High throughput small RNA and transcriptome sequencing reveal reproduction-related microRNAs and mRNA in ovary of Geese in Counter-Season Production
ABSTRACT: Purpose: To understand the function differences of goose at broody and breeding stage Methods: RNA-seq analysis of oviduct tissues in reproductive and broody goose Results: Our study screened differential expressed mRNA and pathways involved in broodiness Conclusions:The differential expressed mRNA and pathways identified in this study may contribute to understand the broodiness occurs in goose Overall design: RNA-seq analysis of oviduct tissues in reproductive and broody goose
Project description:Dopamine ?-hydroxylase (DBH) is a critical enzyme in the biosynthesis of catecholamines. This enzyme's role in neuroendocrine regulation is well known, but there are some indications that it may also modulate reproduction and endocrine in mammals and birds. We selected goose (Anas cygnoides) as an ideal model species for investigating the role of DBH in avian reproduction.Full-length cDNA encoding DBH was cloned from Zhedong goose using reverse transcription PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The cDNA consisted of a 126-base pair (bp) 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 379-bp 3'-UTR, and an 1896-bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 631 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of gDBH shared high homology with an analogue from other birds and contained three conserved domains from a mono-oxygenase family including a DOMON domain and two Cu2_mono-oxygen domains. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that gDBH mRNA was expressed in both reproductive and endocrine tissues of Zhedong goose, specifically in the hypothalamus, pituitary, ovary, and oviduct. More DBH mRNA of reproductive and endocrine tissues was detected at ovulation than at oviposition in Zhedong goose. Evidence of opposite trend of gDBH expression was found between the hypothalamus-pituitary and oviduct during the ovulation phase and the broody phase. In addition, we assessed DBH mRNA expression during ovulation in two breeds of geese that differ in egg production. The reproductive and endocrine tissues of Yangzhou geese with higher egg production had more gDBH expression than Zhedong geese. Finally, the five non-synonymous SNP(c.1739 C > T, c.1760G > T, c.1765A > G, c.1792 T > C and c.1861G > C) were identified in the coding region of DBH gene between Zhedong goose and Yangzhou goose.We conclude that goose DBH mRNA show obvious periodically variation in reproductive and endocrine tissues during the reproductive cycle in geese.
Project description:BACKGROUND:CYP11A1, a gene belonging to the family 11 of cytochrome P450, encodes a crucial steroidogenic enzyme that catalyzes the initial step in the production of all classes of steroids. Many studies show that CYP11A1 plays a role in ovary function. However, the role of CYP11A1 in goose reproductive cycle remains largely unknown. RESULTS:In this study, full-length CYP11A1 cDNA of Zhedong goose was obtained using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The cDNA consisted of a 96-base pair (bp) 5'untranslated region (UTR), a 179-bp 3'UTR and a 1509-bp open reading frame. The open reading frame encodes a putative 503 amino acid protein that shares high homology with CYP11A1 of other birds. The amino acid sequence possesses conserved domains of the P450 superfamily, which include the steroid-binding domain and the heme-binding region. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis revealed CYP11A1 mRNA was expressed ubiquitously in every Zhedong goose tissue analyzed, including the heart, liver, glandular stomach, lung, spleen, kidney, intestinum tenue, intestinum crassum, cerebrum, cerebellum, muscle, oviduct, pituitary, hypothalamus and ovary.. The relatively low levels of CYP11A1 mRNA were detected in pituitary, ovary and oviduct tissues at ovulation when compared with levels at oviposition. Interestingly, higher expression was observed in ovary and oviduct tissues during brooding. Lastly, higher mRNA expression of Yangzhou geese was detected during the ovulation period than that of Zhedong geese. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings reveal the sequence characterization and expression patterns of the CYP11A1 gene during the goose reproductive cycle, which may provides correlative evidence that CYP11A1 expression is important in reproduction activity.
Project description:Interactions between estrogen and growth factor signaling pathways at the level of gene expression play important roles in the function of reproductive tissues. For example, estrogen regulates transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) in the uterus during the proliferative phase of the mammalian reproductive cycle. Bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7), a member of the TGFbeta superfamily, is also involved in the development and function of reproductive tissues. However, relatively few studies have addressed the expression of BMP-7 in reproductive tissues, and the role of BMP-7 remains unclear. As part of an ongoing effort to understand how estrogen represses gene expression and to study its interactions with other signaling pathways, chick BMP-7 (cBMP-7) was cloned. cBMP-7 mRNA levels are repressed threefold within 8 h following estrogen treatment in the chick oviduct, an extremely estrogen-responsive reproductive tissue. This regulation occurs at the transcriptional level. Estrogen has a protective role in many tissues, and withdrawal from estrogen often leads to tissue regression; however, the mechanisms mediating regression of the oviduct remain unknown. Terminal transferase-mediated end-labeling and DNA laddering assays demonstrated that regression of the oviduct during estrogen withdrawal involves apoptosis, which is a novel observation. cBMP-7 mRNA levels during estrogen withdrawal increase concurrently with the apoptotic index of the oviduct. Furthermore, addition of purified BMP-7 induces apoptosis in primary oviduct cells. This report demonstrates that the function of BMP-7 in the oviduct involves the induction of apoptosis and that estrogen plays an important role in opposing this function.
