DNA microarray analyses for HepG2 cells exposed to silver nanoparticles
ABSTRACT: From the result of the gene expression analyses of human hepatoma cell line, HepG2, a number of genes associated with cell proliferation and DNA repair were distinctively up-regulated by Ag-nanoparticle exposure, suggesting that Ag-nanoparticles might stimulate cell proliferation and DNA damage, which are considered to be mechanisms playing an important role for carcinogenesis and tumor progression. The inductions of these genes involved in cell proliferation were also observed in PS-nanoparticles and Ag2CO3-exposed cells. In addition, the inductions of DNA repair-associated genes were also observed in Ag2CO3-exposure. These results suggest that both “nanoshape” and “silver” can cause the inductions of these gene expression patterns. Furthermore, cysteine, a strong ionic silver ligand partially abolished these gene expressions induced by silver nanoparticles. Ionic silver sourced from Ag-nanoparticles could not fully explain these gene expressions. Overall design: In this study, we examined the gene expression alteration in human hepatoma cell line, HepG2 following exposures of silver nanoparticles (7-10 nm), polysthylene nanoparticles (15 nm) and silver carbonate using DNA microarray with 8795 human genes. Furthermore, we also performed the DNA microarray analyses for the cells exposed to silver nanoparticle in the presence of 5mM N-acetyl-L-cysteine to examine the contribution of silver ion to silver nanoparticle exposure.
INSTRUMENT(S): [HG-Focus] Affymetrix Human HG-Focus Target Array
Project description:This study was designed to evaluate the nano-bio interactions between endogenous biothiols (cysteine and glutathione) with biomedically relevant, metallic nanoparticles (silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)), in order to assess the biocompatibility and fate of nanoparticles in biological systems. A systematic and comprehensive analysis revealed that the preparation of AgNPs and AuNPs in the presence of biothiols leads to nanoparticles stabilized with oxidized forms of biothiols. Their safety was tested by evaluation of cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, apoptosis induction and DNA damage in murine fibroblast cells (L929), while ecotoxicity was tested using the aquatic model organism <i>Daphnia magna</i>. The toxicity of these nanoparticles was considerably lower compared to their ionic metal forms (i.e., Ag<sup>+</sup> and Au<sup>3+</sup>). The comparison with data published on polymer-coated nanoparticles evidenced that surface modification with biothiols made them safer for the biological environment. In vitro evaluation on human cells demonstrated that the toxicity of AgNPs and AuNPs prepared in the presence of cysteine was similar to the polymer-based nanoparticles with the same core material, while the use of glutathione for nanoparticle stabilization was considerably less toxic. These results represent a significant contribution to understanding the role of biothiols on the fate and behavior of metal-based nanomaterials.
Project description:Effects of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on freshwater species have been reported in several studies, but there is not information on the potential long-term consequences of a previous exposure. In this work, we investigated the long-term effects of maltose-coated Ag NPs (20 nm) and of ionic silver (10 µg/L) after 21 days of exposure and at 6 months post-exposure (mpe) in adult zebrafish. Exposure resulted in significant silver accumulation in the whole body of fish exposed to ionic silver, but not in those exposed to Ag NPs. However, autometallography revealed metal accumulation in the liver and intestine of fish treated with the two silver forms and especially in the intestine of fish exposed to Ag NPs. X-ray microanalysis showed the presence of silver in gills, liver and intestine and of Ag NPs in gill and liver cells. Inflammation and hyperplasia were evident in the gills after both treatments and these histopathological conditions remained at 6 mpe. According to the hepatic transcriptome analysis, at 3 days ionic silver regulated a larger number of transcripts (410) than Ag NPs (129), while at 21 days Ag NPs provoked a stronger effect (799 vs 165 regulated sequences). Gene ontology terms such as “metabolic processes” and “response to stimulus” appeared enriched after all treatments, while “immune system” or “reproductive processes” were specifically enriched after the exposure to Ag NPs. This suggests that the toxicity of Ag NPs may not be solely related to the release of Ag ions, but also to the NP form. No evident effects were found on protein oxidation or on hepatocyte lysosomal membrane stability during exposure, but effects recorded on liver lysosomes and persistent damage on gill tissue at 6 mpe could indicate potential for long-term effects in exposed fish. Overall design: 20 samples per group, 5 replicates (4 liver per replicate), 3 groups x 2 times, control, ionic silver and Ag NPs, 3 and 21 days of exposure
Project description:Biofilms causing medical conditions or interfering with technical applications can prove undesirably resistant to silver nanoparticle (AgNP)-based antimicrobial treatment, whereas beneficial biofilms may be adversely affected by the released silver nanoparticles. Isolated biofilm matrices can induce reduction of silver ions and stabilization of the formed nanosilver, thus altering the exposure conditions. We thus study the reduction of silver nitrate solution in model experiments under chemically defined conditions as well as in stream biofilms. Formed silver nanoparticles are characterized by state-of-the art methods. We find that isolated biopolymer fractions of biofilm organic matrix are capable of reducing ionic Ag, whereas other isolated fractions are not, meaning that biopolymer fractions contain both reducing agent and nucleation seed sites. In all of the investigated systems, we find that silver nanoparticle-biopolymer interface is dominated by carboxylate functional groups. This suggests that the mechanism of nanoparticle formation is of general nature. Moreover, we find that glucose concentration within the biofilm organic matrix correlates strongly with the nanoparticle formation rate. We propose a simple mechanistic explanation based on earlier literature and the experimental findings. The observed generality of the extracellular polymeric substance/AgNP system could be used to improve the understanding of impact of Ag+ on aqueous ecosystems, and consequently, to develop biofilm-specific medicines and bio-inspired water decontaminants.
