ABSTRACT: 14 days hindlimb suspended, 5 days reloaded m. soleus RNA was isolated from cryosections using RNeasy kit (Qiagen). 5 microgram total RNA was subjected to microarray analysis. Keywords: time-course
Project description:?-Hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a leucine metabolite shown to reduce protein catabolism in disease states and promote skeletal muscle hypertrophy in response to loading exercise. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of HMB to reduce muscle wasting and promote muscle recovery following disuse in aged animals. Fisher 344×Brown Norway rats, 34 mo of age, were randomly assigned to receive either Ca-HMB (340 mg/kg body wt) or the water vehicle by gavage (n = 32/group). The animals received either 14 days of hindlimb suspension (HS, n = 8/diet group) or 14 days of unloading followed by 14 days of reloading (R; n = 8/diet group). Nonsuspended control animals were compared with suspended animals after 14 days of HS (n = 8) or after R (n = 8). HMB treatment prevented the decline in maximal in vivo isometric force output after 2 wk of recovery from hindlimb unloading. The HMB-treated animals had significantly greater plantaris and soleus fiber cross-sectional area compared with the vehicle-treated animals. HMB decreased the amount of TUNEL-positive nuclei in reloaded plantaris muscles (5.1% vs. 1.6%, P < 0.05) and soleus muscles (3.9% vs. 1.8%, P < 0.05). Although HMB did not significantly alter Bcl-2 protein abundance compared with vehicle treatment, HMB decreased Bax protein abundance following R, by 40% and 14% (P < 0.05) in plantaris and soleus muscles, respectively. Cleaved caspase-3 was reduced by 12% and 9% (P < 0.05) in HMB-treated reloaded plantaris and soleus muscles, compared with vehicle-treated animals. HMB reduced cleaved caspase-9 by 14% and 30% (P < 0.05) in reloaded plantaris and soleus muscles, respectively, compared with vehicle-treated animals. Although, HMB was unable to prevent unloading-induced atrophy, it attenuated the decrease in fiber area in fast and slow muscles after HS and R. HMB's ability to protect against muscle loss may be due in part to putative inhibition of myonuclear apoptosis via regulation of mitochondrial-associated caspase signaling.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Successful strategies to halt or reverse sarcopenia require a basic understanding of the factors that cause muscle loss with age. Acute periods of muscle loss in older individuals have an incomplete recovery of muscle mass and strength, thus accelerating sarcopenic progression. The purpose of the current study was to further understand the mechanisms underlying the failure of old animals to completely recover muscle mass and function after a period of hindlimb unloading.<h4>Methods</h4>Hindlimb unloading was used to induce muscle atrophy in Fischer 344-Brown Norway (F344BN F1) rats at 24, 28, and 30 months of age. Rats were hindlimb unloaded for 14 days and then reloaded at 24 months (Reloaded 24), 28 months (Reloaded 28), and 24 and 28 months (Reloaded 24/28) of age. Isometric torque was determined at 24 months of age (24 months), at 28 months of age (28 months), immediately after 14 days of reloading, and at 30 months of age (30 months). During control or reloaded conditions, rats were labelled with deuterium oxide (D<sub>2</sub> O) to determine rates of muscle protein synthesis and RNA synthesis.<h4>Results</h4>After 14 days of reloading, in vivo isometric torque returned to baseline in Reloaded 24, but not Reloaded 28 and Reloaded 24/28. Despite the failure of Reloaded 28 and Reloaded 24/28 to regain peak force, all groups were equally depressed in peak force generation at 30 months. Increased age did not decrease muscle protein synthesis rates, and in fact, increased resting rates of protein synthesis were measured in the myofibrillar fraction (Fractional synthesis rate (FSR): %/day) of the plantaris (24 months: 2.53 ± 0.17; 30 months: 3.29 ± 0.17), and in the myofibrillar (24 months: 2.29 ± 0.07; 30 months: 3.34 ± 0.11), collagen (24 months: 1.11 ± 0.07; 30 months: 1.55 ± 0.14), and mitochondrial (24 months: 2.38 ± 0.16; 30 months: 3.20 ± 0.10) fractions of the tibialis anterior (TA). All muscles increased myofibrillar protein synthesis (%/day) in Reloaded 24 (soleus: 3.36 ± 0.11, 5.23 ± 0.19; plantaris: 2.53 ± 0.17, 3.66 ± 0.07; TA: 2.29 ± 0.14, 3.15 ± 0.12); however, in Reloaded 28, only the soleus had myofibrillar protein synthesis rates (%/day) >28 months (28 months: 3.80 ± 0.10; Reloaded 28: 4.86 ± 0.19). Across the muscles, rates of protein synthesis were correlated with RNA synthesis (all muscles combined, R<sup>2</sup> = 0.807, P < 0.0001).<h4>Conclusions</h4>These data add to the growing body of literature that indicate that changes with age, including following disuse atrophy, differ by muscle. In addition, our findings lead to additional questions of the underlying mechanisms by which some muscles are maintained with age while others are not.
