Identification of genes related with carcass fatness in pigs based on RNA-seq results
ABSTRACT: Purpose: RNA-seq method was applied to select genes expressed in fat tissue and pinpointed genes potentially associated with fatness traits in pigs. Methods: The RNA-seq analysis was performed on fat tissue collected from 16 Pulawska pigs (8 pigs per two groups - with high and low backfat thickness) maintained at the same environmental and feeding condition. The total RNA was isolated using by TriReagent and 300ng was used to cDNA libraries preparation. The NGS sequencing was performed on HiScan SQ (Illumina) in 90 single-end cycles. The quantifying transcript abundances was made using the RSEM supported by STAR aligner. The raw reads were aligned to the Sus scrofa reference genome. Differentially expressed genes were detected by DESeq2. The RNA-seq results were validated using by qPCR. Results: In the group of pigs characterized by thicker subcutaneous fat, 166 genes with increased expression were identified, including genes involved in biological processes associated with negative regulation of long-chain fatty acid transport (GO: 0010748) (IRS2, THBS1, AKT2), regulation of metabolic lipids ( GO: 0019216) (EEF1A2, IRS2, ACACA, SIK1, ADGRF5, IDH1, FGF2, PDE3B, FASN, AKT2, CYR61, CHD9, ME1, SCD), cellular response to hormonal stimuli (GO: 0032870) (IRS2, ACACA, SIK1 , GHR, NR4A1, PDE3B, PTGER2, AKT2, AACS, ADCY6, KAT2B, RHOQ, FOS). Genes involved in the signaling pathway responsible for the activation of gene expression by SREBF (R-SSC-2426168) (ACACA, FASN, CHD9, SCD ) and the insulin signaling pathway also were identified (RHOQ, SOCS3, IRS2, AKT2, PDE3B, PYGM, FASN, ACACA). Conclusions: The presented results allowed to pinpointed the interesting, candidate genes related with fat content in carcasses in pigs, which can be analyzed in future in the term of using in breeding practice as genetic markers. The study was financed from funds of the project -BIOSTRATEG, the decision number BIOSTRATEG2/297267/14/NCBR/2016. Overall design: The subcutaneous fat transcriptome sequencing was performed for 16 samples collected form Pulawska breed, using Illumina HiScan SQ in 90 single-end cycles and in 4 technical repetitions.
Project description:Analysis of allele-specific expression may help to elucidate the genetic architecture of complex traits including fat deposition in pigs. Here, we used pyrosequencing to investigate the allele proportions of candidate genes (ACACA, ADIPOR1, FASN, LEP, ME1, SCD, and TNF) involved in regulation of lipid metabolism in two fat deposits (subcutaneous and visceral fat) and longissimus dorsi muscle of pigs representing Polish Large White, Polish Landrace, Duroc, and Pietrain breeds. We detected differential allelic expression of ACACA, LEP, SCD, and TNF in all tissues analyzed. To search for putative cis-regulatory elements involved in allele-specific expression, we quantified the methylation level within CpG islands located in 5'-flanking regions of ACACA and SCD. Comparison between samples showing markedly disproportionate allelic expression and control groups with similar levels of both alleles did not reveal significant differences. We also assessed the association of rs321308225 (c.*195C>A) an SNP located in the 3'UTR of ACACA with its allelic expression in Polish Landrace pigs, but it was not significant. We conclude that allelic imbalance occurs frequently in regard to genes involved in regulation of lipid deposition in pigs, and further studies are necessary to identify cis-regulatory elements affecting ACACA, LEP, SCD, and TNF expression in porcine fat tissues and skeletal muscle.
