T cell-expressed proprotein convertase furin is essential for maintenance of peripheral tolerance
ABSTRACT: Furin is a proprotein convertase induced in activated T cells, reported to processes the anti-inflammatory cytokine TGFb-1. Herein, we show that conditional deletion of furin in T cells allowed for normal T cell development but impaired the function of regulatory T cells and effector cells, which produced less TGFb-1. Furin-deficient Treg cells, were less protective in a T cell transfer colitis model and failed to induce Foxp3 in normal T cells. Furin-deficient effector cells were inherently overly active and were resistant to suppressive activity of wild-type Tregs. Thus, our results indicate that furin is indispensable in maintaining peripheral tolerance, which is due, at least in part, to its nonredundant, essential function in regulating TGFb-1 production. Targeting furin has emerged as a strategy in malignant and infectious disease. The current work suggests that inhibiting furin might activate immune responses, but may result in a breakdown in peripheral tolerance. Overall design: Naive CD4+ CD62L+ CD44- T cells were isolated from Fur flox/flox and CD4 cre Fur flox/flox mice. Replicated samples were achieved for wild type and knockout conditions.
Project description:Furin is a proprotein convertase induced in activated T cells, reported to processes the anti-inflammatory cytokine TGFb-1. Herein, we show that conditional deletion of furin in T cells allowed for normal T cell development but impaired the function of regulatory T cells and effector cells, which produced less TGFb-1. Furin-deficient Treg cells, were less protective in a T cell transfer colitis model and failed to induce Foxp3 in normal T cells. Furin-deficient effector cells were inherently overly active and were resistant to suppressive activity of wild-type Tregs. Thus, our results indicate that furin is indispensable in maintaining peripheral tolerance, which is due, at least in part, to its nonredundant, essential function in regulating TGFb-1 production. Targeting furin has emerged as a strategy in malignant and infectious disease. The current work suggests that inhibiting furin might activate immune responses, but may result in a breakdown in peripheral tolerance. Experiment Overall Design: Naive CD4+ CD62L+ CD44- T cells were isolated from Fur flox/flox and CD4 cre Fur flox/flox mice. Replicated samples were achieved for wild type and knockout conditions.
Project description:Analysis of T-cells lacking the proprotein convertase furin. Proprotein convertases promote the proteolytic maturation of proproteins. Furin is induced in activated T-cells. Results provide insight into the function of furin in T-cells. CD4+CD62L+CD44- naive, CD4+CD62L-CD44+ memory and CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells were isolated from Fur flox/flox and CD4 cre Fur flox/flox mice. Naive T cells were activated via TCR. Total RNA was extracted from all cells and hybridized to Affymetrix microarrays.
Project description:Purified naive (CD4+ CD62L+ CD44-) T cells from 10-11 weeks old T cell specific Furin knockout (CD4-cre fur flox/flox) and littermate wild type (fur flox/flox) control mice were profiled for gene expression using Affymetrix MOE 430 2.0 microarray platform.
Project description:Furin is one of seven proprotein convertase family members that promote proteolytic maturation of proproteins. It is induced in activated T cells and is reported to process a variety of substrates including the anti-inflammatory cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 (refs 2-4), but the non-redundant functions of furin versus other proprotein convertases in T cells are unclear. Here we show that conditional deletion of furin in T cells allowed for normal T-cell development but impaired the function of regulatory and effector T cells, which produced less TGF-beta1. Furin-deficient T regulatory (Treg) cells were less protective in a T-cell transfer colitis model and failed to induce Foxp3 in normal T cells. Additionally, furin-deficient effector cells were inherently over-active and were resistant to suppressive activity of wild-type Treg cells. Thus, our results indicate that furin is indispensable in maintaining peripheral tolerance, which is due, at least in part, to its non-redundant, essential function in regulating TGF-beta1 production. Targeting furin has emerged as a strategy in malignant and infectious disease. Our results suggest that inhibiting furin might activate immune responses, but may result in a breakdown in peripheral tolerance.