Project description:Recent developments in high-throughput sequencing techniques have enabled large-scale analysis of genetic variations and gene expression in different tissues and species, but gene expression patterns and genetic variations in livestock are not well-characterized. In this study, we have used high-throughput transcriptomic sequencing of the Finnish Large White to identify gene expression patterns and coding polymorphisms within the breed in the testis and oviduct. The main objective of this study was to identify polymorphisms within genes that are highly and specifically expressed in male and/or female reproductive organs. The differential expression (DE) analysis underlined 1234 genes highly expressed in the testis and 1501 in the oviduct. Furthermore, we used a novel in-house R-package hoardeR for the identification of novel genes and their orthologs, which underlined 55 additional DE genes based on orthologs in the human, cow, and sheep. Identification of polymorphisms in the dataset resulted in a total of 29,973 variants, of which 10,704 were known coding variants. Fifty-seven nonsynonymous SNPs were present among genes with high expression in the testis and 67 were present in the oviduct, underlining possible influential genes for reproduction traits. Seven genes (PGR, FRAS1, TCF4, ADAT1, SPAG6, PIWIL2, and DNAH8) with polymorphisms were highlighted as reproduction-related based on their biological function. The expression and SNPs of these genes were confirmed using RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing. The identified nonsynonymous mutations within genes highly expressed in the testis or oviduct provide a list of candidate genes for reproduction traits within the pig population and enable identification of biomarkers for sow and boar fertility.
Project description:Purpose: Recent development in high-throughput sequencing techniques (RNA-seq) has enabled large scale analysis of genetic variations and gene expression in different tissues and species, but gene expression patterns and genetic variations in livestock have not yet been well characterized. In this study we have used high-throughput transcriptomic sequencing of the Finnish Yorkshire to identify gene expression patterns within the breed in the testis and oviduct. Methods: The Solid 4 reads were mapped against the pig genome build 10.2 using the colorspace alignment tool provided by Applied Biosystems and distributed with the instrument (LifeScope v2.1). Reads associated with ribosomal RNA, transfer RNA, repeats and other uninformative reads were filtered out during the process as well as reads with more than 10 potential alignments. After alignment to the reference genome, low mapping quality reads were discarded (mapQV(<10)) and unique reads were associated with known genes based on UCSC annotations, and the number of reads aligned within each gene was counted. FPKM values were calculated for normalization of the data to remove variation between samples caused by non-biological reasons using the Cufflinks software v2.0.2. Results: The analysis of gene expression differences between the testis and oviduct highlighted 1,234 genes up-regulated in the testis and 1,501 in the oviduct. Conclusions: The RNA-seq technology used in this study provides novel information about transcript expression and differential gene expression in the testis and oviduct. The produced data will assist in the identification of candidate genes based on association mapping results within the pig population and provides insights into the expression of genes in the two reproductive organs studied. Testis and oviduct mRNA profiles of adult WT and immotile short tail sperm (ISTS) affected Finnish Large White pigs were generated by deep sequencing using Solid 4 platform.
Project description:We compared gene expression in oviduct tissues between unmated (control) and mated hen. As spermatozoa are foreign to the female reproductive tract therefore we were interested to look at how spermatozoa survive in the female reproductive tract and keep their fertilization potentiality. To check that we collected tissues from oviduct of both control and mated female chicken and compared if sperm deposition to the oviduct made any gene expression shift related to sperm survival.
