SMAD3 ChIP-seq in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells
ABSTRACT: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is highly dependent on oncogenic transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling for its survival and aggressive/invasive growth characteristics. SMAD3, the transcription factor that transduces the TGFβ signal within these tumor cells, is critical for establishing and maintaining the aggressive phenotypes associated with TNBC. To provide a better understanding of SMAD3 function in this context, we identified binding sites in two TNBC cell lines, WHIM12 and SUM159. Overall design: SMAD3 ChIP-seq was performed in two TNBC cell lines in duplicate, without TGFβ stimulation.
Project description:Breast cancer onset and disease progression have been linked to members of the TGFβ superfamily and their downstream signaling components, the Smads. Alterations in Smad3 signaling are associated with the dichotomous role of TGFβ in malignancy, mediating both tumor suppressant and pro-metastatic behaviors. Overexpression of cell cycle regulators, cyclins D and E, renders cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) 4/2 hyperactive. Noncanonical phosphorylation of Smad3 by CDK4/2 inhibits tumor suppressant actions of Smad3. We hypothesized that CDK inhibition (CDKi) would restore Smad3 action and help promote cancer cell regression. Treatment of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-436, Hs578T) with CDK2i or CDK4i resulted in increased Smad3 activity and decreased cell migration. Transfection with a 5M Smad3 construct containing inhibitory mutations in 5 CDK phosphorylation sites also resulted in decreased TNBC cell migration and invasion. MDA-MB-231 cells treated with CDK2i or CDK4i resulted in decreased Smad3 protein phosphorylation at the CDK phosphorylation T179 site, decreased MMP2 and c-myc expression, and increased p15 and p21 expression. Using a novel transfected cell array, we found that CDK2i treatment decreased activity of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition related transcription factors Snail and Twist. In vivo studies in an MDA-MB-231 tumor model showed that individual and combination treatment with paclitaxel and CDK2i resulted in decreased tumor volume and Ki67 staining. Collectively, these data support further investigation of targeted CDK inhibitors as a promising therapeutic strategy for TNBC, a breast cancer subtype with limited treatment options.
Project description:Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subtype of breast cancer with a poor prognosis. There is a clinical need for effective, targeted therapy strategies that destroy both differentiated TNBC cells and TNBC cancer initiating cells (CICs), as the latter are implicated in the metastasis and recurrence of TNBC. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) is overexpressed on differentiated tumor cells and CICs obtained from TNBC patient specimens, suggesting that CSPG4 may be a clinically relevant target for the imaging and therapy of TNBC. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ?-particle radioimmunotherapy (RIT) targeting TNBC cells using the CSPG4-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) 225.28 as a carrier was effective at eliminating TNBC tumors in preclinical models. To this end, mAb 225.28 labeled with 212Pb (212Pb-225.28) as a source of ?-particles for RIT was used for in vitro Scatchard assays and clonogenic survival assays with human TNBC cells (SUM159 and 2LMP) grown as adherent cells or non-adherent CIC-enriched mammospheres. Immune-deficient mice bearing orthotopic SUM159 or 2LMP xenografts were injected i.v. with the targeted (225.28) or irrelevant isotype-matched control (F3-C25) mAbs, labeled with 99mTc, 125I, or 212Pb for in vivo imaging, biodistribution, or tumor growth inhibition studies. 212Pb-225.28 bound to adherent SUM159 and 2LMP cells and to CICs from SUM159 and 2LMP mammospheres with a mean affinity of 0.5 nM. Nearly ten times more binding sites per cell were present on SUM159 cells and CICs compared with 2LMP cells. 212Pb-225.28 was six to seven times more effective than 212Pb-F3-C25 at inhibiting SUM159 cell and CIC clonogenic survival (p < 0.05). Radiolabeled mAb 225.28 showed significantly higher uptake than radiolabeled mAb F3-C25 in SUM159 and 2LMP xenografts (p < 0.05), and the uptake of 212Pb-225.28 in TNBC xenografts was correlated with target epitope expression. 212Pb-225.28 caused dose-dependent growth inhibition of SUM159 xenografts; 0.30 MBq 212Pb-225.28 was significantly more effective than 0.33 MBq 212Pb-F3-C25 at inhibiting tumor growth (p < 0.01). These results suggest that CSPG4-specific 212Pb-225.28 is a useful reagent for RIT of CSPG4-expressing tumors, including metastatic TNBC.
