EXP_139_AC_ranscriptional changes observed in 94T778 cells subjected to different pharmacologic pressures.
ABSTRACT: 94T778 cells were exposed to nutlin-3a, palbociclib and tunicamycin. Cells were harvested during the early phase of the adaptive evolution in 94T778 cells exposed to palbociclib (P), nutlin-3a (N) and tunicamycin (T) sampled at 10 weeks for P and N and at 9 weeks post-bottleneck for T condition. Overall design: The experiment was designed to study the impact of targeted anti-cancer therapies on the expression of genes involed in different DNA repair pathways
Project description:BACKGROUND: Induction of cellular senescence through activation of the p53 tumor suppressor protein is a new option for treating proliferative disorders. Nutlins prevent the ubiquitin ligase MDM2 (murine double minute 2), a negative p53 regulator, from interacting with p53. We hypothesized that cell senescence induced by Nutlin-3a exerted therapeutic effects in pulmonary hypertension (PH) by limiting the proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PA-SMCs). METHODS AND RESULTS: Nutlin-3a treatment of cultured human PA-SMCs resulted in cell growth arrest with the induction of senescence but not apoptosis; increased phosphorylated p53 protein levels; and expression of p53 target genes including p21, Bax, BTG2, and MDM2. Daily intraperitoneal Nutlin-3a treatment for 3 weeks dose-dependently reduced PH, right ventricular hypertrophy, and distal pulmonary artery muscularization in mice exposed to chronic hypoxia or SU5416/hypoxia. Nutlin-3a treatment also partially reversed PH in chronically hypoxic or transgenic mice overexpressing the serotonin-transporter in SMCs (SM22-5HTT+ mice). In these mouse models of PH, Nutlin-3a markedly increased senescent p21-stained PA-SMCs; lung p53, p21, and MDM2 protein levels; and p21, Bax, PUMA, BTG2, and MDM2 mRNA levels; but induced only minor changes in control mice without PH. Marked MDM2 immunostaining was seen in both mouse and human remodeled pulmonary vessels, supporting the use of Nutlins as a PH-targeted therapy. PH prevention or reversal by Nutlin-3a required lung p53 stabilization and increased p21 expression, as indicated by the absence of Nutlin-3a effects in hypoxia-exposed p53(-/-) and p21(-/-) mice. CONCLUSIONS: Nutlin-3a may hold promise as a prosenescence treatment targeting PA-SMCs in PH.
Project description:Nutlin-3a is a preclinical drug that stabilizes p53 by blocking the interaction between p53 and MDM2. In our previous study, Nutlin-3a promoted a tetraploid G(1) arrest in two p53 wild-type cell lines (HCT116 and U2OS), and both cell lines underwent endoreduplication after Nutlin-3a removal. Endoreduplication gave rise to stable tetraploid clones resistant to therapy-induced apoptosis. Prior knowledge of whether cells are susceptible to Nutlin-induced endoreduplication and therapy resistance could help direct Nutlin-3a-based therapies. In the present study, Nutlin-3a promoted a tetraploid G(1) arrest in multiple p53 wild-type cell lines. However, some cell lines underwent endoreduplication to relatively high extents after Nutlin-3a removal whereas other cell lines did not. The resistance to endoreduplication observed in some cell lines was associated with a prolonged 4N arrest after Nutlin-3a removal. Knockdown of either p53 or p21 immediately after Nutlin-3a removal could drive endoreduplication in otherwise resistant 4N cells. Finally, 4N-arrested cells retained persistent p21 expression; expressed senescence-associated beta-galactosidase; displayed an enlarged, flattened phenotype; and underwent a proliferation block that lasted at least 2 weeks after Nutlin-3a removal. These findings demonstrate that transient Nutlin-3a treatment can promote an apparently permanent proliferative block in 4N cells of certain cell lines associated with persistent p21 expression and resistance to endoreduplication.
Project description:Naturally oncolytic reovirus preferentially kills cancer cells, making it a promising cancer therapeutic. Mutations in tumour suppressor p53 are prevalent in cancers, yet the role of p53 in reovirus oncolysis is relatively unexplored.Human cancer cell lines were exposed to Nutlin-3a, reovirus or a combination of the two and cells were processed for reovirus titration, western blot, real-time PCR and apoptosis assay using Annexin V and 7-AAD staining. Confocal microscopy was used to determine translocation of the NF-?B p65 subunit.We show that despite similar reovirus replication in p53(+/+) and p53(-/-) cells, stabilisation of p53 by Nutlin-3a significantly enhanced reovirus-induced apoptosis and hence virus release and dissemination while having no direct effect on virus replication. Enhanced apoptosis by Nutlin-3a was not observed in p53(-/-) or p53 knockdown cells; however, increased expression of Bax and p21 are required. Moreover, elevated NF-?B activation in reovirus-infected cells following Nutlin-3a treatment was necessary for enhanced reovirus-induced apoptosis, as synergistic cytotoxicity was overcome by specific NF-?B inhibitors.Nutlin-3a treatment enhances reovirus-induced apoptosis and virus spread through p53-dependent NF-?B activation, and combination of reovirus and Nutlin-3a might represent an improved therapy against cancers harbouring wild-type p53.
