Effect of Ibrutinib on the gene expression of CD4+ cells from patients with Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL)
ABSTRACT: Interleukin-2-inducible T-cell kinase (ITK) has essential roles in T-cell proliferation in response to T-cell receptor stimulation and promotes Th2 and Th17 cell differentiation while suppressing Treg differentiation. ITK inhibitors have not previously been investigated for their ability to modify differentiation of either normal or malignant human CD4+ T-cells. We demonstrate that normal tonsillar CD4+ T-cell differentiation to Tfh and Th17 cells is inhibited by ITK inhibitors (ITKi) while Treg differentiation is promoted. Purified CD4+ T-cells from two cases of peripheral T-cell lymphoma demonstrated the capacity to proliferate and differentiate to Tfh, Th17 or Treg subsets in vitro. Gene expression profiling showed differences in Th-cell signature genes between normal and lymphoma cells. ITKi promoted Treg differentiation while suppressing Tfh and Th17 differentiation. The majority of CD4+ T-cells within lymph node sections did not express BCL6 compatible with the in vitro results being due to differentiation and not outgrowth already differentiated populations. The novel concept suggested by this report is that some cases of PTCL-NOS show a capacity to differentiate, which can be modified by ITKi for potential therapeutic benefit. Overall design: Whole genome gene expression was analysed in normal and lymphoma cells with or without Interleukin-2-inducible T-cell kinase inhibitor
INSTRUMENT(S): Agilent-072363 SurePrint G3 Human GE v3 8x60K Microarray 039494 [Feature Number Version]
Project description:Treatment of peripheral T-cell lymphoma is inadequate but investigation of their genetics demonstrated that some are derived from normal follicular helper (Tfh) T-cells. The sanroque mouse strain bears a mutation that increases Tfh cell number and heterozygous animals (Roquinsan/+) develop lymphomas similar to human Tfh lymphoma. We have begun to characterise the lymphomas by whole exome sequencing and gene expression profiling. Interleukin-2-inducible kinase (ITK) is expressed in Tfh lymphoma and ibrutinib is a small molecule inhibitor of mouse and human ITK and a potential therapeutic agent. A preclinical study of ibrutinib in established lymphoma was then carried out and showed lymphoma regression in 8/12 (67%) of mice. Using T2-weighted MRI to assess lymph node volume and diffusion weighted MRI scanning as a measure of function, we showed that treatment increased mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) suggesting cell death, and that change in ADC following treatment correlated with change in lymphoma volume. We suggest that heterozygous sanroque mice produce genetically diverse Tfh cell derived lymphomas in an immunocompetent animal and are a useful model system for preclinical testing. Overall design: Comparison of Wild type mice with Roquinsan/+ mice
Project description:Roquin proteins are required to preclude spontaneous T cell activation and aberrant T follicular helper (Tfh) or T helper 17 (Th17) differentiation. Here, we show that deletion of Roquin encoding alleles in regulatory T cells (Tregs) also caused the activation of conventional T cells. These Tregs exhibited a follicular Treg phenotype, CD25 downregulation and could not protect from colitis. Mechanistically, Roquin was required for full expression and activity of Pten and Foxo1, two essential signaling molecules in Tregs and effector T cells. Roquin upregulated Pten by interfering with miR-17~92 binding to an overlapping cis-element in the Pten 3' UTR and downregulated the Foxo1-specific E3 ubiquitin ligase Itch. Loss of Roquin enhanced mTOR signaling and global protein synthesis, while inhibition of PI3K or mTOR in Roquin-deficient CD4+ T cells corrected increased Tfh and Th17 differentiation. Thereby, the control of PI3K-mTOR signaling by Roquin prevents autoimmunity through T cell-intrinsic and Treg-mediated regulation. Overall design: Examination of transcriptome and ribosome occupancy in MEF and T cells upon Roquin expression and inhibition. Examination of Roquin binding sites in the mouse transcriptome of MEF cells. Examination of transcriptome in CD25+ and CD25- Treg cells from WT and Roquin DKO mice.
