Project description:Cyanobacteria have evolved various strategies to sense and adapt to biotic and abiotic stresses including active movement. Motility in cyanobacteria utilizing the type IV pili (TFP) is useful to cope with changing environmental conditions. The model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (hereafter named Synechocystis) exhibits motility via TFP called thick pili, and uses it to seek out favorable light/nutrition or escape from unfavorable conditions. Recently, a number of studies on Synechocystis thick pili have been undertaken. Molecular approaches support the role of the pilin in motility, cell adhesion, metal utilization, and natural competence in Synechocystis. This review summarizes the most recent studies on the function of thick pili as well as their formation and regulation in this cyanobacterium.
Project description:Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6714 is a unicellular cyanobacterium closely related to the popular model organism Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. A combination of PacBio SMRT and Illumina GAIIx data results in a highly accurate finished genome sequence that provides a reliable resource for further comparative analyses.
Project description:The study of the primary metabolism of cyanobacteria in response to light conditions is important for environmental biology because cyanobacteria are widely distributed among various ecological niches. Cyanobacteria uniquely possess circadian rhythms, with central oscillators consisting from three proteins, KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC. The two-component histidine kinase SasA/Hik8 and response regulator RpaA transduce the circadian signal from KaiABC to control gene expression. Here, we generated a strain overexpressing rpaA in a unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The rpaA-overexpressing strain showed pleiotropic phenotypes, including slower growth, aberrant degradation of an RNA polymerase sigma factor SigE after the light-to-dark transition, and higher accumulation of sugar catabolic enzyme transcripts under dark conditions. Metabolome analysis revealed delayed glycogen degradation, decreased sugar phosphates and organic acids in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and increased amino acids under dark conditions. The current results demonstrate that in this cyanobacterium, RpaA is a regulator of primary metabolism and involved in adaptation to changes in light conditions.
Project description:A two-step method is reported for preparation of genomic DNA from the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis that can be performed with minimal equipment and reagents in about an hour. High yields of genetic material can be obtained (200-450?ng/?l) with reasonable purity. A further ethanol precipitation step can be included but is not necessary if template is simply required for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or digestion. This new protocol is helpful for amplification of genes of interest in early-stage research projects and for low throughput screening of transformants. It is more reliable than colony PCR of Synechocystis cultures, and less involved and cheaper than existing clean-DNA preparation methods. It represents an unusually simple and reliable extraction protocol for the growing body of research making use of this cyanobacterium.
Project description:The unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 has been widely used as a photoautotrophic host for synthetic biology studies. However, as a green chassis to capture CO2 for biotechnological applications, the genetic toolbox for Synechocystis 6803 is still a limited factor.We systematically characterized endogenous genetic elements of Synechocystis 6803, including promoters, ribosome binding sites, transcription terminators, and plasmids. Expression from twelve native promoters was compared by measuring fluorescence from the reporter protein EYFP in an identical setup, exhibiting an 8000-fold range of promoter activities. Moreover, we measured the strength of twenty native ribosome binding sites and eight native terminators, indicating their influence on the expression of the reporter genes. In addition, two shuttle vectors, pCA-UC118 and pCB-SC101, capable of replication in both Synechocystis 6803 and E. coli were constructed. Expression of reporter proteins were significantly enhanced in cells containing these new plasmids, thus providing superior gene expression platforms in this cyanobacterium.The results of this study provide useful and well characterized native tools for bioengineering work in the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803.
Project description:Cyanobacteria exhibit a great capacity to adapt to different environmental conditions through changes in gene expression. Although this plasticity has been extensively studied in the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, a detailed analysis of the coordinated transcriptional adaption across varying conditions is lacking. Here, we report a meta-analysis of 756 individual microarray measurements conducted in 37 independent studies-the most comprehensive study of the Synechocystis transcriptome to date. Using stringent statistical evaluation, we characterized the coordinated adaptation of Synechocystis' gene expression on systems level. Evaluation of the data revealed that the photosynthetic apparatus is subjected to greater changes in expression than other cellular components. Nevertheless, network analyses indicated a significant degree of transcriptional coordination of photosynthesis and various metabolic processes, and revealed the tight co-regulation of components of photosystems I, II and phycobilisomes. Detailed inspection of the integrated data led to the discovery a variety of regulatory patterns and novel putative photosynthetic genes. Intriguingly, global clustering analyses suggested contrasting transcriptional response of metabolic and regulatory genes stress to conditions. The integrated Synechocystis transcriptome can be accessed and interactively analyzed via the CyanoEXpress website (http://cyanoexpress.sysbiolab.eu).
