Waterborne exposure of adult zebrafish to silver nanoparticles and ionic silver results in silver accumulation and effects at cellular and molecular levels
ABSTRACT: Effects of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on freshwater species have been reported in several studies, but there is not information on the potential long-term consequences of a previous exposure. In this work, we investigated the long-term effects of maltose-coated Ag NPs (20 nm) and of ionic silver (10 µg/L) after 21 days of exposure and at 6 months post-exposure (mpe) in adult zebrafish. Exposure resulted in significant silver accumulation in the whole body of fish exposed to ionic silver, but not in those exposed to Ag NPs. However, autometallography revealed metal accumulation in the liver and intestine of fish treated with the two silver forms and especially in the intestine of fish exposed to Ag NPs. X-ray microanalysis showed the presence of silver in gills, liver and intestine and of Ag NPs in gill and liver cells. Inflammation and hyperplasia were evident in the gills after both treatments and these histopathological conditions remained at 6 mpe. According to the hepatic transcriptome analysis, at 3 days ionic silver regulated a larger number of transcripts (410) than Ag NPs (129), while at 21 days Ag NPs provoked a stronger effect (799 vs 165 regulated sequences). Gene ontology terms such as “metabolic processes” and “response to stimulus” appeared enriched after all treatments, while “immune system” or “reproductive processes” were specifically enriched after the exposure to Ag NPs. This suggests that the toxicity of Ag NPs may not be solely related to the release of Ag ions, but also to the NP form. No evident effects were found on protein oxidation or on hepatocyte lysosomal membrane stability during exposure, but effects recorded on liver lysosomes and persistent damage on gill tissue at 6 mpe could indicate potential for long-term effects in exposed fish. Overall design: 20 samples per group, 5 replicates (4 liver per replicate), 3 groups x 2 times, control, ionic silver and Ag NPs, 3 and 21 days of exposure
INSTRUMENT(S): Agilent-026437 D. rerio (Zebrafish) Oligo Microarray V3 (Probe Name version)
Project description:Silver nanoparticles (NPs) are extensively used due to their antimicrobial activity and, therefore, their input into the ecosystem will increase. Silver can be bioaccumulated by low trophic level organisms and, then, incorporated into the food chain, reaching high level predators. The objectives of this study were to test the acute toxicity of N-vynil-2-pirrolidone/polyethylenimine (PVP-PEI) coated Ag NPs of 5 nm to brine shrimp (Artemia sp) larvae and to assess bioaccumulation and effects of silver transferred by the diet. For the later, brine shrimps were exposed to two different concentrations of Ag NPs, 100 ng/L as an environmentally relevant concentration and 100 µg/L as a likely effective concentration, in parallel with an unexposed control group and, then, used to feed zebrafish during 21 days in order to simulate two trophic levels of a simplified food web. For brine shrimp larvae, EC50 values ranged from 7.39 mg Ag/L (48 h post hatch larvae (hph) exposed for 48 h) to 19.63 mg Ag/L (24 hph larvae exposed for 24 h. Silver accumulation was measured in brine shrimps exposed to 0.1 and 1 mg/L of Ag NPs for 24 h. In zebrafish fed with brine shrimps exposed to Ag NPs, intestine showed higher metal accumulation than liver, although both organs presented the same pattern of dose and time-dependent metal accumulation as revealed by autometallography. Feeding of zebrafish for 3 days with brine shrimps exposed to 100 ng/L of Ag NPs was enough to impair fish health as reflected by the significant reduction of the lysosomal membrane stability and the presence of several histopathological conditions in the liver. Overall, results showed that Ag NPs were able to exert toxic effects on zebrafish through dietary exposure, even at an environmentally relevant concentration, which should act as concern of the need of studies in further detail about real impact of nanomaterials in the environment. Overall design: 20 samples per group, 5 replicates (4 liver or 4 intestine per replicate), 2 groups x 2 times, control and C1 (0.1 mg/L) of Ag NPs, 3 and 21 days of exposure
Project description:Silver exposure is toxic to fish due to disturbances of normal gill function. A proposed toxicity mechanism of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) is derived from the release of silver ions, similar to silver nitrate (AgNO3). However, some datasets support the fact that AgNP can have unique toxic effects that are mediated at the gill. To determine if differences between AgNO3 and AgNP toxicities exist, fathead minnows were exposed to 20 nm PVP- or citrate-coated silver nanoparticles (PVP-AgNP; citrate-AgNP) at the nominal concentration of 200 μg/L or AgNO3 at nominal 6 μg/L for 96 hr. This nominal concentration was applied to approximate the dissolved fraction of Ag in the AgNP suspensions. Mucus production in the water was