Knockout of EZH2 inhibits the tumorigenicity of human ovarian cancers cells SKOV3 by targeting steroid biosynthesis
ABSTRACT: Ovarian cancer has the highest mortality in gynecologic cancers and most patients are diagnosed in advanced stages. EZH2 has been a major tumor markers and effective therapeutic targets for ovarian cancer, which molecular mechanism remain unclear. The present study was investigated the biological effects on EZH2 knock-out SKOV3 cells in vitro and in vivo experiment, and explore the molecular mechanism by integrated analysis of mRNA-seq and CHIP-seq. CRISPR/Cas9 system was used to establish the knock-out EZH2 SKOV3 cells. Protein expression was detected by Western blot. The effect of EZH2 in ovarian cancer was detected by MTT assay, wound scratch assay and Transwell assay, apoptosis assay in vitro and xenograft model in vivo. mRNA-seq and CHIP-seq was used to explore the molecular mechanism of biological function of EZH2. Overall design: mRNA and H3K27me3 profiles of wild type (WT) SKOV3 and SKOV3/sgEZH2 were generated by deep sequencing
Project description:Background:Ovarian cancer has the highest mortality rate among gynecologic cancers, and most patients are diagnosed in advanced stages. Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is a major tumor marker and an effective therapeutic target for ovarian cancer, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. The present study investigated the biological effects of EZH2 knockout in SKOV3 cells in vitro and in vivo and explored the molecular mechanism by integrated analysis of messenger RNA sequencing (mRNA-seq) and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) data. Methods:The CRISPR/Cas9 system was used to establish EZH2 knockout SKOV3 cells. Protein expression was evaluated by Western blotting. The effect of EZH2 on ovarian cancer was evaluated in vitro with MTT, wound healing, Transwell, and apoptosis assays and in vivo with a xenograft model. mRNA-seq and ChIP-seq were performed to explore the molecular mechanism underlying the biological function of EZH2. Immunohistochemical staining (IHC) of tissue arrays was used to analyze the correlations among EZH2 and CYP27B1 expressions and prognosis. Results:We obtained three EZH2 knockout subclones. EZH2 knockout SKOV3 cells exhibited significantly suppressed proliferation, migration, and invasion and a significantly increased apoptosis rate. The subcutaneous tumor formation rate decreased from 100 to 0% in the EZH2 knockout group. Integrated analysis of the mRNA-seq and ChIP-seq data identified 1,455 significantly upregulated genes with matching downregulated trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) methylation binding sites in 1b11H cells compared to SKOV3 cells. The set of downregulated genes in EZH2 knockout cells was highly enriched in genes regulating the activation of steroid biosynthesis; the top-ranked hub gene was CYP27B1. The EZH2 and CYP27B1 expression levels showed a statistically significant inverse correlation, which was also associated with unfavorable prognosis. The in vitro experiment demonstrated that CYP27B1 can suppress the proliferation, migration, and invasion of ovarian cancer cells. Moreover, the levels of AKT and p-AKT were significantly increased, whereas STAT3 was downregulated, in 1b11H cells compared to SKOV3 cells. Moreover, STAT3 and AKT overexpression was observed in 1b11H siRNA for CYP27B1 (siCYP27B1) cells. Conclusion:EZH2 plays an important role in promoting cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in ovarian cancer by regulating the core steroid biosynthesis gene via H3K27me3 methylation. Moreover, CYP27B1, the steroid biosynthesis hub gene, might be a novel therapeutic target for ovarian cancer.
Project description:ObjectiveThis study aimed to investigate the effect of Wnt/?-catenin signal pathway mediated by miR-342-5p targeting CBX2 gene on the proliferation, metastasis, invasion and apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells, and to explore its related regulatory mechanism.MethodsHuman normal ovarian epithelial cell line IOSE80, human ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3 and OVCAR3 were the subjects. Software were used to predict the binding site of miR-342-5p targeting CBX2 gene. The proliferation rate of ovarian cancer cells was detected by MTT method; the cell viability of each group was observed by colony formation test; the apoptosis of cells in each group was detected by flow cytometry; the invasive ability of cells was determined by transwell test, and the migration ability of cells was detected by scratch test. The mRNA expression levels of miR-342-5p, CBX2, Wnt1, ?-catenin, C-myc and Cyclin D1 were measured by qRT-PCR. Also, Western blot was used to determine the protein expression levels of CBX2, Wnt1, ?-catenin, C-myc and Cyclin D1.ResultsCBX2 was identified as the target gene of miR-342-5p. MTT test results showed that miR-342-5p could significantly inhibit the proliferation of SKOV3 and OVCAR3 cells, colony formation assay results indicated that the viability of SKOV3 and OVCAR3 cells transfected with miR-342-5p decreased significantly, and flow cytometry results suggested that miR-342-5p could promote the apoptosis of SKOV3 and OVCAR3 cells. Also, the results of transwell showed that miR-342-5p could significantly inhibit the invasive ability of SKOV3 and OVCAR3 cells, and the results of scratch assay suggested that miR-342-5p could significantly inhibit the migration of SKOV3 and OVCAR3 cells. Moreover, qRT-PCR and Western blot results indicated that the mRNA and protein expression levels of CBX2, Wnt1, ?-catenin, C-myc and Cyclin D1 decreased in SKOV3 and OVCAR3 cells transfected with miR-342-5p, while the mRNA expression levels of miR-342-5p increased significantly (P<0.05).ConclusionMiR-342-5p targeted gene is CBX2, which can significantly reduce the proliferation, invasion, migration and viability of ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV3 and OVCAR3, and promote their apoptosis. The mechanism may be related to the mediation of Wnt/?-catenin signal pathway and down-regulation of the related genes expression.
