Functional impact of the H2A.Z histone variant during meiosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
ABSTRACT: Among the collection of chromatin modifications that influence its function and structure, the substitution of canonical histones by the so-called histone variants is one of the most prominent actions. Since crucial meiotic transactions are modulated by chromatin, here we investigate the functional contribution of the H2A.Z histone variant during both unperturbed meiosis and upon challenging conditions where the meiotic recombination checkpoint is triggered in budding yeast by the absence of the synaptonemal complex component Zip1. We have found that H2A.Z localizes to meiotic chromosomes in an SWR1-dependent manner. Although meiotic recombination is not substantially altered, the htz1 mutant (lacking H2A.Z) shows slower meiotic progression, impaired sporulation and reduced spore viability. These phenotypes are likely accounted for by the misregulation of meiotic gene expression landscape observed in htz1. In the zip1 mutant, the absence of H2A.Z results in a tighter meiotic arrest imposed by the meiotic recombination checkpoint. We have found that Mec1-dependent Hop1-T318 phosphorylation and the ensuing Mek1 activation are not significantly altered in zip1 htz1; however, downstream checkpoint targets, such as the meiosis I-promoting factors Ndt80, Cdc5 and Clb1, are drastically down-regulated. The study of the checkpoint response in zip1 htz1 has also allowed us to reveal the existence of an additional function of the Swe1 kinase, independent of CDK inhibitory phosphorylation, which is relevant to restrain meiotic cell cycle progression. In summary, our study shows that the H2A.Z histone variant impacts various aspects of meiotic development adding further insight into the relevance of chromatin dynamics for accurate gametogenesis. Overall design: Three biological independient replicates were use for each strain
Project description:Among the collection of chromatin modifications that influence its function and structure, the substitution of canonical histones by the so-called histone variants is one of the most prominent actions. Since crucial meiotic transactions are modulated by chromatin, here we investigate the functional contribution of the H2A.Z histone variant during both unperturbed meiosis and upon challenging conditions where the meiotic recombination checkpoint is triggered in budding yeast by the absence of the synaptonemal complex component Zip1 We have found that H2A.Z localizes to meiotic chromosomes in an SWR1-dependent manner. Although meiotic recombination is not substantially altered, the htz1 mutant (lacking H2A.Z) shows inefficient meiotic progression, impaired sporulation, and reduced spore viability. These phenotypes are likely accounted for by the misregulation of meiotic gene expression landscape observed in htz1 In the zip1 mutant, the absence of H2A.Z results in a tighter meiotic arrest imposed by the meiotic recombination checkpoint. We have found that Mec1-dependent Hop1-T318 phosphorylation and the ensuing Mek1 activation are not significantly altered in zip1 htz1; however, downstream checkpoint targets, such as the meiosis I-promoting factors Ndt80, Cdc5, and Clb1, are drastically downregulated. The study of the checkpoint response in zip1 htz1 has also allowed us to reveal the existence of an additional function of the Swe1 kinase, independent of CDK inhibitory phosphorylation, which is relevant to restrain meiotic cell cycle progression. In summary, our study shows that the H2A.Z histone variant impacts various aspects of meiotic development adding further insight into the relevance of chromatin dynamics for accurate gametogenesis.
Project description:During meiosis, accurate chromosome segregation relies on the proper interaction between homologous chromosomes, including synapsis and recombination. The meiotic recombination checkpoint is a quality control mechanism that monitors those crucial events. In response to defects in synapsis and/or recombination, this checkpoint blocks or delays progression of meiosis, preventing the formation of aberrant gametes. Meiotic recombination occurs in the context of chromatin and histone modifications, which play crucial roles in the maintenance of genomic integrity. Here, we unveil the role of Dot1-dependent histone H3 methylation at lysine 79 (H3K79me) in this meiotic surveillance mechanism. We demonstrate that the meiotic checkpoint function of Dot1 relies on H3K79me because, like the dot1 deletion, H3-K79A or H3-K79R mutations suppress the checkpoint-imposed meiotic delay of a synapsis-defective zip1 mutant. Moreover, by genetically manipulating Dot1 catalytic activity, we find that the status of H3K79me modulates the meiotic checkpoint response. We also define the phosphorylation events involving activation of the meiotic checkpoint effector Mek1 kinase. Dot1 is required for Mek1 autophosphorylation, but not for its Mec1/Tel1-dependent phosphorylation. Dot1-dependent H3K79me also promotes Hop1 activation and its proper distribution along zip1 meiotic chromosomes, at least in part, by regulating Pch2 localization. Furthermore, HOP1 overexpression bypasses the Dot1 requirement for checkpoint activation. We propose that chromatin remodeling resulting from unrepaired meiotic DSBs and/or faulty interhomolog interactions allows Dot1-mediated H3K79-me to exclude Pch2 from the chromosomes, thus driving localization of Hop1 along chromosome axes and enabling Mek1 full activation to trigger downstream responses, such as meiotic arrest.