Project description:Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) plays important roles in single strand DNA repair. PARP1 inhibitors enhance the effects of DNA damaging drugs in homologous recombination-deficient tumors including tumors with breast cancer susceptibility gene (BRCA1) mutation. Nutlin-3a, an analog of cis-imidazoline, inhibits degradation of murine double minute 2 (MDM2) and stabilizes p53. We previously reported that nutlin-3a induces PARP1 degradation in p53-dependent manner in mouse fibroblasts, suggesting nutlin-3a may be a PARP1 suppressor. Here, we investigated the effects of nutlin-3a on PARP1 in MCF-7, a human breast cancer cell line. Consistent with our previous results, nutlin-3a reduced PARP1 levels in dose- and time-dependent manners in MCF-7 cells, but this reduction was suppressed in p53 knockdown cells. RITA, a p53 stabilizer that binds to p53 itself, failed to reduce PARP1 protein levels. Moreover, transient MDM2 knockdown repressed nutlin-3a-mediated PARP1 reduction. The MG132 proteasome inhibitor, and knockdown of checkpoint with forkhead and ring finger domains (CHFR) and ring finger protein 146 (RNF146), E3 ubiquitin ligases targeting PARP1, suppressed nutlin-3a-induced PARP1 reduction. Short-term nutlin-3a treatment elevated the levels of PARylated PARP1, suggesting nutlin-3a promoted PARylation of PARP1, thereby inducing its proteasomal degradation. Furthermore, nutlin-3a-induced PARP1 degradation enhanced DNA-damaging effects of cisplatin in BRCA1 knockdown cells. Our study revealed that nutlin-3a is a PARP1 suppressor that induces PARP1 proteasomal degradation by binding to MDM2 and promoting autoPARylation of PARP1. Further analysis of the mechanisms in nutlin-3a-induced PARP1 degradation may lead to the development of novel PARP1 suppressors applicable for cancers with BRCA1 mutation.
Project description:Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP; ABCG2), a clinical marker for identifying the side population (SP) cancer stem cell subgroup, affects intestinal absorption, brain penetration, hepatobiliary excretion, and multidrug resistance of many anti-cancer drugs. Nutlin-3a is currently under pre-clinical investigation in a variety of solid tumor and leukemia models as a p53 reactivation agent, and has been recently demonstrated to also have p53 independent actions in cancer cells. In the present study, we first report that nutlin-3a can inhibit the efflux function of BCRP. We observed that although the nutlin-3a IC(50) did not differ between BCRP over-expressing and vector control cells, nutlin-3a treatment significantly potentiated the cells to treatment with the BCRP substrate mitoxantrone. Combination index calculations suggested synergism between nutlin-3a and mitoxantrone in cell lines over-expressing BCRP. Upon further investigation, it was confirmed that nutlin-3a increased the intracellular accumulation of BCRP substrates such as mitoxantrone and Hoechst 33342 in cells expressing functional BCRP without altering the expression level or localization of BCRP. Interestingly, nutlin-3b, considered virtually "inactive" in disrupting the MDM2/p53 interaction, reversed Hoechst 33342 efflux with the same potency as nutlin-3a. Intracellular accumulation and bi-directional transport studies using MDCKII cells suggested that nutlin-3a is not a substrate of BCRP. Additionally, an ATPase assay using Sf9 insect cell membranes over-expressing wild-type BCRP indicated that nutlin-3a inhibits BCRP ATPase activity in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, our studies demonstrate that nutlin-3a inhibits BCRP efflux function, which consequently reverses BCRP-related drug resistance.
Project description:Activated p53 can promote apoptosis or cell cycle arrest. Differences in energy metabolism can influence cell fate in response to activated p53. Nutlin-3a is a preclinical drug and small molecule activator of p53. Alpha-ketoglutarate (αKG) levels were reduced in cells sensitive to Nutlin-3a-induced apoptosis and increased in cells resistant to this apoptosis. Add-back of a cell-permeable αKG analog (DMKG) rescued cells from apoptosis in response to Nutlin-3a. OGDH is a component of the αKGDH complex that converts αKG to succinate. OGDH knockdown increased endogenous αKG levels and also rescued cells from Nutlin-3a-induced apoptosis. We previously showed reduced autophagy and ATG gene expression contributes to Nutlin-3a-induced apoptosis. DMKG and OGDH knockdown restored autophagy and ATG gene expression in Nutlin-3a-treated cells. These studies indicate αKG levels, regulated by p53 and OGDH, determine autophagy and apoptosis in response to Nutlin-3a.
