RNA-seq of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) treated with PBS or extracellular vesicles (EV) from MCF10A or MDA-MB-231 cells
ABSTRACT: To identify gene expression changes associated with treatment of EV that carry high levels of miR-105 (from MDA-MB-231 and MCF10A/miR-105 cells) in human breast tumor derived CAF, we analyzed RNA isolated from PBS- or EV-treated CAF. Gene expression in CAF treated with EV from MDA-MB-231 or MCF10A/miR-105 cells was compared to cells treated with PBS or EV from MCF10A cells, both of which served as controls in this experiment. Overall design: RNA was extracted from PBS- and EV-treated CAF, and subjected to library construction and RNA sequencing.
Project description:Recent studies showed that dietary approaches restricting food intake can be helpful to hinder tumor progression. To date, the molecular mechanisms are unclear and a key role seems to be exerted by nutrient-related signaling pathways. Since several evidences showed that non-coding small RNAs, including microRNAs, are correlated to cancer progression and antiblastic treatment response, our work aims to study their involvement in a triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell line treated with doxorubicin under Short Term Starvation (STS) condition. Human TNBC cell line MDA-MB-231 and healthy breast cell line MCF10A were treated with 1 ?M doxorubicin for 24 h under STS condition for 48 h and miRNA expression profiles were analyzed using Taqman® Low Density Array A human microRNA microfluidic cards. In addition, the expression of specific mRNAs and miRNAs differentially expressed under STS was analyzed using Real-time PCR analyses. MiRNA expression profile analysis in MDA-MB-231 and MCF10A cells treated with doxorubicin under STS for 48 h could explain the molecular mechanisms underlying anticancer effects associated to STS. Among deregulated miRNAs, a subset, including miR-15b, miR-23a, miR-26a, miR-29a, miR-106b, miR-128, miR-149, miR-181a, miR-192, miR-193b, miR-195, miR-324-3p and miR-494, has been shown to be involved in pathways related to drug sensitivity/resistance. The obtained data from our study suggest a potential involvement of some miRNAs in molecular pathways mediating the anticancer effects of STS in doxorubicin-treated breast cancer cells. Preliminary results seem to be encouraging and, in future, could allow the discovery of new potential targets useful for the development of new therapeutic approaches.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid-bound particles that are naturally released from cells and mediate cell-cell communication. Integrin adhesion receptors are enriched in small EVs (SEVs) and SEV-carried integrins have been shown to promote cancer cell migration and to mediate organ-specific metastasis; however, how integrins mediate these effects is not entirely clear and could represent a combination of EV binding to extracellular matrix and cells. METHODS:To probe integrin role in EVs binding and uptake, we employed a disintegrin inhibitor (DisBa-01) of integrin binding with specificity for ?v?3 integrin. EVs were purified from MDA-MB-231 cells conditioned media by serial centrifugation method. Isolated EVs were characterized by different techniques and further employed in adhesion, uptake and co-culture experiments. RESULTS:We find that SEVs secreted from MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells carry ?v?3 integrin and bind directly to fibronectin-coated plates, which is inhibited by DisBa-01. SEV coating on tissue culture plates also induces adhesion of MDA-MB-231 cells, which is inhibited by DisBa-01 treatment. Analysis of EV uptake and interchange between cells reveals that the amount of CD63-positive EVs delivered from malignant MDA-MB-231 breast cells to non-malignant MCF10A breast epithelial cells is reduced by DisBa-01 treatment. Inhibition of ?v?3 integrin decreases CD63 expression in cancer cells suggesting an effect on SEV content. CONCLUSION:In summary, our findings demonstrate for the first time a key role of ?v?3 integrin in cell-cell communication through SEVs. Video Abstract.
