Transcriptional analysis of Leishmania infantum antimony resistant strains using full-genome DNA microarrays
ABSTRACT: The aim of the experiment is to detect any gene expression modulation in an antimony resistant L.infantum Sb2000.1 strain compared to an antimony sensitive L.infantum WT strain. We want to identify the modulated genes associated with an antimony resistant phenotype. The Sb2000.1 resistant strain used is about 1000 times more resistant to SbIII than the WT sensitive strain. The full-genome DNA microarrays includes one 70-oligonucleotide probe for each gene of L. infantum. Keywords: drug resistance Overall design: Two-condition experiment, resistant strain Sb2000.1 vs wild-type. Five biological replicates for each strain, independently grown and harvested. One replicate per array
INSTRUMENT(S): Centre de Recherche en Infectiologie du CHUL_Leishmania 9K array v1.0
Project description:The aim of the experiment is to detect any gene expression modulation in an antimony resistant L.infantum Sb2000.1 strain compared to an antimony sensitive L.infantum WT strain. We want to identify the modulated genes associated with an antimony resistant phenotype. The Sb2000.1 resistant strain used is about 1000 times more resistant to SbIII than the WT sensitive strain. The full-genome DNA microarrays includes one 70-oligonucleotide probe for each gene of L. infantum. Keywords: drug resistance Two-condition experiment, resistant strain Sb2000.1 vs wild-type. Five biological replicates for each strain, independently grown and harvested. One replicate per array
Project description:Transcriptional analysis of the drug resistant strain L. infantum MTX20.5 compared to the wild-type strain The full-genome DNA microarrays includes one 70-oligonucleotides probe for each gene of L. infantum Keywords: drug resistance Overall design: Two-condition experiment, resistant strain MTX20.5 vs wild-type. Four biological replicates for each strain, independently grown and harvested. One replicate per array
Project description:Transcriptional analysis of the drug resistant strain L. infantum MTX20.5 compared to the wild-type strain The full-genome DNA microarrays includes one 70-oligonucleotides probe for each gene of L. infantum Keywords: drug resistance Two-condition experiment, resistant strain MTX20.5 vs wild-type. Four biological replicates for each strain, independently grown and harvested. One replicate per array
Project description:Amphotericin B (AmB) in its liposomal form is now considered as either first- or second-line treatment against Leishmania infections in different part of the world. Few cases of AmB resistance have been reported and resistance mechanisms toward AmB are still poorly understood. This paper reports a large-scale comparative proteomic study in the context of AmB resistance. Quantitative proteomics using stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) was used to better characterize cytoplasmic and membrane-enriched (ME) proteomes of the in vitro generated Leishmania infantum AmB resistant mutant AmB1000.1. In total, 97 individual proteins were found as differentially expressed between the mutant and its parental sensitive strain (WT). More than half of these proteins were either metabolic enzymes or involved in transcription or translation processes. Key energetic pathways such as glycolysis and TCA cycle were up-regulated in the mutant. Interestingly, many proteins involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and heat-shock proteins were also up-regulated in the resistant mutant. This work provides a basis for further investigations to understand the roles of proteins differentially expressed in relation with AmB resistance.
Project description:Antimonials remain the first line drug against the protozoan parasite Leishmania but their efficacy is threatened by resistance. We carried out a RNA expression profiling analysis comparing an antimony-sensitive and -resistant (Sb2000.1) strain of Leishmania infantum using whole-genome 70-mer oligonucleotide microarrays. Several genes were differentially expressed between the two strains, several of which were found to be physically linked in the genome. MRPA, an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) gene known to be involved in antimony resistance, was overexpressed in the antimony-resistant mutant along with three other tandemly linked genes on chromosome 23. This four gene locus was flanked by 1.4 kb repeated sequences from which an extrachromosomal circular amplicon was generated in the resistant cells. Interestingly, gene expression modulation of entire chromosomes occurred in the antimony-resistant mutant. Southern blots analyses and comparative genomic hybridizations revealed that this was either due to the presence of supernumerary chromosomes or to the loss of one chromosome. Leishmania parasites with haploid chromosomes were viable. Changes in copy number for some of these chromosomes were confirmed in another antimony-resistant strain. Selection of a partial revertant line correlated antimomy resistance levels and the copy number of aneuploid chromosomes, suggesting a putative link between aneuploidy and drug resistance in Leishmania.