Project description:Metformin has been used for the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus for decades. Recently, used of metformin in the therapy of diverse human cancer types has received widespread attention, while the underlying mechanisms have been not fully elucidated. In the current study, 5-ethynyl-20-deoxyuridine assay to detect cell proliferation, flow cytometry to detect apoptosis, scratch wound healing and Transwell migration assay to detect cell migration capacity. The current study reported that metformin inhibited cell proliferation and migration, and promoted apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells, particularly under normoglycemic conditions in vitro. Metformin treatment significantly promoted the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and reduced histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) and polycomb repressor complex 2 (PRC2) levels. Additionally, overexpression of EZH2 to increase H3K27me3 abrogated the effect of metformin on the cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis in SKOV3 and ES2 cells. Similar to metformin, another AMPK agonist, 2-deoxy-D-glucose, reduced the H3K27me3 level and PRC2 expression. In cells pretreated with Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, metformin was not able to induce AMPK phosphorylation or reduce H3K27me3. Metformin-mediated AMPK activation and H3K27me3 inhibition were more robust in cells exposed to low glucose (5.5 mM) compared with those exposed to high glucose (25 mM). These findings implicate H3K27me3 repression mediated by AMPK phosphorylation in the antitumor effect of metformin in ovarian cancer, indicating that metformin alters epigenetic modifications by targeting PRC2 and supports the use of metformin in treatment of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer without diabetes.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is still a major gynecologic problem with poor 5 year survival rate due to distance metastases, despite routine surgery and chemotherapy. The precise underlying molecular mechanisms that trigger EOC migration and invasion are unclear. Recent studies suggest that the expression of microRNAs is widely dysregulated in ovarian cancer; and that they have evolved into tumorigenic processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis and motility. METHODS: The expression of miR-124 was assessed in clinical ovarian cancer specimens and cell lines using miRNA qRTPCR. The function of miR-124 on cell migration and invasion was confirmed in vitro through wound healing assay and transwell assay. Luciferase reporter assay was used to confirm target associations. RESULTS: We showed that miR-124 is down-regulated in ovarian cancer specimens as well as in cell lines; and that low-level expression of miR-124 is much lower in highly metastatic ovarian cancer cells and tissues. Meantime, overexpression of miR-124 dramatically inhibits the motility of ovarian cancer cells in vitro and substantially suppresses the protein expression of SphK1, reported as an invasion and metastasis-related gene in human cancers, whose expression is markedly increased in both ovarian cancer cell lines and clinical samples, particularly in two highly metastasis cells, SKOV3-ip and HO8910pm as well as metastatic ovarian tumor tissues. Furthermore, SphK1 is identified as a direct target of miR-124, and knock-down of SphK1 in ovarian cancer cells, SKOV3-ip and HO8910pm, could mimic the inhibition of migration and invasion by miR-124, while re-introduction of SphK1 abrogates the suppression of motility and invasiveness induced by miR-124 in both cell lines. CONCLUSIONS: Our studies suggest a protective role of miR-124 in inhibition of migration and invasion in the molecular etiology of ovarian cancer, and a potentially novel application of miR-124 in the regulation of migration and invasion in EOC.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic cancer. Chemoresistance, especially platinum-resistance, is closely related to metastasis of ovarian cancer, however, the molecular basis by which links chemoresistance and metastasis remains vague. Disordered arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism has been shown to play an important role in the advanced ovarian cancer. This study aimed to explore the underlying mechanism involving eicosanoid metabolism that controlling chemoresistance and metastasis of ovarian cancer. METHODS:Cisplatin (DDP)-resistant SKOV3 (SKOV3-R) cells were constantly induced. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was performed to determine the AA metabolism in SKOV3 and SKOV3-R cells. Half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) and percentage of cell viability were tested using cell counting kit 8 (CCK-8). Realtime quantitative PCR (qPCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to evaluate indicated genes and proteins respectively. Bioinformatic analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) were performed to predict and identify the co-transcription factor of interest genes. Tumor growth and metastasis in the liver were assessed with nude mice by subcutaneously injection of SKOV3-R cells. RESULTS:SKOV3-R cells expressed higher multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs) MRP1 and MRP4. They showed enhanced metastatic ability and produced increased AA-derived eicosanoids. Mechanistically, MRPs, epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers Snail and Slug, as well as key enzymes involved in AA-metabolism including 12-lipoxygenase (12LOX) were transcribed by the mutual transcription factor SP1 which was consistently upregulated in SKOV3-R cells. Inhibition of SP1 or 12LOX sensitized SKOV3-R cells to DDP and impaired metastasis in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSION:Our results reveal that SP1-12LOX axis signaling plays a key role in DDP-resistance and metastasis, which provide a new therapeutic target for ovarian cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal disease among female genital malignant tumors. Peptidylarginine deiminase type II(PADI II) has been shown to enhance a variety of cancers carcinogenesis, including ovarian cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the biological role of PADI2 in ovarian cancer (OC) and the relative mechanism. METHODS:Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA) ( https://gepia.pku.cn/ ) and ONCOMINE ( https://www.oncomine.org/ ) were used to analyze PADI2 Gene Expression data. The survival curve for the PADI2 gene was generated by using the online Kaplan-Meier mapping site ( https://www.kmplot.com/ ). We conducted MTT assay, cloning formation assay and EdU cell proliferation assay to detect the cell activity of PADI2 knockdown A2780 and SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells treated with Olaparib. Cell migration and invasion were observed by would healing and transwell assay. The pathway changes after the treatment of PADI2 were detected by transcriptome sequencing and western blot. The role of PADI2 combined with Olaparib treatment in vivo was studied in nude mouse model bearing ovarian cancer tumor. RESULTS:We investigated the role of PADI2 on EOC in vitro and in vivo. PADI2 was upregulated in ovarian cancer samples and high PADI2 expression was correlated with poor outcome. Downregulating PADI2 suppressed colony formation, proliferation, migration and invasion of A2780 and SKOV3 cells. Furthermore, downregulating PADI2 and Olaparib combination treatment attenuated the viability, migration and invasion of A2780 and SKOV3 cells. We identified differentially expressed genes in A2780-shPADI2 and SKOV3-shPADI2 cell by transcriptome sequencing analysis and verified that downregulating PADI2 and Olaparib combination treatment suppresses EMT and JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway in A2780 and SKOV3 cells in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS:Downregulation of PADI2 and Olaparib combination treatment attenuated the proliferation, migration and invasion of A2780 and SKOV3 cells by inhibiting the EMT through JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway.
Project description:Traditional Chinese medicine has gained popularity due to its ability to kill tumor cells. Recently, the apoptotic and anti-angiogenic effects of Trametes robiniophila murr (Huaier) have been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate its effect on cell mobility and tumor growth in ovarian cancer. Cell viability and motility were measured using SRB, scratch and migration assays. Cell apoptosis was analysed by annexin V/PI staining. Using a reverse-phase protein array (RPPA) assay, we analyzed the levels of 153 proteins and/or phosphorylations in Huaier-treated and untreated cells. Huaier inhibited cell viability and induced both early and late apoptosis in SKOV3, SKOV3.ip1 and Hey cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Cell invasiveness and migration were also suppressed significantly. The RPPA results showed significant differences (of at least 30%; P <0.05) in the levels of 7 molecules in SKOV3 cells and 10 in SKOV3.ip1 cells between the untreated and treated cells. Most of the molecules identified play roles in cell proliferation, apoptosis or cell adhesion/invasion. Western blot analysis further validated that Huaier treatment resulted in decreased AKT phosphorylation, enhanced expression of total GSK3?, inhibition of the phosphorylation of GSK3? on S9, reduction of both cytoplasmic ?-catenin expression and nuclear ?-catenin translocation, and transcriptional repression of several Wnt/?-catenin target genes (DIXDC1, LRP6, WNT5A, and cyclin D1). After knocking down GSK3?, ?-catenin expression could not be inhibited by Huaier. Finally, Huaier inhibited the growth of ovarian tumor xenografts in vivo. These studies indicate that Huaier inhibits tumor cell mobility in ovarian cancer via the AKT/GSK3?/?-catenin signaling pathway.