Project description:Previously, we reported that polyphenol-rich fraction (named E80) promotes skeletal muscle hypertrophy induced by functional overload in mice. This study indicates that E80 has potential for affecting skeletal muscle mass. Then, we evaluate the effect of E80 on atrophic and recovery conditions of skeletal muscle in mice. Hindlimb suspension (unloading) and relanding (reloading) are used extensively to observe disuse muscle atrophy and subsequent muscle mass recovery from atrophy. Eight-week old C57BL/6 mice were fed either a normal diet or a diet containing 0.5% E80 for two weeks under conditions of hindlimb suspension and a subsequent 5 or 10 days of reloading. We found that E80 administration did not prevent atrophy during hindlimb suspension, but promoted recovery of slow-twitch (soleus) muscle mass from atrophy induced by hindlimb suspension. After five days of reloading, we discovered that phosphorylation of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway proteins, such as Akt and P70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K), was activated in the muscle. Therefore, E80 administration accelerated mTOR signal and increased protein synthesis in the reloaded soleus muscle.
Project description:It is known that nitric oxide (NO) may affect myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform mRNA transcription in skeletal muscles. The content of NO in soleus muscles decreases during rat hindlimb unloading as well as slow MyHC mRNA transcription. We aimed to detect which signaling pathways are involved in NO-dependent prevention of hindlimb-suspension (HS)-induced changes in MyHCs' expression pattern. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: cage control group (C), hindlimb suspended for 7 days (7HS), hindlimb suspended for 7 days with L-arginine administration (7HS+A) (500 mg/kg body mass), and hindlimb suspended for 7 days with both L-arginine (500 mg/kg) and NO-synthase inhibitor L-NAME administration (50 mg/kg) (7HS+A+N). L-arginine treatment during 7 days of rat HS prevented HS-induced NO content decrease and slow MyHC mRNA transcription decrease and attenuated fast MyHC IIb mRNA transcription increase; it also prevented NFATc1 nuclear content decrease, calsarcin-2 expression increase, and GSK-3? Ser 9 phosphorylation decrease. Moreover, L-arginine administration prevented the HS-induced myh7b and PGC1? mRNAs content decreases and slow-type genes repressor SOX6 mRNA transcription increase. All these slow fiber-type protective effects of L-arginine were blocked in HS+A+N group, indicating that these effects were NO-dependent. Thus, NO decrease prevention during HS restores calcineurin/NFATc1 and myh7b/SOX6 signaling.
Project description:Muscle atrophy is a widespread ill condition occurring in many diseases, which can reduce quality of life and increase morbidity and mortality. We developed a new method using non-invasive ultrasonography to measure soleus and gastrocnemius lateralis muscle atrophy in the hindlimb-unloaded rat, a well-accepted model of muscle disuse. Soleus and gastrocnemius volumes were calculated using the conventional truncated-cone method and a newly-designed sinusoidal method. For Soleus muscle, the ultrasonographic volume determined in vivo with either method was linearly correlated to the volume determined ex-vivo from excised muscles as muscle weight-to-density ratio. For both soleus and gastrocnemius muscles, a strong linear correlation was obtained between the ultrasonographic volume and the muscle fiber cross-sectional area determined ex-vivo on muscle cryosections. Thus ultrasonography allowed the longitudinal in vivo evaluation of muscle atrophy progression during hindlimb unloading. This study validates ultrasonography as a powerful method for the evaluation of rodent muscle atrophy in vivo, which would prove useful in disease models and therapeutic trials.
Project description:The objective of the study was to identify microRNAs expressed in the rat soleus muscle and determine if their expression was changed in response to hindlimb suspension. Overall design: The microRNA expression profile (Sanger miRBase 9.0) of the rat soleus muscle was determined in the following three groups: control (C), hindlimb suspended for 2 days (HS-2) or 7 days (HS-7). Three replicates were performed for each group.
Project description:The objective of the study was to identify microRNAs expressed in the rat soleus muscle and determine if their expression was changed in response to hindlimb suspension. The microRNA expression profile (Sanger miRBase 9.0) of the rat soleus muscle was determined in the following three groups: control (C), hindlimb suspended for 2 days (HS-2) or 7 days (HS-7). Three replicates were performed for each group.