Project description:Recombination and synapsis of homologous chromosomes are hallmarks of meiosis in many organisms. Meiotic recombination is initiated by Spo11-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), whereas chromosome synapsis is mediated by a tripartite structure named the synaptonemal complex (SC). Previously, we proposed that budding yeast SC is assembled via noncovalent interactions between the axial SC protein Red1, SUMO chains or conjugates, and the central SC protein Zip1. Incomplete synapsis and unrepaired DNA are monitored by Mec1/Tel1-dependent checkpoint responses that prevent exit from the pachytene stage. Here, our results distinguished three distinct modes of Mec1/Tec1 activation during early meiosis that led to phosphorylation of three targets, histone H2A at S129 (?H2A), Hop1, and Zip1, which are involved, respectively, in DNA replication, the interhomolog recombination and chromosome synapsis checkpoint, and destabilization of homology-independent centromere pairing. ?H2A phosphorylation is Red1 independent and occurs prior to Spo11-induced DSBs. DSB- and Red1-dependent Hop1 phosphorylation is activated via interaction of the Red1-SUMO chain/conjugate ensemble with the Ddc1-Rad17-Mec3 (9-1-1) checkpoint complex and the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 complex. During SC assembly, Zip1 outcompetes 9-1-1 from the Red1-SUMO chain ensemble to attenuate Hop1 phosphorylation. In contrast, chromosome synapsis cannot attenuate DSB-dependent and Red1-independent Zip1 phosphorylation. These results reveal how DNA replication, DSB repair, and chromosome synapsis are differentially monitored by the meiotic checkpoint network.
Project description:The H2A.Z histone variant is deposited into the chromatin by the SWR1 complex, affecting multiple aspects of meiosis. We describe here a SWR1-independent localization of H2A.Z at meiotic telomeres and the centrosome. We demonstrate that H2A.Z colocalizes and interacts with Mps3, the SUN component of the linker of nucleoskeleton, and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex that spans the nuclear envelope and links meiotic telomeres to the cytoskeleton, promoting meiotic chromosome movement. H2A.Z also interacts with the meiosis-specific Ndj1 protein that anchors telomeres to the nuclear periphery via Mps3. Telomeric localization of H2A.Z depends on Ndj1 and the N-terminal domain of Mps3. Although telomeric attachment to the nuclear envelope is maintained in the absence of H2A.Z, the distribution of Mps3 is altered. The velocity of chromosome movement during the meiotic prophase is reduced in the htz1? mutant lacking H2A.Z, but it is unaffected in swr1? cells. We reveal that H2A.Z is an additional LINC-associated factor that contributes to promote telomere-driven chromosome motion critical for error-free gametogenesis.
Project description:Meiotic cells possess surveillance mechanisms that monitor critical events such as recombination and chromosome synapsis. Meiotic defects resulting from the absence of the synaptonemal complex component Zip1 activate a meiosis-specific checkpoint network resulting in delayed or arrested meiotic progression. Pch2 is an evolutionarily conserved AAA+ ATPase required for the checkpoint-induced meiotic block in the zip1 mutant, where Pch2 is only detectable at the ribosomal DNA array (nucleolus). We describe here that high levels of the Hop1 protein, a checkpoint adaptor that localizes to chromosome axes, suppress the checkpoint defect of a zip1 pch2 mutant restoring Mek1 activity and meiotic cell cycle delay. We demonstrate that the critical role of Pch2 in this synapsis checkpoint is to sustain Mec1-dependent phosphorylation of Hop1 at threonine 318. We also show that the ATPase activity of Pch2 is essential for its checkpoint function and that ATP binding to Pch2 is required for its localization. Previous work has shown that Pch2 negatively regulates Hop1 chromosome abundance during unchallenged meiosis. Based on our results, we propose that, under checkpoint-inducing conditions, Pch2 also possesses a positive action on Hop1 promoting its phosphorylation and its proper distribution on unsynapsed chromosome axes.
Project description:Interhomolog crossovers promote proper chromosome segregation during meiosis and are formed by the regulated repair of programmed double-strand breaks. This regulation requires components of the synaptonemal complex (SC), a proteinaceous structure formed between homologous chromosomes. In yeast, SC formation requires the "ZMM" genes, which encode a functionally diverse set of proteins, including the transverse filament protein, Zip1. In wild-type meiosis, Zmm proteins promote the biased resolution of recombination intermediates into crossovers that are distributed throughout the genome by interference. In contrast, noncrossovers are formed primarily through synthesis-dependent strand annealing mediated by the Sgs1 helicase. This work identifies a conserved region on the C terminus of Zip1 (called Zip1 4S), whose phosphorylation is required for the ZMM pathway of crossover formation. Zip1 4S phosphorylation is promoted both by double-strand breaks (DSBs) and the meiosis-specific kinase, MEK1/MRE4, demonstrating a role for MEK1 in the regulation of interhomolog crossover formation, as well as interhomolog bias. Failure to phosphorylate Zip1 4S results in meiotic prophase arrest, specifically in the absence of SGS1. This gain of function meiotic arrest phenotype is suppressed by spo11?, suggesting that it is due to unrepaired breaks triggering the meiotic recombination checkpoint. Epistasis experiments combining deletions of individual ZMM genes with sgs1-md zip1-4A indicate that Zip1 4S phosphorylation functions prior to the other ZMMs. These results suggest that phosphorylation of Zip1 at DSBs commits those breaks to repair via the ZMM pathway and provides a mechanism by which the crossover/noncrossover decision can be dynamically regulated during yeast meiosis.
