Genomics

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A single nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter of a hairpin RNA contributes to Alternaria leaf spot resistance in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.)


ABSTRACT: Apple leaf spot caused by the Alternaria alternata f. sp. mali (ALT1) fungus is one of the most devastating diseases of apple (Malus × domestica). We identified a hairpin RNA (hpRNA)-mediated small RNAs, MdhpRNA277, from apple (cv. ‘Golden Delicious’) that is induced by infection with ALT1. MdhpRNA277 produces mdm-siR277-1 and mdm-siR277-2, which target five R genes, MdRNL1, MdRNL2, MdRNL3, MdRNL4, and MdRNL5, that are expressed at high levels in the resistant apple variety ‘Hanfu’ and at low levels in the susceptible variety ‘Golden Delicious’ following ALT1 infection. MdhpRNA277 is strongly induced in ‘Golden Delicious’ but was not induced in ‘Hanfu’ following ALT1 inoculation. The promoter activity of MdhpRNA277 was much stronger in ‘Golden Delicious’ than in ‘Hanfu’ after ALT1 inoculation. We identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the MdhpRNA277 promoter region between the susceptible variety ‘Golden Delicious’ (pMdhpRNA277-GD) and resistant variety ‘Hanfu’ (pMdhpRNA277-HF). The transcription factor MdWHy binds to pMdhpRNA277-GD, but not to pMdhpRNA277-HF. Transgenic ‘GL-3’ apple lines expressing pMdhpRNA277-GD: MdhpRNA277 were more susceptible to ALT1 infection than were those expressing pMdhpRNA277-HF:MdhpRNA277 due to induced mdm-siR277 accumulation and low levels of expression of the five target R genes. The failure of MdWHy to bind to pMdhpRNA277-HF might contribute to the low levels of MdhpRNA277 and mdm-siR277-1/-2 expression and the high levels of R gene expression and resistance to Alternaria leaf spot in resistant apple varieties. We confirmed that the SNP in pMdhpRNA277 is associated with Alternaria leaf spot resistance by analyzing the progeny of three additional crosses. The SNP identified in this study could be used as a marker to distinguish between apple varieties that are resistant or susceptible to Alternaria leaf spot. Overall design: Small RNAs were induced by Alternaria alternaria f. sp. mali (ALT1) infection in apple by deep sequencing

INSTRUMENT(S): Illumina HiSeq 2500 (Malus domestica)

ORGANISM(S): Malus domestica  

SUBMITTER: Tianzhong Li  

PROVIDER: GSE115664 | GEO | 2018-12-25

REPOSITORIES: GEO

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Publications

A Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism in the Promoter of a Hairpin RNA Contributes to <i>Alternaria alternata</i> Leaf Spot Resistance in Apple (<i>Malus</i> × <i>domestica</i>).

Zhang Qiulei Q   Ma Chao C   Zhang Yi Y   Gu Zhaoyu Z   Li Wei W   Duan Xuwei X   Wang Shengnan S   Hao Li L   Wang Yuanhua Y   Wang Shengyuan S   Li Tianzhong T  

The Plant cell 20180731 8


Apple leaf spot caused by the <i>Alternaria alternata</i> f. sp <i>mali</i> (ALT1) fungus is one of the most devastating diseases of apple (<i>Malus</i> × <i>domestica</i>). We identified a hairpin RNA (<i>hpRNA</i>) named <i>MdhpRNA277</i> that produces small RNAs and is induced by ALT1 infection in 'Golden Delicious' apple. <i>MdhpRNA277</i> produces mdm-siR277-1 and mdm-siR277-2, which target five resistance (<i>R</i>) genes that are expressed at high levels in resistant apple variety 'Hanfu'  ...[more]

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