RNA-seq analysis of Slc39a8(neo/neo) versus wild-type mice: yolk sac, placenta and fetal liver, kidney, lung, heart and cerebellum
ABSTRACT: Slc39a8 encodes ZIP8, a ubiquitous divalent cation/bicarbonate symporter expressed in pluripotent mouse embryonic stem cell; ZIP8 influxes Zn2+, Mn2+ and Fe2+. Slc39a8(neo/neo) knockdown mice globally exhibit 10-15% of wild-type ZIP8 mRNA and protein levels, and show a pleiotropic phenotype of stunted growth, neonatal lethality, multi-organ dysmorphogenesis, and dysregulated hematopoiesis manifested as severe anemia. Herein we performed transcriptomics of GD13.5 yolk sac and placenta, and GD16.5 liver, kidney, lung, heart and cerebellum, comparing Slc39a8(neo/neo) with wild-type. Meta-data analysis of differentially-expressed genes revealed 29 unique genes from all tissues –– having enriched GO categories associated with hematopoiesis and hypoxia and KEGG categories of complement, response to infection, and the coagulation cascade –– consistent with dysregulated hematopoietic stem cell fate. Based on transcription factor (TF) profiles in the JASPAR database, and searching for TF-binding sites enriched by Pscan, numerous genes encoding zinc-finger TFs and associated with hematopoietic stem cell functions were identified. We conclude that, in this mouse model, deficient ZIP8-mediated Zn2+ transport affects zinc-finger (e.g. GATA proteins) and other transcription-factors (e.g. TAL1) predominantly in yolk sac, strongly supporting the observed dysmorphogenesis and anemia phenotype. Overall design: mRNA samples of Slc39a8(+/+) and Slc39a8(neo/neo) yolk sacs and placentas at GD13.5, fetal liver, kidney, lung, heart and cerebellum at GD16.5 were profiled in triplicate using Illumina HiSeq.
Project description:Slc39a8 encodes ZIP8, a divalent cation/bicarbonate symporter expressed in pluripotent mouse embryonic stem cells, and therefore ubiquitous in adult tissues; ZIP8 influxes Zn2+, Mn2+ and Fe2+. Slc39a8(neo/neo) knockdown mice exhibit 10-15% of wild-type ZIP8 mRNA and protein levels, and show pleiotropic phenotype of stunted growth, neonatal lethality, multi-organ dysmorphogenesis, and dysregulated hematopoiesis manifested as severe anemia. Herein we performed RNA-seq analysis of gestational day (GD)13.5 yolk sac and placenta, and GD16.5 liver, kidney, lung, heart and cerebellum, comparing Slc39a8(neo/neo) with Slc39a8(+/+) wild-type. Meta-data analysis of differentially-expressed genes revealed 29 unique genes from all tissues - having enriched GO categories associated with hematopoiesis and hypoxia and KEGG categories of complement, response to infection, and coagulation cascade - consistent with dysregulated hematopoietic stem cell fate. Based on transcription factor (TF) profiles in the JASPAR database, and searching for TF-binding sites enriched by Pscan, we identified numerous genes encoding zinc-finger and other TFs associated with hematopoietic stem cell functions. We conclude that, in this mouse model, deficient ZIP8-mediated divalent cation transport affects zinc-finger (e.g. GATA proteins) and other TFs interacting with GATA proteins (e.g. TAL1), predominantly in yolk sac. These data strongly support the phenotype of dysmorphogenesis and anemia seen in Slc39a8(neo/neo) mice in utero.
Project description:Previously this laboratory characterized Slc39a8-encoded ZIP8 as a Zn(2+)/(HCO(3)(-))(2) symporter; yet, the overall physiological importance of ZIP8 at the whole-organism level remains unclear. Herein we describe the phenotype of the hypomorphic Slc39a8(neo/neo) mouse which has retained the neomycin-resistance gene in intron 3, hence causing significantly decreased ZIP8 mRNA and protein levels in embryo, fetus, placenta, yolk sac, and several tissues of neonates. The Slc39a8(neo) allele is associated with diminished zinc and iron uptake in mouse fetal fibroblast and liver-derived cultures; consequently, Slc39a8(neo/neo) newborns exhibit diminished zinc and iron levels in several tissues. Slc39a8(neo/neo) homozygotes from gestational day(GD)-11.5 onward are pale, growth-stunted, and die between GD18.5 and 48 h postnatally. Defects include: severely hypoplastic spleen; hypoplasia of liver, kidney, lung, and lower limbs. Histologically, Slc39a8(neo/neo) neonates show decreased numbers of hematopoietic islands in yolk sac and liver. Low hemoglobin, hematocrit, red cell count, serum iron, and total iron-binding capacity confirmed severe anemia. Flow cytometry of fetal liver cells revealed the erythroid series strikingly affected in the hypomorph. Zinc-dependent 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, required for heme synthesis, was not different between Slc39a8(+/+) and Slc39a8(neo/neo) offspring. To demonstrate further that the mouse phenotype is due to ZIP8 deficiency, we bred Slc39a8(+/neo) with BAC-transgenic BTZIP8-3 line (carrying three extra copies of the Slc39a8 allele); this cross generated viable Slc39a8(neo/neo)_BTZIP8-3(+/+) pups showing none of the above-mentioned congenital defects-proving Slc39a8(neo/neo) causes the described phenotype. Our study demonstrates that ZIP8-mediated zinc transport plays an unappreciated critical role during in utero and neonatal growth, organ morphogenesis, and hematopoiesis.