Project description:The proprotein convertase enzyme FURIN processes immature pro-proteins into functional end- products. FURIN is upregulated in activated immune cells and it regulates T-cell dependent peripheral tolerance and the Th1/Th2 balance. FURIN also promotes the infectivity of pathogens by activating bacterial toxins and by processing viral proteins. Here, we evaluated the role of FURIN in LysM+ myeloid cells in vivo. Mice with a conditional deletion of FURIN in their myeloid cells (LysMCre-fur(fl/fl)) were healthy and showed unchanged proportions of neutrophils and macrophages. Instead, LysMCre-fur(fl/fl) mice had elevated serum IL-1β levels and reduced numbers of splenocytes. An LPS injection resulted in accelerated mortality, elevated serum pro-inflammatory cytokines and upregulated numbers of pro-inflammatory macrophages. A genome-wide gene expression analysis revealed the overexpression of several pro-inflammatory genes in resting FURIN-deficient macrophages. Moreover, FURIN inhibited Nos2 and promoted the expression of Arg1, which implies that FURIN regulates the M1/M2-type macrophage balance. FURIN was required for the normal production of the bioactive TGF-β1 cytokine, but it inhibited the maturation of the inflammation-provoking TACE and Caspase-1 enzymes. In conclusion, FURIN has an anti-inflammatory function in LysM+ myeloid cells in vivo. Overall design: Two biological replicates of FURIN KO and WT peritoneal macrophages were left unstimulated or were stimulated for 1, 4 and 24 hours with LPS.
Project description:The proprotein convertases (PCs) furin and proprotein convertase 1/3 (PC1) cleave substrates at dibasic residues along the eukaryotic secretory/endocytic pathway. PCs are evolutionarily related to bacterial subtilisin and are synthesized as zymogens. They contain N-terminal propeptides (PRO) that function as dedicated catalysts that facilitate folding and regulate activation of cognate proteases through multiple-ordered cleavages. Previous studies identified a histidine residue (His69) that functions as a pH sensor in the propeptide of furin (PRO(FUR)), which regulates furin activation at pH~6.5 within the trans-Golgi network. Although this residue is conserved in the PC1 propeptide (PRO(PC1)), PC1 nonetheless activates at pH~5.5 within the dense core secretory granules. Here, we analyze the mechanism by which PRO(FUR) regulates furin activation and examine why PRO(FUR) and PRO(PC1) differ in their pH-dependent activation. Sequence analyses establish that while both PRO(FUR) and PRO(PC1) are enriched in histidines when compared with cognate catalytic domains and prokaryotic orthologs, histidine content in PRO(FUR) is ~2-fold greater than that in PRO(PC1), which may augment its pH sensitivity. Spectroscopy and molecular dynamics establish that histidine protonation significantly unfolds PRO(FUR) when compared to PRO(PC1) to enhance autoproteolysis. We further demonstrate that PRO(FUR) and PRO(PC1) are sufficient to confer organelle sensing on folding and activation of their cognate proteases. Swapping propeptides between furin and PC1 transfers pH-dependent protease activation in a propeptide-dictated manner in vitro and in cells. Since prokaryotes lack organelles and eukaryotic PCs evolved from propeptide-dependent, not propeptide-independent prokaryotic subtilases, our results suggest that histidine enrichment may have enabled propeptides to evolve to exploit pH gradients to activate within specific organelles.
Project description:The proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin enzymes proteolytically convert immature proproteins into bioactive molecules, and thereby they serve as key regulators of cellular homeostasis. The archetype proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin, FURIN, is a direct target gene of the IL-12/STAT4 pathway and it is upregulated in Th1 cells. We have previously demonstrated that FURIN expression in T cells critically regulates the maintenance of peripheral immune tolerance and the functional maturation of pro-TGF-?1 in vivo, but FURIN's role in cell-mediated immunity and Th polarization has remained elusive. In this article, we show that T cell-expressed FURIN is essential for host resistance against a prototypic Th1 pathogen, Toxoplasma gondii, and for the generation of pathogen-specific Th1 lymphocytes, including Th1-IL-10 cells. FURIN-deficient Th cells instead show elevated expression of IL-4R subunit ? on cell surface, sensitized IL-4/STAT6 signaling, and a propensity to polarize toward the Th2 phenotype. By exploring FURIN-interacting proteins in Jurkat T cells with Strep-Tag purification and mass spectrometry, we further identify an association with a cytoskeleton modifying Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate/dedicator of cytokinesis 2 protein complex and unravel that FURIN promotes F-actin polymerization, which has previously been shown to downregulate IL-4R subunit ? cell surface expression and promote Th1 responses. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that in addition to peripheral immune tolerance, T cell-expressed FURIN is also a central regulator of cell-mediated immunity and Th1/2 cell balance.