Project description:The presence of the PTPN22 risk variant (1858T) is associated to several autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Despite a number of studies exploring the function of PTPN22 in T cells, the exact impact of the PTPN22 risk variant on T cell function in humans is still unclear. In this study, using RNA sequencing, we show that, upon TCR-activation, naïve CD4+ T cells carrying two PTPN22 risk alleles overexpress a limited number of genes including CFLAR and 4-1BB important for cytotoxic T cell differentiation. Moreover, an increased number of cytotoxic EOMES+ CD4+ T cells were observed in PTPN22 risk allele carriers, which negatively correlated with a decreased number of naïve T cells in older individuals. No difference in the frequency of other CD4+ T cell subsets (Th1, Th17, Tfh, Treg) was observed in PTPN22 risk allele carriers and Treg suppressive capacity was not altered. Finally, in synovial fluids of RA patients, an accumulation of EOMES+ CD4+ T cells was observed with a more pronounced production of Perforin-1 in PTPN22 risk allele carriers. Altogether, our data provide a novel mechanism of action of PTPN22 risk variant on CD4+ T-cell differentiation and identify EOMES+ CD4+ T cell as a relevant T cell subset in RA. Overall design: Healthy blood donors were selected based PTPN22 genotype, and RNA-sequencing was done on CD4 T cells
Project description:After activation, CD4+ helper T (Th) cells differentiate into distinct effector subsets. Although chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 5-expressing T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are important in humoral immunity, their developmental regulation is unclear. Here we show that Tfh cells had a distinct gene expression profile and developed in vivo independently of the Th1 or Th2 cell lineages. Tfh cell generation was regulated by ICOS ligand (ICOSL) expressed on B cells and was dependent on interleukin-21 (IL-21), IL-6, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3. However, unlike Th17 cells, differentiation of Tfh cells did not require transforming growth factor b (TGF-b) or Th17-specific orphan nuclear receptors RORa and RORg in vivo. Finally, naive T cells activated in vitro in the presence of IL-21 but not TGF-b signaling preferentially acquired Tfh gene expression and promoted germinal-center reactions in vivo. This study thus demonstrates that Tfh is a distinct Th cell lineage. Overall design: Splenic CD4+CXCR5+ T cells were isolated from KLH-immunized mice and restimulated with anti-CD3 for 4 hours before total RNA preparation. Affymetrix gene chips were used to analyze their gene expression. Tfh, Th1, Th2, and Th17 examined
Project description:T follicular helper cells (TFH) are critical for the development and maintenance of germinal centers (GC) and humoral immune responses. During chronic HIV/SIV infection TFH accumulate, possibly as a result of antigen persistence. The HIV/SIV-associated TFH expansion may also reflect lack of regulation by suppressive follicular regulatory CD4+ T-cells (TFR). TFR are natural regulatory T-cells (TREG) that migrate into the follicle and, similarly to TFH, up-regulate CXCR5, Bcl-6, and PD1. Here we identified TFR as CD4+CD25+FoxP3+CXCR5+PD1hiBcl-6+ within lymph nodes of rhesus macaques (RM) and confirmed their localization within the GC by immunohistochemistry. RNA sequencing showed that TFR exhibit a distinct transcriptional profile with shared features of both TFH and TREG, including intermediate expression of FoxP3, Bcl-6, PRDM1, IL-10, and IL-21. In healthy, SIV-uninfected RM, we observed a negative correlation between frequencies of TFR and both TFH and GC B-cells as well as levels of CD4+ T-cell proliferation. Following SIV infection, the TFR/TFH ratio was reduced with no change in the frequency of TREG or TFR within the total CD4+ T-cell pool. Finally, we examined whether higher levels of direct virus infection of TFR were responsible for their relative depletion post-SIV infection. We found that TFH, TFR and TREG sorted from SIV- infected RM harbor comparable levels of cell-associated viral DNA. Our data suggests that TFR may contribute to the regulation and proliferation of TFH and GC B-cells in vivo and that a decreased TFR/TFH ratio in chronic SIV infection may lead to unchecked expansion of both TFH and GC B-cells. TFR, TFH, TREG and bulk CD4 cells were sorted from spleens of 5 uninfected and 5 infected RM.
Project description:After activation, CD4+ helper T (Th) cells differentiate; into distinct effector subsets. Although chemokine; (C-X-C motif) receptor 5-expressing T follicular; helper (Tfh) cells are important in humoral immunity,; their developmental regulation is unclear. Here we; show that Tfh cells had a distinct gene expression; profile and developed in vivo independently of the; Th1 or Th2 cell lineages. Tfh cell generation was regulated; by ICOS ligand (ICOSL) expressed on B cells; and was dependent on interleukin-21 (IL-21), IL-6,; and signal transducer and activator of transcription; 3. However, unlike Th17 cells, differentiation of Tfh; cells did not require transforming growth factor; b (TGF-b) or Th17-specific orphan nuclear receptors; RORa and RORg in vivo. Finally, naive T cells activated; in vitro in the presence of IL-21 but not; TGF-b signaling preferentially acquired Tfh gene; expression and promoted germinal-center reactions; in vivo. This study thus demonstrates that Tfh is a; distinct Th cell lineage. Experiment Overall Design: Splenic CD4+CXCR5+ T cells were isolated from KLH-immunized mice and restimulated with anti-CD3 for 4 hours before total RNA preparation. Affymetrix gene chips were used to analyze their gene expression.
Project description:Leber2016 - Expanded model of Tfh-Tfr
differentiation - Helicobacter pylori infection
The parameters used in the model were
obtained from experiments conducted by the authors, previous
parameter optimisation carried out in the paper using particle
swarm and genetic algorithms.