Project description:Silver nanoparticles cause toxicity in exposed organisms and are an environmental health concern. The mechanisms of silver nanoparticle toxicity, however, remain unclear. We examined the effects of exposure to silver in nano-, bulk- and ionic forms on zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio) using a Next Generation Sequencing approach in an Illumina platform (High-Throughput SuperSAGE). Significant alterations in gene expression were found for all treatments and many of the gene pathways affected, most notably those associated with oxidative phosphorylation and protein synthesis, overlapped strongly between the three treatments indicating similar mechanisms of toxicity for the three forms of silver studied. Changes in oxidative phosphorylation indicated a down-regulation of this pathway at 24h of exposure, but with a recovery at 48h. This finding was consistent with a dose-dependent decrease in oxygen consumption at 24h, but not at 48h, following exposure to silver ions. Overall, our data provide support for the hypothesis that the toxicity caused by silver nanoparticles is principally associated with bioavailable silver ions in exposed zebrafish embryos. These findings are important in the evaluation of the risk that silver particles may pose to exposed vertebrate organisms. mRNA profiles of whole zebrafish embryos at 24 and 48 hours post-fertilisation (hpf) exposed to silver in nano, bulk and ionic forms were generated by deep sequencing using HT-SuperSAGE (Illumina GA2).
Project description:Nanowires (NWs), high-aspect-ratio nanomaterials, are increasingly used in technological materials and consumer products and may have toxicological characteristics distinct from nanoparticles. We carried out a comprehensive evaluation of the physicochemical stability of four silver nanowires (AgNWs) of two sizes and coatings and their toxicity to Daphnia magna. Inorganic aluminum-doped silica coatings were less effective than organic poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) coatings at preventing silver oxidation or Ag+ release and underwent a significant morphological transformation within 1 h following addition to low ionic strength Daphnia growth media. All AgNWs were highly toxic to D. magna but less toxic than ionic silver. Toxicity varied as a function of AgNW dimension, coating, and solution chemistry. Ag+ release in the media could not account for observed AgNW toxicity. Single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry distinguished and quantified dissolved and nanoparticulate silver in microliter-scale volumes of Daphnia magna hemolymph with a limit of detection of approximately 10 ppb. The silver levels within the hemolymph of Daphnia exposed to both Ag+ and AgNW met or exceeded the initial concentration in the growth medium, indicating effective accumulation during filter feeding. Silver-rich particles were the predominant form of silver in hemolymph following exposure to both AgNWs and Ag+. Scanning electron microscopy imaging of dried hemolymph found both AgNWs and silver precipitates that were not present in the AgNW stock or the growth medium. Both organic and inorganic coatings on the AgNW were transformed during ingestion or absorption. Pathway, gene ontology, and clustering analyses of gene expression response indicated effects of AgNWs distinct from ionic silver on Daphnia magna. Four replicates each of five toxicant exposure groups of ~20 animals and four replicates of control, unexposed animals. Each control was compared to each exposed data set for a total of 16 comparisons per chemical condition.
Project description:Engineered nanoparticles are utilized as drug delivery carriers in modern medicine due to their high surface area and tailorable surface functionality. After in vivo administration, nanoparticles distribute and interact with biomolecules, such as polar proteins in serum, lipid membranes in cells, and high ionic conditions during digestion. Electrostatic forces and steric hindrances in a nanoparticle population are disturbed and particles agglomerate in biological fluids. Little is known about the stability of nanoparticles in relation to particle surface charge. Here, we compared three different surface-stabilized silver nanoparticles (50 nm) for intracellular agglomeration in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2). Nanoparticles stabilized with branched polyethyleneimine conferred a positive surface charge, particles stabilized with lipoic acid conferred a negative surface charge, and particles stabilized with polyethylene glycol conferred a neutral surface charge. Particles were incubated in fetal bovine serum, simulated lung surfactant fluid, and simulated stomach digestion fluid. Each nanoparticle system was characterized via microscopic (transmission electron, fluorescence, and enhanced darkfield) and spectroscopic (hyperspectral, dynamic light scattering, and ultraviolet-visible absorption) techniques. Results showed that nanoparticle transformation included cellular internalization, agglomeration, and degradation and that these changes were dependent upon surface charge and incubation matrix. Hyperspectral analyses showed that positively charged silver nanoparticles red-shifted in spectral analysis after transformations, whereas negatively charged silver nanoparticles blue-shifted. Neutrally charged silver nanoparticles did not demonstrate significant spectral shifts. Spectral shifting indicates de-stabilization in particle suspension, which directly affects agglomeration intracellularly. These characteristics are translatable to critical quality attributes and can be exploited when developing nano-carriers for nanomedicine.