Project description:Secreted frizzled‑related protein 1 (sFRP1) is an inhibitor of canonical Wnt signaling; however, previous studies have determined a tumor‑promoting function of sFRP1 in a number of different cancer types. A previous study demonstrated that sFRP1 overexpression was associated with an aggressive phenotype and the activation of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling. sFRP1 overexpression and sFRP1 knockdown cell models were established. Immunoblotting was conducted to examine the protein levels of the associated molecules. Immunofluorescence staining followed by confocal microscopy was performed to visualize the cytoskeleton alterations and subcellular localization of key proteins. sFRP1 overexpression restored glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) activity, which activated Rac family small GTPase 1 (Rac1). GSK3β and Rac1 mediated the effect of sFRP1 on the positive regulation of cell growth and migration/invasion. Inhibition of GSK3β or Rac1 abolished the regulation of sFRP1 on TGFβ/SMAD family member 3 (Smad3) signaling and the aggressive phenotype; however, GSK3β or Rac1 overexpression increased cell migration/invasion and restrained Smad3 activity by preventing its nuclear translocation and limiting its transcriptional activity. The present study demonstrated a tumor‑promoting function of sFRP1‑overexpression by selectively activating TGFβ signaling in gastric cancer cells. GSK3β and Rac1 serve an important function in mediating the sFRP1‑induced malignant alterations and signaling changes.
Project description:We found that the cancer testis antigen, ZNF165, is required for viability and can modulate TGFβ-induced gene expression in mesenchymal, Claudin-Low, TNBC. We employed the Affymetrix microarray platform to uncover transcriptionally modulated genes following ZNF165 depletion and TGFβ stimulation using the Claudin-low TNBC tumor-derived cell lines, SUM159 as a model. Our results provide insight into how ZNF165 globally modulates TGFβ signaling. We used microarray analysis to uncover the transcriptional network controlled by ZNF165 and clarify the role of ZNF165 in global TGFβ signaling SUM159 and WHIM12 cells were reverse transfected with either non-targeting or ZNF165 siRNA. For SUM159 cells, sixty hours post-transfection, cells were exposed to TGFβ for 3 hours. For WHIM12, forty eight hours post-transfection, cells were exposed to TGFβ for 3 hours. Total RNA was isolated and hybridized on to Affymetrix microarrays. Each experiment was repeated three times.
Project description:Screening of several TNBC cell lines showed altered Smad2 and Smad3 protein levels compared to normal mammary epithelial cells, suggesting the possibility that it could play an important role in the escape of cancer cells from TGF-? mediated growth inhibition. To assess the functional relevance of these endogenous molecules, Smad2 or Smad3 expression was knocked down individually and assessed their effects on pro-oncogenic properties of TGF-?. Smad3 deficiency reduced growth and invasion capacity of breast cancer cells in comparison to Smad2 which had no effect. Smad3 deficiency was also found to be associated with a reduction in the expressions of TMEPAI/PMEPA1 and EMT inducing transcription factors, E-Cadherin and increased expression of cell cycle inhibitors and Vimentin. On the other hand, Smad2 deficiency had opposite effect on these regulators. Interestingly, the decreased growth, invasion and associated gene expressions were largely reversed by overexpressing TMEPAI in Smad3 knockdown cells, suggesting that Smad3-TMEPAI axis may be involved in subverting growth suppressive effects of TGF-? into growth promotion. Similarly, altered levels of Smad proteins and TMEPAI were also noted in primary TNBC tumor tissues. Analysis of the existing databases provided additional support in terms of TMEPAI and Smad2 expression impacting the survival of TNBC patients. Taken together, our data demonstrate a novel role for Smad3 in cancer transformation and cancer progression through TMEPAI and further suggest that selective targeting of TGF-?-Smad3-TMEPAI axis may be beneficial in triple negative breast cancer therapy and prevention.