Project description:The process of follicular development involves communications between oocyte and surrounding granulosa cells. FURIN is a member of the family of proprotein convertases that is involved in the activation of a large number of zymogens and proproteins by cleavage at its recognition motif. To investigate the functions of FURIN in female fertility, furinflox/flox (furfl/fl) mice were crossed with Zp3-Cre mice and Gdf9-Cre, respectively, to achieve oocyte-specific disruption of FURIN. Here we report for the first time that FURIN is dispensable for primordial follicle maintenance and activation but important for early secondary follicular development, as ablation of FURIN in oocytes caused failure of follicle development beyond the type 4 and/or 5a follicles in mutant mice, resulting in increased number of early secondary follicles and the severely decreased number of mature follicles, thus anovulation and infertility. We also found that the developmental arrest of early secondary follicles might be rooted in the loss of the mature form of ADAMTS1 (85-kDa prodomain truncated) and compromised proliferation of granulosa cells in mutant mice. Taken together, our data highlight the importance of FURIN in follicle development beyond the early secondary follicle stage and indicate that compromised FURIN function leads to follicular dysplasia and female infertility in mice.
Project description:Proprotein convertases (PCSK) have a critical role in the body homeostasis as enzymes responsible for processing precursor proteins into their mature forms. FURIN, the first characterized member of the mammalian PCSK family, is overexpressed in multiple malignancies and the inhibition of its activity has been considered potential cancer treatment. FURIN has also an important function in the adaptive immunity, since its deficiency in T cells causes an impaired peripheral immune tolerance and accelerates immune responses. We addressed whether deleting FURIN from the immune cells would strengthen anticancer responses by subjecting mouse strains lacking FURIN from either T cells or macrophages and granulocytes to the DMBA/TPA two-stage skin carcinogenesis protocol. Unexpectedly, deficiency of FURIN in T cells resulted in enhanced and accelerated development of tumors, whereas FURIN deletion in macrophages and granulocytes had no effect. The epidermises of T-cell-specific FURIN deficient mice were significantly thicker with more proliferating Ki67+ cells. In contrast, there were no differences in the numbers of the T cells. The flow cytometric analyses of T-cell populations in skin draining lymph nodes showed that FURIN T-cell KO mice have an inherent upregulation of early activation marker CD69 as well as more CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ positive T regulatory cells. In the early phase of tumor promotion, T cells from the T-cell-specific FURIN knockout animals produced more interferon gamma, whereas at later stage the production of Th2- and Th17-type cytokines was more prominent than in wild-type controls. In conclusion, while PCSK inhibitors are promising therapeutics in cancer treatment, our results show that inhibiting FURIN specifically in T cells may promote squamous skin cancer development.
Project description:Furin is a proprotein convertase which activates a variety of regulatory proteins in the constitutive exocytic and endocytic pathway. The effect of genetic ablation of fur was studied in the endocrine pancreas to define its physiological function in the regulated secretory pathway. Pdx1-Cre/loxP furin KO mice show decreased secretion of insulin and impaired processing of known PC2 substrates like proPC2 and proinsulin II. Both secretion and PC2 activity depend on granule acidification, which was demonstrated to be significantly decreased in furin-deficient beta cells by using the acidotrophic agent 3-(2,4-dinitroanilino)-3'amino-N-methyldipropylamine (DAMP). Ac45, an accessory subunit of the proton pump V-ATPase, was investigated as a candidate substrate. Ac45 is highly expressed in islets of Langerhans and furin was able to cleave Ac45 ex vivo. Furthermore, the exact cleavage site was determined. In addition, reduced regulated secretion and proinsulin II processing could be obtained in the insulinoma cell line betaTC3 by downregulation of either furin or Ac45. Together, these data establish an important role for furin in regulated secretion, particularly in intragranular acidification most likely due to impaired processing of Ac45.