measured. While mucus production was initially significantly increased in the first 4 h of exposure in all silver treatments compared to control, a decrease in mucus production was observed following 24-96 h of exposure. To determine which genes/pathways are driving this shift in mucus production, gills were dissected and microarray analysis was performed. Hierarchal clustering of differentially expressed genes revealed that all samples distinctly clustered by treatment. There were 109 differentially expressed genes shared among all Ag treatments compared to controls. However, there were 185, 423, and 615 differentially expressed genes unique to AgNO3, PVP-AgNP, and citrate-AgNP, relative to control. While functional analysis indicated several common enriched pathways, such as aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling, this analysis also indicated some unique pathways between nanosilver and AgNO3. Our results show that AgNO3, PVP-AgNP, and citrate-AgNP exposure affected mucus production in fish gills and also lead to common and unique transcriptional changes. Overall design: To explore the effects of silver and silver nanoparticles on fathead minnow gills, we explored cellular transcriptional responses following exposure of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) to either AgNO3, citrate or PVP-coated silver nanoparticles. After 96h of exposure, total RNA was isolated from samples RNeasy (Qiagen, Valencia, CA, USA) for microarray analysis. Three to five replicates were used per treatment.
Project description:From the result of the gene expression analyses of human hepatoma cell line, HepG2, a number of genes associated with cell proliferation and DNA repair were distinctively up-regulated by Ag-nanoparticle exposure, suggesting that Ag-nanoparticles might stimulate cell proliferation and DNA damage, which are considered to be mechanisms playing an important role for carcinogenesis and tumor progression. The inductions of these genes involved in cell proliferation were also observed in PS-nanoparticles and Ag2CO3-exposed cells. In addition, the inductions of DNA repair-associated genes were also observed in Ag2CO3-exposure. These results suggest that both “nanoshape” and “silver” can cause the inductions of these gene expression patterns. Furthermore, cysteine, a strong ionic silver ligand partially abolished these gene expressions induced by silver nanoparticles. Ionic silver sourced from Ag-nanoparticles could not fully explain these gene expressions. Overall design: In this study, we examined the gene expression alteration in human hepatoma cell line, HepG2 following exposures of silver nanoparticles (7-10 nm), polysthylene nanoparticles (15 nm) and silver carbonate using DNA microarray with 8795 human genes. Furthermore, we also performed the DNA microarray analyses for the cells exposed to silver nanoparticle in the presence of 5mM N-acetyl-L-cysteine to examine the contribution of silver ion to silver nanoparticle exposure.
Project description:Nanowires (NWs), high-aspect-ratio nanomaterials, are increasingly used in technological materials and consumer products and may have toxicological characteristics distinct from nanoparticles. We carried out a comprehensive evaluation of the physicochemical stability of four silver nanowires (AgNWs) of two sizes and coatings and their toxicity to Daphnia magna. Inorganic aluminum-doped silica coatings were less effective than organic poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) coatings at preventing silver oxidation or Ag+ release and underwent a significant morphological transformation within 1 h following addition to low ionic strength Daphnia growth media. All AgNWs were highly toxic to D. magna but less toxic than ionic silver. Toxicity varied as a function of AgNW dimension, coating, and solution chemistry. Ag+ release in the media could not account for observed AgNW toxicity. Single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry distinguished and quantified dissolved and nanoparticulate silver in microliter-scale volumes of Daphnia magna hemolymph with a limit of detection of approximately 10 ppb. The silver levels within the hemolymph of Daphnia exposed to both Ag+ and AgNW met or exceeded the initial concentration in the growth medium, indicating effective accumulation during filter feeding. Silver-rich particles were the predominant form of silver in hemolymph following exposure to both AgNWs and Ag+. Scanning electron microscopy imaging of dried hemolymph found both AgNWs and silver precipitates that were not present in the AgNW stock or the growth medium. Both organic and inorganic coatings on the AgNW were transformed during ingestion or absorption. Pathway, gene ontology, and clustering analyses of gene expression response indicated effects of AgNWs distinct from ionic silver on Daphnia magna. Four replicates each of five toxicant exposure groups of ~20 animals and four replicates of control, unexposed animals. Each control was compared to each exposed data set for a total of 16 comparisons per chemical condition.
