A transcriptomic and functional analysis of the interaction between Caenorhabditis elegans and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia
ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to elucidate genes that are employed by the bacterivorous nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to respond to the emerging nosocomial bacterial pathogen Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Overall design: 12 microarrays (4 per bacterial treatment) were used to identify genes that were differentially expressed when exposed to virulent (JCMS) and avirulent (K279a) strains of S. maltophilia and an avirulent (OP50) strain of E. coli.
INSTRUMENT(S): NimbleGen C. elegans 12x135K microarrays
Project description:Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a ubiquitous bacterium and an emerging nosocomial pathogen. This bacterium is resistant to many antibiotics, associated with a number of infections, and a significant health risk, especially for immunocompromised patients. Given that Caenorhabditis elegans shares many conserved genetic pathways and pathway components with higher organisms, the study of its interaction with bacterial pathogens has biomedical implications. S. maltophilia has been isolated in association with nematodes from grassland soils, and it is likely that C. elegans encounters this bacterium in nature. We found that a local S. maltophilia isolate, JCMS, is more virulent than the other S. maltophilia isolates (R551-3 and K279a) tested. JCMS virulence correlates with intestinal distension and bacterial accumulation and requires the bacteria to be alive. Many of the conserved innate immune pathways that serve to protect C. elegans from various pathogenic bacteria also play a role in combating S. maltophilia JCMS. However, S. maltophilia JCMS is virulent to normally pathogen-resistant DAF-2/16 insulin-like signaling pathway mutants. Furthermore, several insulin-like signaling effector genes were not significantly differentially expressed between S. maltophilia JCMS and avirulent bacteria (Escherichia coli OP50). Taken together, these findings suggest that S. maltophilia JCMS evades the pathogen resistance conferred by the loss of DAF-2/16 pathway components. In summary, we have discovered a novel host-pathogen interaction between C. elegans and S. maltophilia and established a new animal model with which to study the mode of action of this emerging nosocomial pathogen.
Project description:The bacterivorous nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is an excellent model for the study of innate immune responses to a variety of bacterial pathogens, including the emerging nosocomial bacterial pathogen Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The study of this interaction has ecological and medical relevance as S. maltophilia is found in association with C. elegans and other nematodes in the wild and is an emerging opportunistic bacterial pathogen. We identified 393 genes that were differentially expressed when exposed to virulent and avirulent strains of S. maltophilia and an avirulent strain of E. coli. We then used a probabilistic functional gene network model (WormNet) to determine that 118 of the 393 differentially expressed genes formed an interacting network and identified a set of highly connected genes with eight or more predicted interactions. We hypothesized that these highly connected genes might play an important role in the defense against S. maltophila and found that mutations of six of seven highly connected genes have a significant effect on nematode survival in response to these bacteria. Of these genes, C48B4.1, mpk-2, cpr-4, clec-67, and lys-6 are needed for combating the virulent S. maltophilia JCMS strain, while dod-22 was solely involved in response to the avirulent S. maltophilia K279a strain. We further found that dod-22 and clec-67 were up regulated in response to JCMS vs. K279a, while C48B4.1, mpk-2, cpr-4, and lys-6 were down regulated. Only dod-22 had a documented role in innate immunity, which demonstrates the merit of our approach in the identification of novel genes that are involved in combating S. maltophilia infection.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an emerging nosocomial pathogen that causes infection in immunocompromised patients. S. maltophilia isolates are genetically diverse, contain diverse virulence factors, and are variably pathogenic within several host species. Members of the Stenotrophomonas genus are part of the native microbiome of C. elegans, being found in greater relative abundance within the worm than its environment, suggesting that these bacteria accumulate within C. elegans. Thus, study of the C. elegans-Stenotrophomonas interaction is of both medical and ecological significance. To identify host defense mechanisms, we analyzed the C. elegans transcriptomic response to S. maltophilia strains of varying pathogenicity: K279a, an avirulent clinical isolate, JCMS, a virulent strain isolated in association with soil nematodes near Manhattan, KS, and JV3, an even more virulent environmental isolate. RESULTS:Overall, we found 145 genes that are commonly differentially expressed in response to pathogenic S. maltophilia strains, 89% of which are upregulated, with many even further upregulated in response to JV3 as compared to JCMS. There are many more JV3-specific differentially expressed genes (225, 11% upregulated) than JCMS-specific differentially expressed genes (14, 86% upregulated), suggesting JV3 has unique pathogenic mechanisms that could explain its increased virulence. We used connectivity within a gene network model to choose pathogen-specific and strain-specific differentially expressed candidate genes for functional analysis. Mutations in 13 of 22 candidate genes caused significant differences in C. elegans survival in response to at least one S. maltophilia strain, although not always the strain that induced differential expression, suggesting a dynamic response to varying levels of pathogenicity. CONCLUSIONS:Variation in observed pathogenicity and differences in host transcriptional responses to S. maltophilia strains reveal that strain-specific mechanisms play important roles in S. maltophilia pathogenesis. Furthermore, utilizing bacteria closely related to strains found in C. elegans natural environment provides a more realistic interaction for understanding host-pathogen response.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an environmental bacterium increasingly involved in nosocomial infections and resistant to most antibiotics. It is important to recognize and efficiently treat infections with this bacterium as soon as possible. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia prosthetic valve endocarditis secondary to an indwelling catheter infection. The patient was cured without surgery. We review other cases of S. maltophilia endocarditis from the literature and describe the peculiarities of this case. CONCLUSION: S. maltophilia endocarditis is a rare disease that is often hospital-acquired and related to an indwelling catheter infection. The high lethality is likely related to the intrinsic resistance of nosocomial bloodstream infections to commonly prescribed antibiotics.