Project description:Healthcare-associated infections and the rise of drug-resistant bacteria pose significant challenges to existing antibiotic therapies. Silver nanocomposites are a promising solution to the current crisis, however their therapeutic application requires improved understanding of underpinning structure-function relationships. A family of chemically and structurally modified mesoporous SBA-15 silicas were synthesized as porous host matrices to tune the physicochemical properties of silver nanoparticles. Physicochemical characterization by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) and porosimetry demonstrate that functionalization by a titania monolayer and the incorporation of macroporosity both increase silver nanoparticle dispersion throughout the silica matrix, thereby promoting Ag?CO? formation and the release of ionic silver in simulated tissue fluid. The Ag?CO? concentration within functionalized porous architectures is a strong predictor for antibacterial efficacy against a broad spectrum of pathogens, including C. difficile and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).
Project description:A silver nanoparticle is one of the representative engineered nanomaterials with excellent optical, electrical, antibacterial properties. Silver nanoparticles are being increasingly used for medical products, water filters, and cosmetics, etc. However, silver nanoparticles are known to cause adverse effects on the ecosystem and human health. To utilize silver nanoparticles with minimized negative effects, it is important to understand the behavior of silver nanoparticles released to the environment. In this study, we compared toxicity behaviors of citrate-stabilized silver nanoparticles with polyethylene glycol coated silver nanoparticles in two different ionic environments, which are aquatic environments for developing zebrafish embryo. Depending on the composition of the ionic environment, citrate-stabilized silver nanoparticles and polyethylene glycol coated silver nanoparticles exhibited different behaviors in dissolution, aggregation, or precipitation, which governed the toxicity of silver nanoparticles on zebrafish embryos.
Project description:Speciation and accurate quantification of ionic silver and metallic silver nanoparticles are critical to investigate silver toxicity and to determine the shelf-life of products that contain nano silver under various storage conditions. We developed a rapid method for quantification of silver ions and silver nanoparticles using capillary electrophoresis (CE) interfaced with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The addition of 2-mercaptopropionylglycine (tiopronin) to the background electrolyte was used to facilitate the chromatographic separation of ionic silver and maintain the oxidation state of silver. The obtained limits of detection were 0.05 ?g kg(-1) of silver nanoparticles and 0.03 ?g kg(-1) of ionic silver. Nanoparticles of varied sizes (10-110 nm) with different surface coating, including citrate acid, lipoic acid, polyvinylpyrrolidone and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were successfully analyzed. Particularly good recoveries (>93%) were obtained for both ionic silver and silver nanoparticle in the presence of excess amount of BSA. The method was further tested with six commercially available dietary supplements which varied in concentration and matrix components. The summed values of silver ions and silver nanoparticles correlated well with the total silver concentration determined by ICPMS after acid digestion. This method can serve as an alternative to cloud point extraction technique when the extraction efficiency for protein coated nanoparticles is low.
Project description:A promising way to improve the performance of luminescent materials is to combine them with noble metal nanoparticles. Herein, a set of silver/europium-doped lanthanum orthophosphate (Ag/La0.95Eu0.05PO4) nanostructures with different concentrations of silver nanoparticles were prepared and investigated. The presented overlap between the strongest europium (Eu3+) excitation line and the broad silver nanoparticle surface plasmon resonance makes the combination prospective for coupling. X-ray powder diffraction confirmed the monoclinic monazite structure. The transmission electron microscopy revealed particles with a rod-like shape and ~4 aspect ratio. Photoluminescence spectra show characteristic Eu3+ ion red emission. One of the requirements for an enhanced luminescence effect is the precise control of the distance between the noble metal nanoparticles and the emitter ion. The distance is indirectly varied throughout the change of Ag nanoparticle concentration in the La0.95Eu0.05PO4 host. The emission intensity increases with the increase in Ag nanoparticles up to 0.6 mol %, after which the luminescence decreases due to the nanoparticles' close packing and aggregation leading to the displacement of La0.95Eu0.05PO4 from the vicinity of the metal particles and reabsorption of the emitted light. The emission intensity of La0.95Eu0.05PO4 increases more than three times when the Eu3+ excitation is supported by the localized surface plasmon resonance in the Ag/La0.95Eu0.05PO4 nanostructures.