Project description:Patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) lack molecular targets and have an unfavorable outcome. CD155 is overexpressed in human cancers, but whether it plays a role in TNBC is unexplored. Here we found that CD155 was enriched in both TNBC cell lines and tumor tissues. High CD155 expression was related to poor prognosis of breast cancer patients. CD155 was associated with a mesenchymal phenotype. CD155 knockdown induced a mesenchymal-epithelial transition in TNBC cells, and suppressed TNBC cell migration, invasion and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, CD155 cross-talked with oncogenic IL-6/Stat3 and TGF-?/Smad3 pathways. Moreover, CD155 knockdown inhibited TNBC cell growth and survival. Taken together, these data indicate that CD155 contributes to the aggressive behavior of TNBC; targeting CD155 may be beneficial to these patients.
Project description:Cancer/testis (CT) antigens are proteins whose expression is normally restricted to germ cells yet aberrantly activated in tumors, where their functions remain relatively cryptic. Here we report that ZNF165, a CT antigen frequently expressed in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), associates with SMAD3 to modulate transcription of transforming growth factor ? (TGF?)-dependent genes and thereby promote growth and survival of human TNBC cells. In addition, we identify the KRAB zinc finger protein, ZNF446, and its associated tripartite motif protein, TRIM27, as obligate components of the ZNF165-SMAD3 complex that also support tumor cell viability. Importantly, we find that TRIM27 alone is necessary for ZNF165 transcriptional activity and is required for TNBC tumor growth in vivo using an orthotopic xenograft model in immunocompromised mice. Our findings indicate that aberrant expression of a testis-specific transcription factor is sufficient to co-opt somatic transcriptional machinery to drive a pro-tumorigenic gene expression program in TNBC.
Project description:We found that the cancer testis antigen, ZNF165, is required for viability and can modulate TGFÎ²-induced gene expression in mesenchymal, Claudin-Low, TNBC. We employed the Affymetrix microarray platform to uncover transcriptionally modulated genes following ZNF165 depletion and TGFÎ² stimulation using the Claudin-low TNBC tumor-derived cell lines, SUM159 as a model. Our results provide insight into how ZNF165 globally modulates TGFÎ² signaling. We used microarray analysis to uncover the transcriptional network controlled by ZNF165 and clarify the role of ZNF165 in global TGFÎ² signaling SUM159 and WHIM12 cells were reverse transfected with either non-targeting or ZNF165 siRNA. For SUM159 cells, sixty hours post-transfection, cells were exposed to TGFÎ² for 3 hours. For WHIM12, forty eight hours post-transfection, cells were exposed to TGFÎ² for 3 hours. Total RNA was isolated and hybridized on to Affymetrix microarrays. Each experiment was repeated three times.
Project description:Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subtype with few treatment options for chemo-resistant disease. In both preclinical models and patient circulating tumor cells, androgen receptor (AR) expression is increased in anchorage independent TNBC. The AR inhibitor enzalutamide (Enza) leads to reduced TNBC growth in soft agar, invasion, mammosphere formation in vitro, and reduced tumorigenicity and recurrence when combined with chemotherapy in vivo pre-clinical models. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) pathway gene signatures are also increased during TNBC anchorage independent survival both in vitro and in vivo in pre-clinical models and CTC from patients during relapse while on chemotherapy. We hypothesized that a positive loop between AR and TGFβ signaling facilitates TNBC anchorage independent survival (anoikis resistance). We previously published that AR protein levels and transcriptional activity increased during anchorage independent conditions and we now find that that multiple components of the TGFβ pathway, including TGFβ1 and 3, as well as pathway activity, as measured by nuclear localization and transcriptional activity of pSmad3, are enhanced in anchorage independent conditions. Indeed, exogenous TGFβ increased AR protein and TGFβ inhibition decreased AR and TNBC viability, particularly under anchorage independent culture conditions. ChIP-Seq experiments revealed AR binding to genomic regions near the TGFB1 and SMAD3. TGFB3 and AR expression were positively correlated in clinical datasets and high levels of co-expression correspond to significantly worse recurrence-free and overall survival in both ER- and basal-like breast cancer. Finally, combining Enza with a TGFβ inhibitor decreased cell survival more than either drug alone, particularly under anchorage independent conditions, where the effect was more than additive. These findings warrant further investigations into whether combined inhibition of AR and TGFβ pathways might decrease metastatic recurrence rates and mortality from TNBC. Overall design: ChIP-seq of androgen receptor in MDA-MB-453 attached and suspension cultures treated with dihydrotestosterone and enzalutamide.