Project description:Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a ubiquitous soil bacterium that is increasingly recognized as an emerging nosocomial pathogen. This unit includes protocols for the in vitro growth and maintenance of S. maltophilia.
Project description:Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an opportunistic pathogen with an environmental origin, and it is an increasingly relevant cause of nosocomial infections. Here we present the whole-genome sequence of S. maltophilia strain D457, a clinical isolate that is being used as a model for studying antibiotic resistance in this bacterial species.
Project description:Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an emerging multidrug-resistant global opportunistic pathogen. The increasing incidence of nosocomial and community-acquired S. maltophilia infections is of particular concern for immunocompromised individuals, as this bacterial pathogen is associated with a significant fatality/case ratio. S. maltophilia is an environmental bacterium found in aqueous habitats, including plant rhizospheres, animals, foods, and water sources. Infections of S. maltophilia can occur in a range of organs and tissues; the organism is commonly found in respiratory tract infections. This review summarizes the current literature and presents S. maltophilia as an organism with various molecular mechanisms used for colonization and infection. S. maltophilia can be recovered from polymicrobial infections, most notably from the respiratory tract of cystic fibrosis patients, as a cocolonizer with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Recent evidence of cell-cell communication between these pathogens has implications for the development of novel pharmacological therapies. Animal models of S. maltophilia infection have provided useful information about the type of host immune response induced by this opportunistic pathogen. Current and emerging treatments for patients infected with S. maltophilia are discussed.
Project description:Stenotrophomonas maltophilia has evolved as one of the leading multidrug-resistant pathogens responsible for a variety of nosocomial infections especially in highly debilitated patients. As information on the genomic and intraspecies diversity of this clinically important pathogen is limited, we sequenced the whole genome of 27 clinical isolates from hospitalized patients. Phylogenomic analysis along with the genomes of type strains suggested that the clinical isolates are distributed over the Stenotrophomonas maltophilia complex (Smc) within the genus Stenotrophomonas. Further genome-based taxonomy coupled with the genomes of type strains of the genus Stenotrophomonas allowed us to identify five cryptic genomospecies, which are associated with the clinical isolates of S. maltophilia and are potentially novel species. These isolates share a very small core genome that implies a high level of genetic diversity within the isolates. Recombination analysis of core genomes revealed that the impact of recombination is more than mutation in the diversification of clinical S. maltophilia isolates. Distribution analysis of well-characterized antibiotic-resistance and efflux pump genes of S. maltophilia across multiple novel genomospecies provided insights into its antibiotic-resistant ability. This study supports the existence of multiple cryptic species within the Smc besides S. maltophilia, which are associated with human infections, and highlights the importance of genome-based approaches to delineate bacterial species. This data will aid in improving clinical diagnosis and for understanding species-specific clinical manifestations of infection due to Stenotrophomonas species.
Project description:Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is found ubiquitously in the environment and is an important emerging nosocomial pathogen. S. maltophilia has been recently described as an Amoebae-Resistant Bacteria (ARB) that exists as part of the microbiome of various free-living amoebae (FLA) from waters. Co-culture approaches with Vermamoeba vermiformis demonstrated the ability of this bacterium to resist amoebal digestion. In the present study, we assessed the survival and growth of six environmental and one clinical S. maltophilia strains within two amoebal species: Acanthamoeba castellanii and Willaertia magna. We also evaluated bacterial virulence properties using the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. A co-culture approach was carried out over 96 hours and the abundance of S. maltophilia cells was measured using quantitative PCR and culture approach. The presence of bacteria inside the amoeba was confirmed using confocal microscopy. Our results showed that some S. maltophilia strains were able to multiply within both amoebae and exhibited multiplication rates up to 17.5 and 1166 for A. castellanii and W. magna, respectively. In contrast, some strains were unable to multiply in either amoeba. Out of the six environmental S. maltophilia strains tested, one was found to be virulent. Surprisingly, this strain previously isolated from a soil amoeba, Micriamoeba, was unable to infect both amoebal species tested. We further performed an assay with a mutant strain of S. maltophilia BurA1 lacking the efflux pump ebyCAB gene and found the mutant to be more virulent and more efficient for intra-amoebal multiplication. Overall, the results obtained strongly indicated that free-living amoebae could be an important ecological niche for S. maltophilia.
Project description:Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen that is difficult to identify unequivocally using current methods. Accordingly, because the presence of this microorganism in a patient may directly determine the antimicrobial treatment, conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR assays targeting 23S rRNA were developed for the specific identification of S. maltophilia. The PCR protocol showed high specificity when tested against other species of Stenotrophomonas, non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli and 100 clinical isolates of S. maltophilia previously identified using the Vitek system.