Project description:Leishmaniasis constitutes the 9th largest disease burden among all infectious diseases. Control of this disease is based on a short list of chemotherapeutic agents headed by pentavalent antimonials, followed by miltefosine and amphotericin B; drugs that are far from ideal due to host toxicity, elevated cost, limited access, and high rates of drug resistance. Knowing that the composition of extracellular vesicles (EVs) can vary according to the state of their parental cell, we hypothesized that EVs released by drug-resistant Leishmania infantum parasites could contain unique and differently enriched proteins depending on the drug-resistance mechanisms involved in the survival of their parental cell line. To assess this possibility, we studied EV production, size, morphology, and protein content of three well-characterized drug-resistant L. infantum cell lines and a wild-type strain. Our results are the first to demonstrate that drug-resistance mechanisms can induce changes in the morphology, size, and distribution of L. infantum EVs. In addition, we identified L. infantum's core EV proteome. This proteome is highly conserved among strains, with the exception of a handful of proteins that are enriched differently depending on the drug responsible for induction of antimicrobial resistance. Furthermore, we obtained the first snapshot of proteins enriched in EVs released by antimony-, miltefosine- and amphotericin-resistant parasites. These include several virulence factors, transcription factors, as well as proteins encoded by drug-resistance genes. This detailed study of L. infantum EVs sheds new light on the potential roles of EVs in Leishmania biology, particularly with respect to the parasite's survival in stressful conditions. This work outlines a crucial first step towards the discovery of EV-based profiles capable of predicting response to antileishmanial agents.
Project description:Background:Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania infantum is the most severe form of leishmaniasis in Iran, which causes a high mortality rate in the case of inaccurate diagnosis and treatment. This study aimed to clone of K26 gene from Iranian strain of L. infantum and register the sequencing results in Genbank to facilitate the preparation a new K26 antigen for the detection of L. infantum infection. Methods:L. infantum was obtained from an infected domestic dog in Meshkin-Shahr area from northwestern Iran in 2015. Canine visceral leishmaniasis was confirmed by direct agglutination test (DAT), rK39 dipstick and parasitological methods. L. infantum was confirmed by N-acetyl glucosamine -1-phosphate transferase (nagt)-PCR and its sequencing. The band of interest for k26 form Iranian strain of L. infantum was purified by gel extraction kit after PCR amplification and then ligated into pBluescript II SK (+) and pET-32a (+), respectively. The sequences of recombinant plasmids were analyzed and submitted to Genbank. Results:The submission of rk26 nucleotide sequence was performed to the GeneBank/NCBI Data Base under accession number KY212883. The related gene was showed a homology about 99% to L. chagasi and L. infantum k26 gene, while the level of homology in comparison with different strains of L. donovani ranged from 84-94%. Conclusion:The successful rk26 cloning into an expression vector performed in this study could help to produce a new recombinant antigen for serodiagnosis of VL especially in areas where L. infantum is the main causative agent.