Project description:Due to its antimicrobial activity, silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are among the most used NPs worldwide, yet little information is available regarding their effects, particularly in soil dwelling organisms. Enchytraeids (Oligochaeta) are important members of the soil fauna which actively contribute to the acceleration of organic matter decomposition and nutrient recycling processes. Hence, for hazard and risk assessment it is important to provide toxicity data for these organisms and to understand more in regard to the mode of action of Ag-NPs within organism. To study this we conducted toxicity experiments using the OECD standard guideline, testing Ag-NPs and AgNO3, having assessed survival, reproduction and differential gene expression. Population toxicity responses were assessed showing higher toxicity for the AgNO3. In an attempt to understand the mode of action we performed transcription profiling using the microarray. Gene expression profile of Enchytraeus albidus was analysed after 2 days of exposure to 100 and 200 mg/kg of two silver forms (nanoparticles and salt_silver nitrate) in OECD soil. Three biological replicates per test treatment and control (clean OECD soil) were used.
Project description:The present work was devoted to a multi-level characterization of E. coli exposed to Ag+-mediated stress using for the first time an approach of integrative biology, based on the combination of physiological, biochemical and transcriptomic data sets. Bacterial growth and survival after Ag+ exposure were first quantified and related to the accumulation of intracellular silver, as detected by Nano Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (NanoSIMS) at high lateral resolution. The whole transcriptomic response of E. coli cells under ionic silver-mediated stress was then characterized. Clear correlations were established between (i) cell physiology, (ii) variations in the biochemical characteristics of cell fatty acids and proteins, and (iii) regulation of gene expression. This challenging approach allowed determining key genetic markers of the E. coli response to ionic silver. In particular, we identified Ag+-mediated regulations of gene expression in correlation with growth (e.g. genes of transporters, transcriptional regulators, ribosomal proteins), necessary for ionic silver transport and detoxification (e.g. copA, cueO, mgtA, nhaR) and to cope with various stress (dnaK, pspA, metA,R, oxidoreductase genes). Regulation of gene expression after Ag+ exposure was also correlated to macromolecular modifications, such as acyl chain length (e.g. fadL, lpxA, arnA), protein secondary structure (e.g. dnaJ, htpX, degP) and cell morphology (e.g. ycfS, ycbB). Overall design: A microarray study using total RNA recovered at 3h during separate cultures of Escherichia coli MG1655 subjected to 0, 5.0, 6.5 and 8.5 µM AgNO3. Three independent repetitions were performed for each condition of 0, 5.0, 6.5 and 8.5 µM AgNO3. Each array measures the expression level of 4,254 genes from Escherichia coli MG1655 with eight 60-mer probes per gene in duplicates.
Project description:Applications for silver nanomaterials in consumer products are rapidly expanding, creating an urgent need for toxicological examination of the exposure potential and ecological effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The integration of genomic techniques into environmental toxicology has presented new avenues to develop exposure biomarkers and investigate the mode of toxicity of novel chemicals. In the present study we used a 15k oligonucleotide microarray for Daphnia magna, a freshwater crustacean and common indicator species for toxicity, to differentiate between particle specific and ionic silver toxicity and to develop exposure biomarkers for citrate-coated and PVP-coated AgNPs. Gene expression profiles revealed that AgNO3 and AgNPs have distinct expression profiles suggesting different modes of toxicity. However, the gene expression profiles of the different coated AgNPs were similar revealing similarities in the cellular effects of these two particles. Major biological processes disrupted by the AgNPs include protein metabolism and signal transduction. In contrast, AgNO3 caused a downregulation of developmental processes, particularly in sensory development. Metal responsive and DNA damage repair genes were induced by the PVP AgNPs, but not the other treatments. In addition, two specific biomarkers were developed for the environmental detection of PVP AgNPs; although further verification under different environmental conditions is needed. We exposed Daphnia magna to the 1/10 LC50 and LC25 of citrate coated and PVP-coated Ag nanoparticles and Ag+ as AgNO3 for 24-h. For each exposure condition, we performed 6 replicate exposures with 5 individuals in each. All exposures were compared to a unexposed laboratory control.