Project description:Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising cancer therapeutic agent due to its selective killing on cancer cells while sparing the normal cells. Nevertheless, breast adenocarcinoma cells can develop TRAIL resistance. Therefore, this project investigated the anti-cancer effects of the combination of epigenetic drugs zebularine and trichostatin A (ZT) with TRAIL (TZT) on the human breast adenocarcinoma cells. This treatment regimen was compared with the natural anti-cancer compound curcumin (Cur) and standard chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (Dox). As compared to TRAIL treatment, TZT treatment hampered the cell viability of human breast adenocarcinoma cells MDA-MB-231 significantly but not MCF-7 and immortalized non-cancerous human breast epithelial cells MCF10A. Unlike TZT, Cur and Dox treatments reduced cell viability in both human breast adenocarcinoma and epithelial cells significantly. Nevertheless, there were no changes in cell cycle in both TRAIL and TZT treatments in breast adenocarcinoma and normal epithelial cells. Intriguingly, Cur and Dox treatment generally induced G2/M arrest in MDA-MB-231, MCF-7 and MCF10A but Cur induced S phase arrest in MCF10A. The features of apoptosis such as morphological changes, apoptotic activity and the expression of cleaved poly (ADP) ribose polymerase (PARP) protein were more prominent in TRAIL and TZT-treated MDA-MB-231 as compared to MCF10A at 24 h post-treatment. Compared to TZT treatment, Cur and Dox treatments exhibited lesser apoptotic features in MDA-MB-231. Collectively, the sensitization using Zeb and TSA to augment TRAIL-induced apoptosis might be an alternative therapy towards human breast adenocarcinoma cells, without harming the normal human breast epithelial cells.
Project description:Early sorting endosomes are responsible for the trafficking and function of transferrin receptor (TfR) and EGFR. These receptors play important roles in iron uptake and signaling and are critical for breast cancer development. However, the role of morphology, receptor composition, and signaling of early endosomes in breast cancer remains poorly understood. A novel population of enlarged early endosomes was identified in breast cancer cells and tumor xenografts but not in noncancerous MCF10A cells. Quantitative analysis of endosomal morphology, cargo sorting, EGFR activation, and Rab GTPase regulation was performed using super-resolution and confocal microscopy followed by 3D rendering. MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells have fewer, but larger EEA1-positive early endosomes compared with MCF10A cells. Live-cell imaging indicated dysregulated cargo sorting, because EGF and Tf traffic together via enlarged endosomes in MDA-MB-231, but not in MCF10A. Large EEA1-positive MDA-MB-231 endosomes exhibited prolonged and increased EGF-induced activation of EGFR upon phosphorylation at tyrosine-1068 (EGFR-p1068). Rab4A overexpression in MCF10A cells produced EEA1-positive enlarged endosomes that displayed prolonged and amplified EGF-induced EGFR-p1068 activation. Knockdown of Rab4A lead to increased endosomal size in MCF10A, but not in MDA-MB-231 cells. Nevertheless, Rab4A knockdown resulted in enhanced EGF-induced activation of EGFR-p1068 in MDA-MB-231 as well as downstream signaling in MCF10A cells. Altogether, this extensive characterization of early endosomes in breast cancer cells has identified a Rab4-modulated enlarged early endosomal compartment as the site of prolonged and increased EGFR activation. IMPLICATIONS: Enlarged early endosomes play a Rab4-modulated role in regulation of EGFR activation in breast cancer cells.