Project description:Leishmania infantum infections in dogs play a crucial role in the transmission of pathogens causing visceral leishmaniasis to humans in the Gansu province, northwest China. To be able to control zoonotic transmission of the parasite to humans, a non-invasive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay to specifically detect L. infantum infections in dogs was developed.The primers used in the LAMP assay were designed to target kinetoplast DNA minicircle sequences of the L. infantum isolate MCAN/CN/90/SC and tested using DNA isolated from promastigotes of different Leishmania species. The LAMP assay was evaluated with conjunctional swab samples obtained from 111 and 33 dogs living in an endemic and a non-endemic region of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in the Gansu province, respectively. The LAMP assay was also compared with conventional PCR, ELISA and microscopy using conjunctional swab, serum and bone marrow samples from the dogs, respectively.The LAMP assay detected 1 fg of L. infantum DNA purified from cultured promastigotes which was 10-fold more sensitive than a conventional PCR test using Leishmania genus-specific primers. No cross reaction was observed with DNA isolated from promastigotes of L. donovani, L. major, L. tropica, and L. braziliensis, and the L. infantum reference strain MHOM/TN/80/IPT1. The L. infantum-positive rates obtained for field-collected samples were 61.3%, 58.6%, 40.5% and 10.8% by LAMP, PCR, ELISA and microscopy, respectively. As only one out of the 33 samples from control dogs from the non-endemic region of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis was positive by the LAMP assay and the PCR test, the observed true negative rate (specificity) was 97% for both methods.This study has shown that the non-invasive, conjunctional swab-based LAMP assay developed was more sensitive in the detection of leishmaniasis in dogs than PCR, ELISA and microscopy. The findings indicate that the LAMP assay is a sensitive and specific method for the field surveillance of domestic dogs, particularly of asymptomatic canines, in ZVL-endemic areas in western China.
Project description:Leishmania infantum causes visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the New World. The diagnosis of VL is confirmed by parasitological and serological tests, which are not always sensitive or specific. Our aim was to design new primers to perform a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for detecting L. infantum. Sequences of the minicircle kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) were obtained from GenBank, and the FLC2/RLC2 primers were designed. Samples of DNA from L. infantum, Leishmania amazonensis, Leishmania braziliensis, Leishmania guyanensis, Leishmania naiffi, Leishmania lainsoni, Leishmania panamensis, Leishmania major and Trypanosoma cruzi were used to standardize the PCR. PCR with FLC2/RLC2 primers amplified a fragment of 230 bp and the detection limit was 0.2 fg of L. infantum DNA. Of the parasite species assayed, only L. infantum DNA was amplified. After sequencing, the fragment was aligned to GenBank sequences, and showed (99%) homology with L. infantum. In the analysis of blood samples and lesion biopsy from a dog clinically suspected to have VL, the PCR detected DNA from L. infantum. In biopsy lesions from humans and dogs with cutaneous leishmaniasis, the PCR was negative. The PCR with FLC2/RLC2 primers showed high sensitivity and specificity, and constitutes a promising technique for the diagnosis of VL.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Tryparedoxin peroxidase (TXNPx) participates in defence against oxidative stress as an antioxidant by metabolizing hydrogen peroxide into water molecules. Reports suggest that drug-resistant parasites may increase the levels of TXNPx and other enzymes, thereby protecting them against oxidative stress. METHODS: In this study, the gene encoding cytosolic TXNPx (cTXNPx) was characterized in lines of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum that are susceptible and resistant to potassium antimony tartrate (Sb(III)). We investigated the levels of mRNA and genomic organization of the cTXNPx gene. In addition, we transfected the Leishmania lines with the cTXNPx gene and analysed the susceptibility of transfected parasites to Sb(III) and to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). RESULTS: Northern blot and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that the level of TXNPx mRNA was approximately 2.5-fold higher in the Sb(III)-resistant L. braziliensis line than in the parental line. In contrast, no significant difference in cTXNPx mRNA levels between the L. infantum lines was observed. Southern blot analyses revealed that the cTXNPx gene is not amplified in the genome of the Sb(III)-resistant Leishmania lines analysed. Functional analysis of cTXNPx was performed to determine whether overexpression of the enzyme in L. braziliensis and L. infantum lines would change their susceptibility to Sb(III). Western blotting analysis showed that the level of cTXNPx was 2 to 4-fold higher in transfected clones compared to non-transfected cells. Antimony susceptibility test (EC50 assay) revealed that L. braziliensis lines overexpressing cTXNPx had a 2-fold increase in resistance to Sb(III) when compared to the untransfected parental line. In addition, these clones are more tolerant to exogenous H2O2 than the untransfected parental line. In contrast, no difference in Sb(III) susceptibility and a moderate index of resistance to H2O2 was observed in L. infantum clones overexpressing cTXNPx. CONCLUSION: Our functional analysis revealed that cTXNPx is involved in the antimony-resistance phenotype in L. braziliensis.