Project description:14 days hindlimb suspended, 5 days reloaded m. soleus RNA was isolated from cryosections using RNeasy kit (Qiagen). 5 microgram total RNA was subjected to microarray analysis. Keywords: time-course
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Successful strategies to halt or reverse sarcopenia require a basic understanding of the factors that cause muscle loss with age. Acute periods of muscle loss in older individuals have an incomplete recovery of muscle mass and strength, thus accelerating sarcopenic progression. The purpose of the current study was to further understand the mechanisms underlying the failure of old animals to completely recover muscle mass and function after a period of hindlimb unloading.<h4>Methods</h4>Hindlimb unloading was used to induce muscle atrophy in Fischer 344-Brown Norway (F344BN F1) rats at 24, 28, and 30 months of age. Rats were hindlimb unloaded for 14 days and then reloaded at 24 months (Reloaded 24), 28 months (Reloaded 28), and 24 and 28 months (Reloaded 24/28) of age. Isometric torque was determined at 24 months of age (24 months), at 28 months of age (28 months), immediately after 14 days of reloading, and at 30 months of age (30 months). During control or reloaded conditions, rats were labelled with deuterium oxide (D<sub>2</sub> O) to determine rates of muscle protein synthesis and RNA synthesis.<h4>Results</h4>After 14 days of reloading, in vivo isometric torque returned to baseline in Reloaded 24, but not Reloaded 28 and Reloaded 24/28. Despite the failure of Reloaded 28 and Reloaded 24/28 to regain peak force, all groups were equally depressed in peak force generation at 30 months. Increased age did not decrease muscle protein synthesis rates, and in fact, increased resting rates of protein synthesis were measured in the myofibrillar fraction (Fractional synthesis rate (FSR): %/day) of the plantaris (24 months: 2.53 ± 0.17; 30 months: 3.29 ± 0.17), and in the myofibrillar (24 months: 2.29 ± 0.07; 30 months: 3.34 ± 0.11), collagen (24 months: 1.11 ± 0.07; 30 months: 1.55 ± 0.14), and mitochondrial (24 months: 2.38 ± 0.16; 30 months: 3.20 ± 0.10) fractions of the tibialis anterior (TA). All muscles increased myofibrillar protein synthesis (%/day) in Reloaded 24 (soleus: 3.36 ± 0.11, 5.23 ± 0.19; plantaris: 2.53 ± 0.17, 3.66 ± 0.07; TA: 2.29 ± 0.14, 3.15 ± 0.12); however, in Reloaded 28, only the soleus had myofibrillar protein synthesis rates (%/day) >28 months (28 months: 3.80 ± 0.10; Reloaded 28: 4.86 ± 0.19). Across the muscles, rates of protein synthesis were correlated with RNA synthesis (all muscles combined, R<sup>2</sup> = 0.807, P < 0.0001).<h4>Conclusions</h4>These data add to the growing body of literature that indicate that changes with age, including following disuse atrophy, differ by muscle. In addition, our findings lead to additional questions of the underlying mechanisms by which some muscles are maintained with age while others are not.
Project description:?-Hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a leucine metabolite shown to reduce protein catabolism in disease states and promote skeletal muscle hypertrophy in response to loading exercise. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of HMB to reduce muscle wasting and promote muscle recovery following disuse in aged animals. Fisher 344×Brown Norway rats, 34 mo of age, were randomly assigned to receive either Ca-HMB (340 mg/kg body wt) or the water vehicle by gavage (n = 32/group). The animals received either 14 days of hindlimb suspension (HS, n = 8/diet group) or 14 days of unloading followed by 14 days of reloading (R; n = 8/diet group). Nonsuspended control animals were compared with suspended animals after 14 days of HS (n = 8) or after R (n = 8). HMB treatment prevented the decline in maximal in vivo isometric force output after 2 wk of recovery from hindlimb unloading. The HMB-treated animals had significantly greater plantaris and soleus fiber cross-sectional area compared with the vehicle-treated animals. HMB decreased the amount of TUNEL-positive nuclei in reloaded plantaris muscles (5.1% vs. 1.6%, P < 0.05) and soleus muscles (3.9% vs. 1.8%, P < 0.05). Although HMB did not significantly alter Bcl-2 protein abundance compared with vehicle treatment, HMB decreased Bax protein abundance following R, by 40% and 14% (P < 0.05) in plantaris and soleus muscles, respectively. Cleaved caspase-3 was reduced by 12% and 9% (P < 0.05) in HMB-treated reloaded plantaris and soleus muscles, compared with vehicle-treated animals. HMB reduced cleaved caspase-9 by 14% and 30% (P < 0.05) in reloaded plantaris and soleus muscles, respectively, compared with vehicle-treated animals. Although, HMB was unable to prevent unloading-induced atrophy, it attenuated the decrease in fiber area in fast and slow muscles after HS and R. HMB's ability to protect against muscle loss may be due in part to putative inhibition of myonuclear apoptosis via regulation of mitochondrial-associated caspase signaling.