Project description:The release of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) in the environment has raised concerns about their effects on living organisms, including plants. In this study, changes in gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to SNPs and silver ions (Ag+) were analyzed using Affymetrix expression microarrays. Exposure to 5 mg SNPs L-1 (20 nm) for 10 days resulted in up-regulation of 286 genes and down-regulation of 81 genes by reference to non-exposed plants. Exposure to 5 mg Ag+ L-1 for 10 days resulted in up-regulation of 84 genes and down-regulation of 53 genes by reference to non-exposed plants. Many genes differentially expressed by SNPs and Ag+ were found to be involved in plant response to various stresses: up-regulated genes were primarily associated with response to metals and oxidative stress (e.g., vacuolar cation/proton exchanger, superoxide dismutase, cytochrome P-450-dependent oxidase, and peroxidase), while down-regulated genes were more associated with response to pathogens and hormonal stimuli (e.g., auxin-regulated gene involved in organ size (ARGOS), ethylene signaling pathway, and systemic acquired resistance (SAR) against fungi and bacteria). A significant overlap was observed between genes differentially expressed in response to SNPs and Ag+ (13% and 21% of total up- and down-regulated genes, respectively), suggesting that SNP-induced stress originates partly from silver toxicity and partly from nanoparticle-specific effects. Three highly up-regulated genes in the presence of SNPs, but not Ag+, belong to the thalianol biosynthetic pathway, which is thought to be involved in plant defense system. Results from this study provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of plant response to SNPs and Ag+.
Project description:Silver nanoparticles cause toxicity in exposed organisms and are an environmental health concern. The mechanisms of silver nanoparticle toxicity, however, remain unclear. We examined the effects of exposure to silver in nano-, bulk- and ionic forms on zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio) using a Next Generation Sequencing approach in an Illumina platform (High-Throughput SuperSAGE). Significant alterations in gene expression were found for all treatments and many of the gene pathways affected, most notably those associated with oxidative phosphorylation and protein synthesis, overlapped strongly between the three treatments indicating similar mechanisms of toxicity for the three forms of silver studied. Changes in oxidative phosphorylation indicated a down-regulation of this pathway at 24h of exposure, but with a recovery at 48h. This finding was consistent with a dose-dependent decrease in oxygen consumption at 24h, but not at 48h, following exposure to silver ions. Overall, our data provide support for the hypothesis that the toxicity caused by silver nanoparticles is principally associated with bioavailable silver ions in exposed zebrafish embryos. These findings are important in the evaluation of the risk that silver particles may pose to exposed vertebrate organisms. mRNA profiles of whole zebrafish embryos at 24 and 48 hours post-fertilisation (hpf) exposed to silver in nano, bulk and ionic forms were generated by deep sequencing using HT-SuperSAGE (Illumina GA2).
Project description:Understanding the mode of action of nanomaterials (NMs) aids in improving predictions and environmental risk assessment. In the present study, a high-throughput (HTP) microarray was used to study Enchytraeus crypticus gene expression. Four Ag materials (Ag NM300K, PVP-coated AgNPs, AgNPs, and AgNO3) were tested at reproduction effect concentrations, EC20 and EC50, to anchor gene expression responses to higher effect level. The results showed that while PVP-AgNPs and AgNPs had similar responses, Ag NM300K caused effects via a differentiated transcriptomic profile, with uniquely affected processes (e.g. transcytosis). For the AgNPs, the EC50 negatively affected apoptosis, which can lead to accumulation of abnormal cells and cause apical damage (reproduction). Mechanisms which are known to be related to Ag toxicity and which were observed here for the various Ag forms included apoptosis regulation, cell redox homeostasis, impairment of energy production and response to DNA damage. This HTP genomic tool enabled discrimination between Ag materials, which is not possible via standard tests (i.e. survival and reproduction endpoints). Moreover, gene expression analysis provided information regarding the mechanisms of toxicity of NMs and the pathways uniquely affected by NMs. An adverse outcome pathway (AOP) was drafted for the first time for Ag NMs; this AOP can and should be used as a basis for further research. Overall design: Gene expression profile of Enchytraeus crypticus was analysed after 3 and 7 days of exposure to the EC20 and EC50 (effect concentrations on reproduction) of three silver nanomaterials (Ag-NPs PVP-Coated, Ag-NPs Non-Coated and Ag NM300K) and silver salt (AgNO3) in LUFA 2.2 soil. Three biological replicates per test treatment and controls (un-spiked LUFA soil for AgNO3, Ag-NPs PVP-Coated and Ag-NPs Non-Coated; and LUFA soil mixed with the NM300K dispersants _tween 20 for the Ag NM300K) were used.