Project description:In meiotic cells, the pachytene checkpoint or meiotic recombination checkpoint is a surveillance mechanism that monitors critical processes, such as recombination and chromosome synapsis, which are essential for proper distribution of chromosomes to the meiotic progeny. Failures in these processes lead to the formation of aneuploid gametes. Meiotic recombination occurs in the context of chromatin; in fact, the histone methyltransferase Dot1 and the histone deacetylase Sir2 are known regulators of the pachytene checkpoint in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We report here that Sas2-mediated acetylation of histone H4 at lysine 16 (H4K16ac), one of the Sir2 targets, modulates meiotic checkpoint activity in response to synaptonemal complex defects. We show that, like sir2, the H4-K16Q mutation, mimicking constitutive acetylation of H4K16, eliminates the delay in meiotic cell cycle progression imposed by the checkpoint in the synapsis-defective zip1 mutant. We also demonstrate that, like in dot1, zip1-induced phosphorylation of the Hop1 checkpoint adaptor at threonine 318 and the ensuing Mek1 activation are impaired in H4-K16 mutants. However, in contrast to sir2 and dot1, the H4-K16R and H4-K16Q mutations have only a minor effect in checkpoint activation and localization of the nucleolar Pch2 checkpoint factor in ndt80-prophase-arrested cells. We also provide evidence for a cross-talk between Dot1-dependent H3K79 methylation and H4K16ac and show that Sir2 excludes H4K16ac from the rDNA region on meiotic chromosomes. Our results reveal that proper levels of H4K16ac orchestrate this meiotic quality control mechanism and that Sir2 impinges on additional targets to fully activate the checkpoint.
Project description:During the meiotic cell cycle, a surveillance mechanism called the "pachytene checkpoint" ensures proper chromosome segregation by preventing meiotic progression when recombination and chromosome synapsis are defective. The silencing protein Dot1 (also known as Pch1) is required for checkpoint-mediated pachytene arrest of the zip1 and dmc1 mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the absence of DOT1, the zip1 and dmc1 mutants inappropriately progress through meiosis, generating inviable meiotic products. Other components of the pachytene checkpoint include the nucleolar protein Pch2 and the heterochromatin component Sir2. In dot1, disruption of the checkpoint correlates with the loss of concentration of Pch2 and Sir2 in the nucleolus. In addition to its checkpoint function, Dot1 blocks the repair of meiotic double-strand breaks by a Rad54-dependent pathway of recombination between sister chromatids. In vegetative cells, mutation of DOT1 results in delocalization of Sir3 from telomeres, accounting for the impaired telomeric silencing in dot1.
Project description:Meiotic recombination is initiated by Spo11-generated DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) . A fraction of total DSBs is processed into crossovers (CRs) between homologous chromosomes, which promote their accurate segregation at meiosis I (MI) . The coordination of recombination-associated events and MI progression is governed by the "pachytene checkpoint", which in budding yeast requires Rad17, a component of a PCNA clamp-like complex, and Pch2, a putative AAA-ATPase . We show that two genetically separable pathways monitor the presence of distinct meiotic recombination-associated lesions: First, delayed MI progression in the presence of DNA repair intermediates is suppressed when RAD17 or SAE2, encoding a DSB-end processing factor , is deleted. Second, delayed MI progression in the presence of aberrant synaptonemal complex (SC) is suppressed when PCH2 is deleted. Importantly, ZIP1, encoding the central element of the SC , is required for PCH2-dependent checkpoint activation. Analysis of the rad17Deltapch2Delta double mutant revealed a redundant function regulating interhomolog CR formation. These findings suggest a link between the surveillance of distinct recombination-associated lesions, control of CR formation kinetics, and regulation of MI timing. A PCH2-ZIP1-dependent checkpoint in meiosis is likely conserved among synaptic organisms from yeast to human .
Project description:Meiosis generates four haploid daughters from a diploid parental cell. Central steps of meiosis are the pairing and recombination of homologous chromosomes followed by their segregation in two rounds of cell division. Meiotic recombination is monitored by a specialized DNA damage checkpoint pathway and is guided by a unique chromosomal structure called synaptonemal complex (SC), but how these events are coordinated is unclear. Here, we identify the SC protein Red1 as a crucial regulator of early meiosis. Red1 interacts with two subunits of the 9-1-1 checkpoint complex via two distinct 9-1-1 subunit-specific motifs. Association of 9-1-1 with Red1 is essential not only for meiotic checkpoint activation but for SC formation. Moreover, Red1 becomes SUMO-modified, which fosters interaction of Red1 with the central SC element Zip1, thereby securing timely SC formation. Thus, Red1, in addition to its structural role in the SC, is a crucial coordinator of meiosis by coupling checkpoint signaling to SC formation.