Project description:Porcine fat traits depend mostly on the interaction between nutritional and genetic factors. However, the pathways and biological processes influenced by this interaction are still poorly known in pigs, although they can have a huge impact on meat quality traits. The present research provides new knowledge insight into the effect of four diets (D1 = standard diet; D2 = linseed supplementation; D3 = linseed, vitamin E and selenium supplementation; D4 = linseed and plant-derived polyphenols supplementation) on the expression of 24 candidate genes selected for their role in lipid and energy metabolism. The data indicated that 10 out of 24 genes were differentially expressed among diets, namely ACACA, ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, CHREBP (MLXPL), ELOVL6, FASN, G6PD, PLIN2, RXRA and SCD. Results from the univariate analysis displayed an increased expression of ACACA, ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, CHREBP, ELOVL6, FASN, PLIN2, RXRA and SCD in D4 compared to D2. Similarly, ACACA, ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, ELOVL6 and SCD were highly expressed in D4 compared to D3, while no differences were observed in D2-D3 comparison. Moreover, an increased expression of G6PD and ELOVL6 genes in D4 compared to D1 was observed. Results from the multivariate analysis confirmed that D2 was not different from D3 and that ACACA, SCD and FASN expression made D4 different from D2 and D3. Comparing D4 and D1, the expression levels of ELOVL6 and ACACA were the most influenced. This research provides evidence that the addition of both n-3 PUFA and polyphenols, derived from linseed, grape-skin and oregano supplementation in the diets, stimulates the expression of genes involved in lipogenesis and in oxidative processes. Results evidenced a greater effect on gene expression of the diet added with both plant extracts and n-3 PUFA, resulting in an increased expression of genes coding for fatty acid synthesis, desaturation and elongation in pig Longissimus thoracis muscle.
Project description:In recent years, pig producers have struggled with the problem of low intramuscular fat levels in pork, which impacts palatability and ultimately meat quality. Reduced levels of intramuscular fat are likely the result of breeding objectives aimed at increasing lean meat content. In this study, three mutations within candidate genes for fat content (SCD, ACACA, and FASN) were selected, based on RNA-seq results and the relationship between polymorphisms in genes related to lipid metabolism, fattening and slaughter characteristics, as well as pork quality, including IMF level, were evaluated to identify selection markers. Moreover, their impact on gene expression was also examined. The PCR-RFLP (polymerase cha- in reaction - restriction fragments length) method was used to establish genotypes and effect sizes of potential genetic markers were estimated using a GLM model. It was identified that a FASN missense variant was positively associated with the expression level of this gene, which suggested its linkage with a mutation having a regulatory function. The association study indicated that the FASN missense variant may play a role in the determination of feed conversion and meat colour. In turn, a mutation in the ACACA gene showed a relationship with IMF content in the Pu?awska breed where the differences reached as much as 20%. We suggest considering all three mutations in further studies based on different pig populations due to the crucial role of SCD, ACACA, and FASN genes in lipid metabolism.
Project description:High concentrate diets are fed to early and mid-lactation stages dairy ruminants to meet the energy demands for high milk production in modern milk industry. The present study evaluated the effects of a high concentrate diet on milk fat and milk composition, especially, cis-9, trans-11 CLA content in milk and gene expression of lactating goats. Eight mid-lactating goats with rumen fistula were randomly assigned into a high concentrate diet (HCD) group and low concentrate diet (LCD) group. High concentrate diet feeding significantly increased lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in plasma and decreased milk fat content, vaccenic acid (VA) and cis-9, trans-11 CLA in milk of the lactating goats. The mRNA expression levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein B 1c (SREBP1c), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthetase (FASN) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase ? (ACACA, ACC?) involving in lipid metabolism were analyzed, and ACACA and LPL all decreased in their expression level in the mammary glands of goats fed a high concentrate diet. DNA methylation rate of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) was elevated and decreased, and SCD mRNA and protein expression was reduced significantly in the mammary glands of goats fed a high concentrate diet. In conclusion, feeding a high concentrate diet to lactating goats decreases milk fat and reduced expression of SCD in the mammary gland, which finally induced cis-9, trans-11 CLA content in milk.
Project description:The energy available from the diet, which affects fat deposition in vivo, is a major factor in the expression of genes regulating fat deposition in the longissimus dorsi muscle. Providing high-energy diets to yaks might increase intramuscular fat deposition and fatty acid concentrations under a traditional grazing system in cold seasons. A total of fifteen adult castrated male yaks with an initial body weight 274.3 ± 3.14 kg were analyzed for intramuscular adipose deposition and fatty acid composition. The animals were divided into three groups and fed low-energy (LE: 5.5 MJ/kg), medium-energy (ME: 6.2 MJ/kg) and high-energy (HE: 6.9 MJ/kg) diets, respectively. All animals were fed ad libitum twice daily at 08:00-09:00 am and 17:00-18:00 pm and with free access to water for 74 days, including a 14-d period to adapt to the diets and the environment. Intramuscular fat (IMF) content, fatty acid profile and mRNA levels of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis were determined. The energy levels of the diets significantly (P<0.05) affected the content of IMF, total SFA, total MUFA and total PUFA. C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1n9c account for a large proportion of total fatty acids. Relative expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACACA), fatty acid synthase (FASN), stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) was greater in HE than in LE yaks (P<0.05). Moreover, ME yaks had higher (P<0.05) mRNA expression levels of PPAR?, ACACA, FASN, SCD and FABP4 than did the LE yaks. The results demonstrate that the higher energy level of the diets increased IMF deposition and fatty acid content as well as increased intramuscular lipogenic gene expression during the experimental period.