Project description:The processes by which eggs develop in the insect ovary are well characterized. Despite a large number of Drosophila mutants that cannot lay eggs, the way that the egg is moved along the reproductive tract from ovary to uterus is less well understood. We remedy this with an integrative study on the reproductive tract muscles (anatomy, innervation, contractions, aminergic modulation) in female flies.Each ovary, consisting of 15-20 ovarioles, is surrounded by a contractile meshwork, the peritoneal sheath. Individual ovarioles are contained within a contractile epithelial sheath. Both sheaths contain striated muscle fibres. The oviduct and uterine walls contain a circular striated muscle layer. No longitudinal muscle fibres are seen. Neurons that innervate the peritoneal sheath and lateral oviduct have many varicosities and terminate in swellings just outside the muscles of the peritoneal sheath. They all express tyrosine decarboxylase (required for tyramine and octopamine synthesis) and Drosophila vesicular monoamine transporter (DVMAT). No fibres innervate the ovarioles. The common oviduct and uterus are innervated by two classes of neurons, one with similar morphology to those of the peritoneal sheath and another with repeated branches and axon endings similar to type I neuromuscular junctions. In isolated genital tracts from 3- and 7-day old flies, each ovariole contracts irregularly (12.5 +/- 6.4 contractions/minute; mean +/- 95% confidence interval). Peritoneal sheath contractions (5.7 +/- 1.6 contractions/minute) move over the ovary, from tip to base or vice versa, propagating down the oviduct. Rhythmical spermathecal rotations (1.5 +/- 0.29 contractions/minute) also occur. Each genital tract organ exhibits its own endogenous myogenic rhythm. The amplitude of contractions of the peritoneal sheath increase in octopamine (100 nM, 81% P < 0.02) but 1 microM tyramine has no effect. Neither affects the frequency of peritoneal sheath contractions.The muscle fibres of the reproductive tract are circular and have complex bursting myogenic rhythms under octopaminergic neuromodulation. We propose a new model of tissue-specific actions of octopamine, in which strengthening of peritoneal sheath contractions, coupled with relaxation of the oviduct, eases ovulation. This model accounts for reduced ovulation in flies with mutations in the octopaminergic system.
Project description:The underlying genomic regulation of the tissue synchronization is poorly understood. To understand this better we investigated the transcriptomes of the porcine ovary, endometrium, and oviduct at days 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, or 18 of the oestrous cycle. We analysed the transcriptome profiles of the individual tissues. Overall design: The tissues of gilts were collected on days 0 (the onset of oestrous behaviour), 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, or 18 of the oestrous cycle by hysterectomy. In total, whole mRNA sequencing profiles of 67 samples from 23 female pigs (23 profiles for Endometrium, 22 profiles for Oviduct and 22 profiles for Oviduct tissues).
Project description:The oviduct is an exquisitely designed organ that functions in picking-up ovulated oocytes, transporting gametes in opposite directions to the site of fertilization, providing a suitable environment for fertilization and early development, and transporting preimplantation embryos to the uterus. A variety of biological processes can be studied in oviducts making them an excellent model for toxicological studies. This review considers the role of the oviduct in oocyte pick-up and embryo transport and the evidence that chemicals in both mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke impair these oviductal functions. Epidemiological data have repeatedly shown that women who smoke are at increased risk for a variety of reproductive problems, including ectopic pregnancy, delay to conception, and infertility. In vivo and in vitro studies indicate the oviduct is targeted by smoke components in a manner that could explain some of the epidemiological data. Comparisons between the toxicity of smoke from different types of cigarettes, including harm reduction cigarettes, are discussed, and the chemicals in smoke that impair oviductal functioning are reviewed.
Project description:Our understanding of spider reproductive biology is hampered by the vast anatomical diversity and difficulties associated with its study. Although authors agree on the two general types of female spider genitalia, haplogyne (plesiomorphic) and entelegyne (apomorphic), our understanding of variation within each group mostly concerns the external genital part, while the internal connections with the reproductive duct are largely unknown. Conventionally and simplistically, the spermathecae of haplogynes have simple two-way ducts, and those of entelegynes have separate copulatory and fertilization ducts for sperm to be transferred in and out of spermathecae, respectively. Sperm is discharged from the spermathecae directly into the uterus externus (a distal extension of the oviduct), which, commonly thought as homologous in both groups, is the purported location of internal fertilization in spiders. However, the structural evolution from haplo- to entelegyny remains unresolved, and thus the precise fertilization site in entelegynes is ambiguous. We aim to clarify this anatomical problem through a widely comparative morphological study of internal female genital system in entelegynes. Our survey of 147 epigyna (121 examined species in 97 genera, 34 families) surprisingly finds no direct connection between the fertilization ducts and the uterus externus, which, based on the homology with basal-most spider lineages, is a dead-end caecum in entelegynes. Instead, fertilization ducts usually connect with a secondary uterus externus, a novel feature taking over the functional role of the plesiomorphic uterus externus. We hypothesize that the transition from haplo- to entelegyny entailed not only the emergence of the two separate duct systems (copulatory, fertilization), but also involved substantial morphological changes in the distal part of the oviduct. Thus, the common oviduct may have shifted its distal connection from the uterus externus to the secondary uterus externus, perhaps facilitating discharge of larger eggs. Our findings suggest that the conventional model of entelegyne reproduction needs redefinition.