Project description:SLC39A8 is an evolutionarily highly conserved gene that encodes the ZIP8 metal cation transporter in all vertebrates. SLC39A8 is ubiquitously expressed, including pluripotent embryonic stem cells; SLC39A8 expression occurs in every cell type examined. Uptake of ZIP8-mediated Mn2+, Zn2+, Fe2+, Se4+, and Co2+ represents endogenous functions-moving these cations into the cell. By way of mouse genetic differences, the phenotype of "subcutaneous cadmium-induced testicular necrosis" was assigned to the Cdm locus in the 1970s. This led to identification of the mouse Slc39a8 gene, its most closely related Slc39a14 gene, and creation of Slc39a8-overexpressing, Slc39a8(neo/neo) knockdown, and cell type-specific conditional knockout mouse lines; the Slc39a8(-/-) global knockout mouse is early-embryolethal. Slc39a8(neo/neo) hypomorphs die between gestational day 16.5 and postnatal day 1-exhibiting severe anemia, dysregulated hematopoiesis, hypoplastic spleen, dysorganogenesis, stunted growth, and hypomorphic limbs. Not surprisingly, genome-wide association studies subsequently revealed human SLC39A8-deficiency variants exhibiting striking pleiotropy-defects correlated with clinical disorders in virtually every organ, tissue, and cell-type: numerous developmental and congenital disorders, the immune system, cardiovascular system, kidney, lung, liver, coagulation system, central nervous system, musculoskeletal system, eye, and gastrointestinal tract. Traits with which SLC39A8-deficiency variants are currently associated include Mn2+-deficient hypoglycosylation; numerous birth defects; Leigh syndrome-like mitochondrial redox deficiency; decreased serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels; increased body mass index; greater risk of coronary artery disease, hypotension, cardiovascular death, allergy, ischemic stroke, schizophrenia, Parkinson disease, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn disease, myopia, and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; systemic lupus erythematosus with primary Sjögren syndrome; decreased height; and inadvertent participation in the inflammatory progression of osteoarthritis.
Project description:Previously this laboratory has identified the mouse Slc39a8 gene encoding the ZIP8 transporter, important in cadmium uptake. ZIP8 functions endogenously as a electroneutral Zn(2+)/(HCO(3)(-))(2) symporter, moving both ions into the cell. The overall physiological importance of ZIP8 remains unclear. Herein we describe generation of a mouse line carrying the Slc39a8(neo) allele, containing the Frt-flanked neomycin-resistance (neo) mini-cassette in intron 3 and loxP sites in introns 3 and 6. Cre recombinase functions correctly in Escherichia coli and in adeno-Cre-infected mouse fetal fibroblasts, but does not function in the intact mouse for reasons not clear. Slc39a8(neo) is a hypomorphic allele, because Slc39a8(neo/neo) homozygotes exhibit dramatically decreased ZIP8 expression in embryo, fetus, and visceral yolk sac - in comparison to their littermate wild-type controls. This ZIP8 hypomorph will be instrumental in studying developmental and in utero physiological functions of the ZIP8 transporter.
Project description:Zinc ion (Zn2+) is essential for life; its deficiency in the human body could cause stunted growth, anemia and susceptibility to infection. The Zn transporter ZIP8 (also known as SLC39A8) is an important Zn2+ importer; aberrant Zn2+ influx mediated by ZIP8 can lead to the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis and inflammatory diseases. ZIP8 also mediates the cellular uptake of divalent metal ions including iron, manganese, and the toxic heavy metal cadmium. Individuals with SLC39A8 mutations and transgenic mouse models are starting to reveal the critical role that this gene plays in embryonic development and the metabolism of essential metal ions. Here we summarize our current understanding of ZIP8's function and regulation, at both the molecular and biological levels. We also review the association of ZIP8 with various diseases and its linkage with complex disorders like obesity, hypertension, and schizophrenia as revealed by several large genome-wide association studies.
Project description:The use of avian animal models has contributed to the understanding of many aspects of the ontogeny of the hematopoietic system in vertebrates. However, specific events that occur in the model itself are still unclear. There is a lack of consensus, among previous studies, about which is the intermediate site responsible for expansion and differentiation of hematopoietic cells, and the liver's contribution to the development of this system. Here we aimed to evaluate the presence of hematopoiesis in the yolk sac and liver in chickens, from the stages of intra-aortic clusters in the aorta-genital ridges-mesonephros (AGM) region until hatching, and how it relates to the establishment of the bone marrow. Gallus gallus domesticus L. embryos and their respective yolk sacs at embryonic day 3 (E3) and up to E21 were collected and processed according to standard histological techniques for paraffin embedding. The slides were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Lennert's Giemsa, and Sirius Red at pH 10.2, and investigated by light microscopy. This study demonstrated that the yolk sac was a unique hematopoietic site between E4 and E12. Hematopoiesis occurred in the yolk sac and bone marrow between E13 and E20. The liver showed granulocytic differentiation in the connective tissue of portal spaces at E15 and onwards. The yolk sac showed expansion of erythrocytic and granulocytic lineages from E6 to E19, and E7 to E20, respectively. The results suggest that the yolk sac is the major intermediate erythropoietic and granulopoietic site where expansion and differentiation occur during chicken development. The hepatic hematopoiesis is restricted to the portal spaces and represented by the granulocytic lineage.