Project description:To explore the function of PPAR γ in the goat mammary gland, we cloned the whole cDNA of the PPAR γ gene. Homology alignments revealed that the goat PPAR γ gene is conserved among goat, bovine, mouse, and human. Luciferase assays revealed that rosiglitazone enhanced the activity of the PPAR γ response element (PPRE) in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs). After rosiglitazone (ROSI) treatment of GMECs, there was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the expression of genes related to triacylglycerol synthesis and secretion: LPL, FASN, ACACA, PLIN3, FABP3, PLIN2, PNPLA2, NR1H3, SREBF1, and SCD. The decreases in expression observed after knockdown of PPAR γ relative to the control group (Ad-NC) averaged 65%, 52%, 67%, 55%, 65%, 58%, 85%, 43%, 50%, and 24% for SCD, DGAT1, AGPAT6, SREBF1, ACACA, FASN, FABP3, SCAP, ATGL, and PLIN3, respectively. These results provide direct evidence that PPAR γ plays a crucial role in regulating the triacylglycerol synthesis and secretion in goat mammary cells and underscore the functional importance of PPAR γ in mammary gland tissue during lactation.
Project description:Purpose: The aim of present research was to identify miRNAs potentially related with fattness traits in pigs Methods: miRNA-seq analysis was performed on subcutaneous fat samples collected from 22 pigs representing two sire-line breeds – Pietrain and Hampshire and one dam-line – Large White. Based on dissection data, pigs were selected from a larger population in terms of fatness traits to obtain the most extreme groups in each breed. The cDNA libraries were constructed form 300 ng of total RNA with the use NEBNext Multiplex Small RNA Library Prep Set for Illumina (New England Biolabs, Ipswich, MA, United States) according to the protocol. The quantification of obtained libraries was performed on Qubit 2.0 (Invitrogen, Life Technologies) and TapeStation 2200 (D1000 ScreenTape; Agilent). The RNA-seq was performed in 36 single-end cycles on HiScanSQ platform (Illumina) with the use of ruSeq SR Cluster Kit v3- CBOT-HS and TruSeq SBS Kit v 3 - HS (Illumina). Each library was sequences in 4 technical replications. The DEGs were detected using DESEq2 software and validation was performed by qPCR. Results: RNA-seq approach allowed to identify miRNAs differentially expressed between pigs with various fatness traits in each analyzed breeds: 64 for Pietrain pigs; 41 for Hampshire and 46 for Large White pigs (pvalue <0.05; fold change≤1.5). The comparison of obtained miRNAs sets showed 13 miRNAs identified in all three breeds. The Gene Ontology analysis (mirPath v.3.0 DIANA Tools web with DIANA—TarBase v7.0 as a reference) confirmed that detected miRNAs were involved in fatty acid biosynthesis (pvalue <1e-325); fatty acid metabolism (pvalue 6.661338e-16); ECM-receptor interaction (pvalue <1e-325). The most important targeted genes regulated by identified miRNAs were: fatty acid synthase – FASN; Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 – ACACA; Malonyl CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase – MCAT and acetyl-CoA acyltransferase 1 and 2 (ACAA1 and ACAA2 genes). Conclusions: Obtained results allow to propose the panel of miRNAs, which can be related with fatness in pig. Such analysis can be the basis of future research in terms of identification of molecular mechanisms related with adipogenesis and fatness traits in pigs. Overall design: The fat (subcutaneous fat tissue) microRNA sequencing was performed for 22 samples collected form pigs representing three breeds – Large White, Pietrain and Hampshire, using Illumina HiScan SQ in 36 single-end cycles.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The molecular events associated with regulation of milk fat synthesis in the bovine mammary gland remain largely unknown. Our objective was to study mammary tissue mRNA expression via quantitative PCR of 45 genes associated with lipid synthesis (triacylglycerol and phospholipids) and secretion from the late pre-partum/non-lactating period through the end of subsequent lactation. mRNA expression was coupled with milk fatty acid (FA) composition and calculated indexes of FA desaturation and de novo synthesis by the mammary gland. RESULTS: Marked up-regulation and/or % relative mRNA abundance during lactation were observed for genes associated with mammary FA uptake from blood (LPL, CD36), intracellular FA trafficking (FABP3), long-chain (ACSL1) and short-chain (ACSS2) intracellular FA activation, de novo FA synthesis (ACACA, FASN), desaturation (SCD, FADS1), triacylglycerol synthesis (AGPAT6, GPAM, LPIN1), lipid droplet formation (BTN1A1, XDH), ketone body utilization (BDH1), and