Project description:p53 Activity is controlled in large part by MDM2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase that binds p53 and promotes its degradation. The MDM2 antagonist Nutlin-3a stabilizes p53 by blocking its interaction with MDM2. Several studies have supported the potential use of Nutlin-3a in cancer therapy. Two different p53 wild-type cancer cell lines (U2OS and HCT116) treated with Nutlin-3a for 24 hours accumulated 2N and 4N DNA content, suggestive of G(1) and G(2) phase cell cycle arrest. This coincided with increased p53 and p21 expression, hypophosphorylation of pRb, and depletion of Cyclin B1, Cyclin A, and CDC2. Upon removal of Nutlin-3a, 4N cells entered S phase and re-replicated their DNA without an intervening mitotic division, a process known as endoreduplication. p53-p21 pathway activation was required for the depletion of Cyclin B1, Cyclin A, and CDC2 in Nutlin-3a-treated cells and for endoreduplication after Nutlin-3a removal. Stable tetraploid clones could be isolated from Nutlin-3a treated cells, and these tetraploid clones were more resistant to ionizing radiation and cisplatin-induced apoptosis than diploid counterparts. These data indicate that transient Nutlin-3a treatment of p53 wild-type cancer cells can promote endoreduplication and the generation of therapy-resistant tetraploid cells. These findings have important implications regarding the use of Nutlin-3a in cancer therapy
Project description:Transient induction of p53 can cause reversible quiescence and irreversible senescence. Using nutlin-3a (a small molecule that activates p53 without causing DNA damage), we have previously identified cell lines in which nutlin-3a caused quiescence. Importantly, nutlin-3a caused quiescence by actively suppressing the senescence program (while still causing cell cycle arrest). Noteworthy, in these cells nutlin-3a inhibited the mTOR (mammalian Target of Rapamycin) pathway, which is known to be involved in the senescence program. Here we showed that shRNA-mediated knockdown of TSC2, a negative regulator of mTOR, partially converted quiescence into senescence in these nutlin-arrested cells. In accord, in melanoma cell lines and mouse embryo fibroblasts, which easily undergo senescence in response to p53 activation, nutlin-3a failed to inhibit mTOR. In these senescence-prone cells, the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin converted nutlin-3a-induced senescence into quiescence. We conclude that status of the mTOR pathway can determine, at least in part, the choice between senescence and quiescence in p53-arrested cells.
Project description:This study has examined the molecular mechanisms underlying sensitivity of sarcomas to Nutlin-3a, a non-genotoxic activator of the p53 pathway. Human patient material was collected immediately following surgical resection, dissected into small pieces and ex planted onto gelatin sponges immersed in media containing either vehicle control or Nutlin-3a (10uM and/or 50uM) for 48 hours. Nutlin-3a represents a novel targeted therapy for the treatment of sarcomas. We have examined expression profiles of genes upregulated in sarcoma patient derived tissues following nutlin-3a treatment ex vivo 16 samples ((Vehicle control and Nutlin-3a (10uM and 50uM) treated samples)) from 6 sarcoma patients
Project description:Nutlin-3a is a MDM2 antagonist and preclinical drug that activates p53. Cells with MDM2 gene amplification are especially prone to Nutlin-3a-induced apoptosis, though the basis for this is unclear. Glucose metabolism can inhibit apoptosis in response to Nutlin-3a through mechanisms that are incompletely understood. Glucose metabolism through the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) produces NADPH that can protect cells from potentially lethal reactive oxygen species (ROS). We compared apoptosis and glucose metabolism in cancer cells with and without MDM2 gene amplification treated with Nutlin-3a. Apoptosis in MDM2-amplified cells was associated with a reduction in glycolysis and the PPP, reduced NADPH, increased ROS, and depletion of the transcription factor SP1, which normally promotes PPP gene expression. In contrast, glycolysis and the PPP were maintained or increased in MDM2 non-amplified cells treated with Nutlin-3a. This was dependent on p53-mediated AKT activation and was associated with maintenance of SP1 and continued expression of PPP genes. Knockdown or inhibition of AKT, SP1, or the PPP sensitized MDM2-non-amplified cells to apoptosis. The data indicate that p53 promotes AKT and SP1-dependent activation of the PPP that protects cells from Nutlin-3a-induced apoptosis. These findings provide insight into how glucose metabolism reduces Nutlin-3a-induced apoptosis, and also provide a mechanism for the heightened sensitivity of MDM2-amplified cells to apoptosis in response to Nutlin-3a.