This model is described in the article:
Bistability analyses of CD4+
T follicular helper and regulatory cells during Helicobacter
Leber A, Abedi V, Hontecillas R,
Viladomiu M, Hoops S, Ciupe S, Caughman J, Andrew T,
J. Theor. Biol. 2016 Jun; 398:
T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are a highly plastic subset
of CD4+ T cells specialized in providing B cell help and
promoting inflammatory and effector responses during infectious
and immune-mediate diseases. Helicobacter pylori is the
dominant member of the gastric microbiota and exerts both
beneficial and harmful effects on the host. Chronic
inflammation in the context of H. pylori has been linked to an
upregulation in T helper (Th)1 and Th17 CD4+ T cell phenotypes,
controlled in part by the cytokine, interleukin-21. This study
investigates the differentiation and regulation of Tfh cells,
major producers of IL-21, in the immune response to H. pylori
challenge. To better understand the conditions influencing the
promotion and inhibition of a chronically elevated Tfh
population, we used top-down and bottom-up approaches to
develop computational models of Tfh and T follicular regulatory
(Tfr) cell differentiation. Stability analysis was used to
characterize the presence of two bi-stable steady states in the
calibrated Tfh/Tfr models. Stochastic simulation was used to
illustrate the ability of the parameter set to dictate two
distinct behavioral patterns. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis
helped identify the importance of various parameters on the
establishment of Tfh and Tfr cell populations. The core network
model was expanded into a more comprehensive and predictive
model by including cytokine production and signaling pathways.
From the expanded network, the interaction between TGFB-Induced
Factor Homeobox 1 (Tgif1) and the retinoid X receptor (RXR) was
displayed to exert control over the determination of the Tfh
response. Model simulations predict that Tgif1 and RXR
respectively induce and curtail Tfh responses. This
computational hypothesis was validated experimentally by
assaying Tgif1, RXR and Tfh in stomachs of mice infected with
The impulse of RXR as shown in the paper
(figure 7C) can be implemented by creating an event in the curated
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Project description:Upon antigen stimulation, the bioenergetic demands of T cells increase dramatically over the resting state. Although a role for the metabolic switch to glycolysis has been suggested to support increased anabolic activities and facilitate T cell growth and proliferation, whether cellular metabolism controls T cell lineage choices remains poorly understood. Here we report that the glycolytic pathway is actively regulated during the differentiation of inflammatory TH17 and Foxp3-expressing regulatory T cells (Treg), and controls cell fate determination. TH17 but not Treg-inducing conditions resulted in strong upregulation of the glycolytic activity and induction of glycolytic enzymes. Blocking glycolysis inhibited TH17 development while promoting Treg cell generation. Moreover, the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1a (HIF1a) was selectively expressed in TH17 cells and its induction required signaling through mTOR, a central regulator of cellular metabolism. HIF1a-dependent transcriptional program was important for mediating glycolytic activity, thereby contributing to the lineage choices between TH17 and Treg cells. Lack of HIF1a resulted in diminished TH17 development but enhanced Treg differentiation, and protected mice from autoimmune CNS inflammation. Our studies demonstrate that HIF1a-dependent glycolytic pathway orchestrates a metabolic checkpoint for the differentiation of TH17 and Treg cells. Naïve CD4 T cells from wild-type and HIF1a-deficient mice (in triplicates each group) were differentiated under TH17 conditions for 2.5 days, and RNA was analyzed by microarrays.
Project description:Using an unbiased chemical biology approach, we discover harmine as a novel regulator of Treg/Th17 differentiation. Harmine enhances Treg differentiation (working in conjunction with low levels of exogenous TGFb) and inhibits Th17 differentiation. Analysis of global gene expression of Tregs generated using low TGFb + harmine reveals significant similarity to Tregs generated using high TGFb only and suggests relevance of harmine-engaged mechanisms to IBD. Overall design: Naïve murine CD4+CD62L+ T cells were stimulated with anti-CD3/28, transduced with control or Dyrk1a shRNA, and treated with harmine or control.
Project description:The interplay between effector and regulatory T (Treg) cells is crucial for adaptive immunity, but how Treg control effector cell flexibility is elusive. We found that the phosphatase PTEN links Treg stability to the repression of TH1 and TFH (follicular helper) responses. Depletion of PTEN in Treg resulted in excessive TFH and germinal center responses and spontaneous inflammatory disease. These defects are considerably blocked by deletion of Interferon-γ, indicating coordinated control of TH1 and TFH responses. Mechanistically, PTEN maintains Treg stability and proper metabolic balance between glycolysis and mitochondrial fitness. Moreover, PTEN deficiency markedly upregulates mTORC2-Akt activity, and loss of this activity restores PTEN-deficient Treg function. Our studies establish a PTEN-mTORC2 axis that actively maintains Treg stability and coordinates Treg-mediated control of effector cell flexibility. We used microarrays to explore the gene expression profiles differentially expressed in CD4+CD25+Foxp3-YFP+ Treg cells from wild-type (WT; C57BL/6 crossed with Foxp3-Cre) and Ptenfl/flFoxp3-Cre (Ptenfl/fl mice crossed with Foxp3-Cre) mice