Project description:Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are resistant to chemo- and radio-therapy, and can survive to regenerate new tumors. This is an important reason why various anti- cancer therapies often fail to completely control tumors, although they kill and eliminate the bulk of cancer cells. In this study, we determined whether or not adenine nucleotide translocator-2 (ANT2) suppression could also be effective in inducing cell death of breast cancer stem-like cells. A sub-population (SP; CD44+/ CD24-) of breast cancer cells has been reported to have stem/progenitor cell properties. We utilized the adeno- ANT2 shRNA virus to inhibit ANT2 expression and then observed the treatment effect in a SP of breast cancer cell line. In this study, MCF7, MDA-MB-231 cells, and breast epithelial cells (MCF10A) mesenchymally-transdifferentiated through E-cadherin knockdown were used. ANT2 expression was high in both stem-like cells and non-stem-like cells of MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, and was induced and up-regulated by mesenchymal transdifferentiation in MCF10A cells (MCF10A(EMT)). Knockdown of ANT2 by adeno-shRNA virus efficiently induced apoptotic cell death in the stem-like cells of MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, and MCF10A(EMT). Stem-like cells of MCF7 and MDA-MB-231, and MCF10A(EMT) cells exhibited increased drug (doxorubicin) resistance, and expressed a multi-drug resistant related molecule, ABCG2, at a high level. Adeno-ANT2 shRNA virus markedly sensitized the stem-like cells of MCF7 and MDA-MB-231, and the MCF10A(EMT) cells to doxorubicin, which was accompanied by down-regulation of ABCG2. Our results suggest that ANT2 suppression by adeno-shRNA virus is an effective strategy to induce cell death and increase the chemosensitivity of stem-like cells in breast cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are known to impact on tumour behaviour, but the mechanisms controlling this are poorly understood. METHODS:Breast normal fibroblasts (NFs) or CAFs were isolated from cancers by laser microdissection or were cultured. Fibroblasts were transfected to manipulate miR-222 or Lamin B receptor (LBR). The fibroblast-conditioned medium was collected and used to treat epithelial BC lines MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-157. Migration, invasion, proliferation or senescence was assessed using transwell, MTT or X-gal assays, respectively. RESULTS:MiR-222 was upregulated in CAFs as compared with NFs. Ectopic miR-222 expression in NFs induced CAF-like expression profiles, while miR-222 knockdown in CAFs inhibited CAF phenotypes. LBR was identified as a direct miR-222 target, and was functionally relevant since LBR knockdown phenocopied miR-222 overexpression and LBR overexpression phenocopied miR-222 knockdown. MiR-222 overexpression, or LBR knockdown, was sufficient to induce NFs to show the CAF characteristics of enhanced migration, invasion and senescence, and furthermore, the conditioned medium from these fibroblasts induced increased BC cell migration and invasion. The reverse manipulations in CAFs inhibited these behaviours in fibroblasts, and inhibited paracrine influences on BC cells. CONCLUSION:MiR-222/LBR have key roles in controlling pro-progression influences of CAFs in BC. This pathway may present therapeutic opportunities to inhibit CAF-induced cancer progression.
Project description:In breast cancer cells, the linoleic acid (LA), an ω-6 essential polyunsaturated fatty acid, induces a variety of biological processes, including migration and invasion. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are structures released by normal and malignant cells into extracellular space, and their function is dependent on their cargo and the cell type from which are secreted. Particularly, the EVs from MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells treated with LA promote an epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT)-like process in mammary non-tumorigenic epithelial cells MCF10A. Here, we found that EVs isolated from supernatants of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells stimulated with 90 μM LA induces activation of Akt2, FAK and ERK1/2 in MCF10A cells. In addition, EVs induces migration through a PI3K, Akt and ERK1/2-dependent pathway, whereas invasion is dependent on PI3K activity.
Project description:Non-thermal atmospheric plasma (NTP) has shown its selective anticancer effects in many types of tumors in vitro and one of the main mechanisms is that the different increase of intracellular ROS in cancer and homologous normal cells. In this study, we report that NTP treatment reduces the proliferation in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) and normal cell lines. Simultaneously, STAT3 pathway is inhibited by NTP effects. However, it is observed that normal cells MCF10A are more sensitive to ROS toxicity induced by NTP than cancer cells MDA-MB-231. When 5?mM of ROS inhibitor N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) is employed in NTP treatments, the proliferation of normal breast cells MCF10A recovers. Meanwhile, NTP effects remain significant inhibition of MDA-MB-231 cells. Our results further reveal that NTP can induce apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells through inhibiting interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R) pathway. Moreover, the mechanism of NTP anti-cancer selectivity relates to constantly HER2/Akt activation induced by NTP especially in MCF10A cells but not in MDA-MB-231 cells. Therefore, these two different cell signaling pathways induced by NTP treatments in TNBC and homologous normal cells make NTP becoming a potential tool in future therapy.