Project description:In the adult, platelets are derived from unipotential megakaryocyte colony-forming cells (Meg-CFCs) that arise from bipotential megakaryocyte/erythroid progenitors (MEPs). To better define the developmental origin of the megakaryocyte lineage, several aspects of megakaryopoiesis, including progenitors, maturing megakaryocytes, and circulating platelets, were examined in the murine embryo. We found that a majority of hemangioblast precursors during early gastrulation contains megakaryocyte potential. Combining progenitor assays with immunohistochemical analysis, we identified 2 waves of MEPs in the yolk sac associated with the primitive and definitive erythroid lineages. Primitive MEPs emerge at E7.25 along with megakaryocyte and primitive erythroid progenitors, indicating that primitive hematopoiesis is bilineage in nature. Subsequently, definitive MEPs expand in the yolk sac with Meg-CFCs and definitive erythroid progenitors. The first GP1bbeta-positive cells in the conceptus were identified in the yolk sac at E9.5, while large, highly reticulated platelets were detected in the embryonic bloodstream beginning at E10.5. At this time, the number of megakaryocyte progenitors begins to decline in the yolk sac and expand in the fetal liver. We conclude that the megakaryocyte lineage initially originates from hemangioblast precursors during early gastrulation and is closely associated both with primitive and with definitive erythroid lineages in the yolk sac prior to the transition of hematopoiesis to intraembryonic sites.
Project description:The interaction of the hormone erythropoietin and its receptor (EpoR) is though to be required for normal hematopoiesis. To define the role of EpoR in this process, the murine EpoR was disrupted by homologous recombination. Mice lacking the EpoR died in utero at embryonic day 11-12.5 with severe anemia. Embryonic erythropoiesis was markedly diminished, while fetal liver hematopoiesis was blocked at the proerythroblast stage. Other cell types known to express EpoR, including megakaryocytes, mast, and neural cells were morphologically normal. Reverse transcription-coupled PCR analysis of RNA from embryonic yolk sac, peripheral blood, and fetal liver demonstrated near normal transcripts levels for EKLF, thrombopoietin (Tpo), c-MPL, GATA-1, GATA-2, and alpha- and embryonic beta H1-globin but non for adult beta maj-globin. While colony-forming unit-erythroid (CFU-E) and burst-forming unit-erythroid (BFU-E) colonies were not present in cultures derived from EpoR-/- liver or yolk sac cells, hemoglobin-containing BFU-E colonies were detected in cultures treated with recombinant Tpo and Kit ligand or with Tpo and interleukin 3 and 11. Rescued BFU-E colonies expressed adult beta-globin and c-MPL and appeared morphologically normal. Thus, erythroid progenitors are formed in vivo in mice lacking the EpoR, and our studies demonstrate that a signal transmitted through the Tpo receptor c-MPL stimulates proliferation and terminal differentiation of these progenitors in vitro.
Project description:TAL1 plays pivotal roles in vascular and hematopoietic developments through the complex with LMO2 and GATA1. Hemangioblasts, which have a differentiation potential for both endothelial and hematopoietic lineages, arise in the primitive streak and migrate into the yolk sac to form blood islands, where primitive hematopoiesis occurs. ZFAT (a zinc-finger gene in autoimmune thyroid disease susceptibility region/an immune-related transcriptional regulator containing 18 C(2)H(2)-type zinc-finger domains and one AT-hook) was originally identified as an immune-related transcriptional regulator containing 18 C(2)H(2)-type zinc-finger domains and one AT-hook, and is highly conserved among species. ZFAT is thought to be a critical transcription factor involved in immune-regulation and apoptosis; however, developmental roles for ZFAT remain unknown. Here we show that Zfat-deficient (Zfat(-/-)) mice are embryonic-lethal, with impaired differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cells in blood islands, where ZFAT is exactly expressed. Expression levels of Tal1, Lmo2, and Gata1 in Zfat(-/-) yolk sacs are much reduced compared with those of wild-type mice, and ChIP-PCR analysis revealed that ZFAT binds promoter regions for these genes in vivo. Furthermore, profound reduction in TAL1, LMO2, and GATA1 protein expressions are observed in Zfat(-/-) blood islands. Taken together, these results suggest that ZFAT is indispensable for mouse embryonic development and functions as a critical transcription factor for primitive hematopoiesis through direct-regulation of Tal1, Lmo2, and Gata1. Elucidation of ZFAT functions in hematopoiesis might lead to a better understanding of transcriptional networks in differentiation and cellular programs of hematopoietic lineage and provide useful information for applied medicine in stem cell therapy.