Project description:Ovarian cancer incidence continues to increase at an alarming rate. Although various therapeutic approaches exist for ovarian cancer, they have limitations, including undesired side effects. Therefore, nanoparticle (NP)-mediated therapy may be a viable, biocompatible, and suitable alternative. To the best of our knowledge, no comprehensive analysis has been undertaken on the cytotoxicity and cellular pathways involved in ovarian cancer cells, particularly SKOV3 cells. Here, we investigated the effect of palladium NPs (PdNPs) and the molecular mechanisms and cellular pathways involved in ovarian cancer. We assayed cell viability, proliferation, cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, DNA damage, and apoptosis and performed an RNA-Seq analysis. The results showed that PdNPs elicited concentration-dependent decreases in cell viability and proliferation and induced increasing cytotoxicity at increasing concentrations, as determined by leakage of lactate dehydrogenase, increased levels of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde, and decreased levels of antioxidants like glutathione and superoxide dismutase. Furthermore, our study revealed that PdNPs induce mitochondrial dysfunction by altering mitochondrial membrane potential, reducing adenosine triphosphate levels, inducing DNA damage, and activating caspase 3, all of which significantly induced apoptosis in SKOV3 cells following PdNPs treatment. Gene ontology (GO) term analysis of PdNPs-exposed SKOV3 cells showed various dysregulated pathways, particularly nucleosome assembly, telomere organization, and rDNA chromatin silencing. When genes downregulated by PdNPs were applied to GO term enrichment analysis, nucleosome assembly was the top-ranked biological pathway. We also provide evidence for an association between PdNPs exposure and multiple layers of epigenetic transcriptional control and establish a molecular basis for NP-mediated apoptosis. These findings provide a foundation, potential targets, and novel insights into the mechanism underlying toxicity and pathways in SKOV3 cells, and open new avenues to identify novel targets for ovarian cancer treatment.
Project description:Background:Paclitaxel (PTX) resistance is a great obstacle for the treatment of ovarian cancer. A previous study indicated that tetrandrine (TET) could induce the apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells. This study aimed to explore the effect of TET in combination with PTX on PTX resistance in ovarian cancer cells. Materials and Methods:CCK-8 assay, flow cytometry and wound healing assays were used to detect the proliferation, apoptosis and migration of PTX-resistant SKOV3 cells (SKOV3/PTX). The expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, cleaved caspase 3, ?-catenin, c-Myc, cyclin D1 and p21 in SKOV3/PTX cells were detected with Western blot. In vivo animal study was performed finally. Results:In this study, the inhibitory effects of PTX on the proliferation and migration of SKOV3/PTX cells were markedly enhanced by TET. In addition, PTX-induced apoptosis in SKOV3/PTX cells was significantly enhanced by the treatment of TET via upregulating the levels of Bax and cleaved caspase 3, and downregulating the expression of Bcl-2. Moreover, combination of TET and PTX obviously induced cell cycle arrest in SKOV3/PTX cells via increasing the level of p21 and decreasing the levels of c-Myc and Cyclin D1. Meanwhile, combination of TET with PTX significantly decreased the expression of ?-catenin in SKOV3/PTX cells. In vivo experiments further confirmed that TET enhanced the anti-tumor effect of PTX in SKOV3/PTX xenograft model. Conclusion:We found that TET could enhance the sensitivity of SKOV3/PTX cells to PTX via inhibiting the ?-catenin/c-Myc/Cyclin D1 signaling pathway. Therefore, PTX combined with TET might be considered as a potential approach for the treatment of PTX-resistant ovarian cancer.
Project description:Background:Evidence has been shown that circular RNAs (circRNAs) play a vital role during the development of ovarian cancer. However, the mechanism by which circEXOC6B regulates tumorigenesis of ovarian cancer remains unknown. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the role of circEXOC6B during the progression of ovarian cancer. Materials and Methods:The dual-luciferase reporter system assay was used to determine the interaction between circEXOC6B, miR-421 and RUS1 in ovarian cancer, respectively. CCK8 and colony formatting were used to evaluate cell proliferation. Meanwhile, the expressions of RSU1, PINCH1 and ILK in SKOV3 cells were detected with Western blot. Results:Downregulation of circEXOC6B markedly promoted the proliferation and invasion in A2780 cells. In contrast, upregulation of circEXOC6B significantly inhibited the proliferation and invasion in SKOV3 cells. Moreover, overexpression of circEXOC6B obviously induced the apoptosis of SKOV3 cells. Furthermore, luciferase reporter assay identified that miR-421 was the potential miRNA binding of circEXOC6B, and RUS1 was the potential binding target of miR-421. Mechanism analysis indicated that upregulation of circEXOC6B increased the level of RUS1 by acting as a competitive "sponge" of miR-421. Conclusion:In this study, we found that circEXOC6B suppressed the growth of ovarian cancer cells through upregulating RSU1 partially via sponging miR-421. Therefore, circEXOC6B might be a potential target for the treatment of ovarian cancer.