed during ovulation. However, plating cells on 3D collagen reduced the viability of normal FTE but not cancer cells. Mutation of p53 (R273H or R248W) and activation of Kirsten Rat Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog (KRAS) (G12V) did not increase the viability of MOE cells on 3D collagen. In contrast, loss of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) allowed MOE cells to retain normal viability on 3D collagen. Loss of PTEN activated AKT and RAC1/c-jun N-terminal kinase signaling that each contributed to the increased viability, invasion and attachment in the collagen rich ovarian microenvironment. These results show that loss of PTEN activates multiple pathways that together enhance colonization of the ovary due to access to 3D collagen, which is a critical organ in the colonization of FTE-derived HGSOC.
Project description:We used microarray profiling in erythroid cells to uncover TAL1 dependent genes in a hematopoietic differentiation context. Differentiated ex vivo hematopoietic multipotential progenitors isolated from adult peripheral blood. The knockdown of TAL1 (KD) was induced in pro-erythroblasts (Days 8 and 9 of differentiation) using lentivirus-delivered shRNA. A scramble (scr) shRNA sequence was used as a negative control.
Project description:High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is the most lethal gynecological malignancy that is primarily detected at the metastatic stage. Most HGSOC originates from the fallopian tube epithelium (FTE) and metastasizes to the ovary before invading the peritoneum; therefore, it is crucial to study disease initiation and progression using FTE-derived models. We previously demonstrated that loss of PTEN from the FTE leads to ovarian cancer. In the present study, loss of PTEN in FTE led to the enrichment of cancer stem cell markers such as LGR5, WNT4, ALDH1, CD44. Interestingly, loss of the transcription factor PAX2, which is a common and early alteration in HGSOC, played a pivotal role in the expression of cancer stem-like cells (CSC) markers and cell function. In addition, loss of PTEN led to the generation of two distinct subpopulations of cells with different CSC marker expression, tumorigenicity, and chemoresistance profiles. Taken together, these data suggest that loss of PTEN induces reprogramming of the FTE cells into a more stem-like phenotype due to loss of PAX2 and provides a model to study early events during the FTE-driven ovarian cancer tumor formation.
Project description:Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer death among US women. Evidence supports the hypothesis that high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSC) may originate in the distal end of the fallopian tube. Although a heterogeneous disease, 96% of HGSC contain mutations in p53. In addition, the “p53 signature”, or overexpression of p53 protein (usually associated with mutation), is a potential precursor lesion of fallopian tube derived HGSC suggesting an essential role for p53 mutation in early serous tumorigenesis. To further clarify p53-mutation dependent effects on cells, murine oviductal epithelial cells (MOE) were stably transfected with a construct encoding for the R273H DNA binding domain mutation in p53, the most common mutation in HGSC. Mutation in p53 was not sufficient to transform MOE cells, but did significantly increase cell migration. A similar p53 mutation in murine ovarian surface epithelium (MOSE), another potential progenitor cell for serous cancer, was not sufficient to transform the cells nor change migration suggesting tissue specific effects of p53 mutation. Microarray data confirmed expression changes in pro-migratory genes in p53R273H MOE compared to parental cells, which could be reversed by suppressing Slug expression. Combining p53R273H with KRASG12V activation caused transformation of MOE into high-grade sarcomatoid carcinoma when xenografted into nude mice. Elucidating the specific role of p53R273H in the fallopian tube will improve understanding of changes at the earliest stage of transformation and could help develop chemopreventative strategies to prevent the accumulation of additional mutations and reverse progression of the “p53 signature” thereby, improving survival rates. We used a microarray to determine global changes in gene expression as a result of the p53 mutation specifically in mouse oviductal epithelium. Murine oviductal cells (MOE) were obtained from Dr. Barbara Vanderhyden at the University of Ottawa. Stable cell lines were generated using antibiotic resistant plasmids containing p53 R273H (Addgene, plasmid: 16439, donated by Dr. Vogelstein, Johns Hopkins University school of Medicine, Baltimore, MD) or pCMV-Neo (Origene PCMV6XL4, Rockville, MD). Total RNA was extracted from cell pellets collected from consecutive passages.
Project description:High grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) can originate from fallopian tube epithelium (FTE) and ovarian surface epithelium (OSE). We report the application of unique spontaneous model that mimics cellular aging for understanding the origin and progression of HGSOC from oviductal epithelium. Oviductal epithelium is equivalent to human FTE. Serial passaging of the outbred mouse CD1 oviductal cells (MOE low) to MOE high produced transformed cells that lead to benign tumors. To understand the altered molecular signaling pathways in MOEhigh cells versus MOElow cells, we performed RNA sequencing. Total RNA was extracted from MOELOW (passages 8, 9, & 10) and MOEHIGH (passages 90, 103, & 113) cells. Each total RNA sample had ribosomal RNA removed using TruSeq Stranded Total RNA with Ribo-Zero (Illumina, San Diego, CA). Strand-specific libraries were constructed and quantitated using Qubit, and cDNAs verified by qPCR. qRTâPCR validation was performed using SYBR Green assays. Samples were barcoded and sequenced using Illumina HiSeq2500 sequencing. The reads were aligned to the Mus musculus genome (mm10) using TopHat, version and were used to determine the expression of known mmu10 gene annotations from the University of California-Santa Cruz website using Cuffdiff version. By merging the individual transcript from Cuffdiff into a single gene annotation file, we determined the differential expression analysis. By applying a false discovery rate (FDR)-adjusted p-value, where significance was set to p â¤ 0.05, statistically significant differential expression was determined. Furthermore, pathway analysis was performed on transcript lists from both cell lines using GeneCoDis to identify the KEGG and Panther pathways that are significantly different between MOELOW and MOEHIGH cell lines. We find that the splicesome, RNA transport, the cell cycle, and DNA replication were the most highly upregulated pathway whereas the repressed pathways included processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, focal adhesion, and the lysosome. RNA sequencing revealed that p53 in MOELOW and MOEHIGH cells was not mutated; however, MOEHIGH cells had a significant upregulation of a splice variant of p53. The splice variant behaved like wild-type on few targets and missense on some transcriptional targets by qRT-PCR. This study provides a framework for the application of comprehensive chromatin profiling towards characterization of diverse mammalian cell populations. This model provides a framework to uncover a step-wise progression of tumor formation from an oviductal origin to be compared to human disease. Examination of altered molecular signaling pathways in 2 cell types.