Project description:Biophotovoltaic devices utilize photosynthetic organisms such as the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (Synechocystis) to generate current for power or hydrogen production from light. These devices have been improved by both architecture engineering and genetic engineering of the phototrophic organism. However, genetic approaches are limited by lack of understanding of cellular mechanisms of electron transfer from internal metabolism to the cell exterior. Type IV pili have been implicated in extracellular electron transfer (EET) in some species of heterotrophic bacteria. Furthermore, conductive cell surface filaments have been reported for cyanobacteria, including Synechocystis. However, it remains unclear whether these filaments are type IV pili and whether they are involved in EET. Herein, a mediatorless electrochemical setup is used to compare the electrogenic output of wild-type Synechocystis to that of a ?pilD mutant that cannot produce type IV pili. No differences in photocurrent, i.e., current in response to illumination, are detectable. Furthermore, measurements of individual pili using conductive atomic force microscopy indicate these structures are not conductive. These results suggest that pili are not required for EET by Synechocystis, supporting a role for shuttling of electrons via soluble redox mediators or direct interactions between the cell surface and extracellular substrates.
Project description:Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is a widely used model organism in basic research and biofuel biotechnology application. Here, we report the genomic sequence of chromosome and seven plasmids of a glucose-tolerant, non-motile strain originated from ATCC 27184, GT-G, in use at Guangzhou. Through high-throughput genome re-sequencing and verification by Sanger sequencing, eight novel variants were identified in its chromosome and plasmids. The eight novel variants, especially the five non-silent mutations might have interesting effects on the phenotype of GT-G strains, for example the truncated Sll1895 and Slr0322 protein. These resequencing data provide background information for further research and application based on the GT-G strain and also provide evidence to study the evolution and divergence of Synechocystis 6803 globally.
Project description:A new sequence-specific endonuclease from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis species PCC 6701 has been purified and characterized. This enzyme, SecI, is unique in recognizing the nucleotide sequence: 5' -CCNNGG-3' 3' -GGNNCC-5' and cleaves it at the position indicated by the symbol. Two other restriction endonucleases, SecII and SecIII, found in this organism are isoschizomers of MspI and MstII, respectively.
Project description:Two cAMP receptor proteins (CRPs), Sycrp1 (encoded by sll1371) and Sycrp2 (encoded by sll1924), exist in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. Previous studies have demonstrated that Sycrp1 has binding affinity for cAMP and is involved in motility by regulating the formation of pili. However, the function of Sycrp2 remains unknown. Here, we report that sycrp2 disruption results in the loss of motility of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, and that the phenotype can be recovered by reintroducing the sycrp2 gene into the genome of sycrp2-disrupted mutants. Electron microscopy showed that the sycrp2-disrupted mutant lost the pilus apparatus on the cell surface, resulting in a lack of cell motility. Furthermore, the transcript level of the pilA9-pilA11 operon (essential for cell motility and regulated by the cAMP receptor protein Sycrp1) was markedly decreased in sycrp2-disrupted mutants compared with the wild-type strain. Moreover, yeast two-hybrid analysis and a pulldown assay demonstrated that Sycrp2 interacted with Sycrp1 to form a heterodimer and that Sycrp1 and Sycrp2 interacted with themselves to form homodimers. Gel mobility shift assays revealed that Sycrp1 specifically binds to the upstream region of pilA9 Together, these findings indicate that in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, Sycrp2 regulates the formation of pili and cell motility by interacting with Sycrp1.IMPORTANCE cAMP receptor proteins (CRPs) are widely distributed in cyanobacteria and play important roles in regulating gene expression. Although many cyanobacterial species have two cAMP receptor-like proteins, the functional links between them are unknown. Here, we found that Sycrp2 in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 is essential for twitching motility and that it interacts with Sycrp1, a known cAMP receptor protein involved with twitching motility. Our findings indicate that the two cAMP receptor-like proteins in cyanobacteria do not have functional redundancy but rather work together.