transcription regulation (INSIG1, PPARG, PPARGC1A). Change in SREBF1 mRNA expression during lactation, thought to be central for milk fat synthesis regulation, was < or =2-fold in magnitude, while expression of INSIG1, which negatively regulates SREBP activation, was >12-fold and had a parallel pattern of expression to PPARGC1A. Genes involved in phospholipid synthesis had moderate up-regulation in expression and % relative mRNA abundance. The mRNA abundance and up-regulation in expression of ABCG2 during lactation was markedly high, suggesting a biological role of this gene in milk synthesis/secretion. Weak correlations were observed between both milk FA composition and desaturase indexes (i.e., apparent SCD activity) with mRNA expression pattern of genes measured. CONCLUSION: A network of genes participates in coordinating milk fat synthesis and secretion. Results challenge the proposal that SREBF1 is central for milk fat synthesis regulation and highlight a pivotal role for a concerted action among PPARG, PPARGC1A, and INSIG1. Expression of SCD, the most abundant gene measured, appears to be key during milk fat synthesis. The lack of correlation between gene expression and calculated desaturase indexes does not support their use to infer mRNA expression or enzyme activity (e.g., SCD). Longitudinal mRNA expression allowed development of transcriptional regulation networks and an updated model of milk fat synthesis regulation.
Project description:Tibetan pigs from the Tibetan Plateau are characterized with a significant phenotypic difference relative to lowland pigs. In this study, a significant difference of the fatness and fatty acid composition traits was observed between the Tibetan and Yorkshire pigs. To uncover the involved mechanism, the expression profile of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and genes was compared between them. After serial filtered steps, 1,964 lncRNAs were obtained through our computational pipeline. In total, 63 and 715 lncRNAs and genes were identified to be differentially expressed. Evidence from cis- and trans-targeting analysis of lncRNAs demonstrated that some lncRNAs, such as MSTRG.14097 and MSTRG.8034, played important roles in the fatness and fatty acid composition traits. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that many candidate genes were responsible for the two traits. Of these, FASN, ACACA, SCD, ME3, PDHB, ACSS1, ACSS2, and ACLY were identified, which functioned in regulating the level of hexadecanoic acid, hexadecenoic acid, octadecenoic acid, and monounsaturated fatty acid. And LPGAT1, PDK4, ACAA1, and ADIPOQ were associated with the content of stearic acid, octadecadienoic acid, and polyunsaturated fatty acid. Candidate genes, which were responsible for fatness trait, consisted of FGF2, PLAG1, ADIPOQ, IRX3, MIF, IL-34, ADAM8, HMOX1, Vav1, and TLR8. In addition, association analysis also revealed that 34 and 57 genes significantly correlated to the fatness and fatty acid composition trait, respectively. Working out the mechanism caused by these lncRNAs and candidate genes is proven to be complicated but is invaluable to our understanding of fatness and fatty acid composition traits.
Project description:With the increasing concern for health and nutrition, dietary fat has attracted considerable attention. The composition of fatty acids in the diet is important because they are associated with major diseases including cancers, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The fatty acid synthase (FASN) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (delta-9-desaturase) (SCD) genes affect fatty acid composition (1). The expression of SCD and FASN genes is related to an increase in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in dairy products, which benefits human health.The aim of current study was to investigate expression changes of SCD and FASN genes that resulted from crossbreeding the local Baluchi sheep with alien breeds.We collected tissue samples from the mammary glands of 24 single-born ewes from local Baluchi and synthetic Iran-Black and Arman sheep breeds in the Abbas Abad breeding center. After RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis, real-time PCR was performed with all samples in triplicate.The maximum and minimum expression of SCD and FASN genes was in the local Baluchi sheep and the crossbred Arman sheep, respectively.With the highest SCD and FASN gene expression in local Baluchi sheep and relatively less expression of these genes in synthetic Iran-Black and Arman Sheep breeds, it may be necessary to consider the consequences of crossbreeding local sheep and the fatty acid composition of their dairy products.