Single-cell RNA-seq of UVB-radiated Skin Reveals Landscape of Photoaging-related Inflammation and Protection by Vitamin D
ABSTRACT: Due to the destruction of the ozone layer, the ultraviolet radiation received by our skin has increased significantly. Continuous exposure to sunlight can cause damage to our skin, which can lead to photoaging and even skin cancer. We performed single-cell RNA sequencing on the skin of normal and UV-irradiated mice, and found that UV-irradiation caused an inflammatory response in the skin of mice. On the contrary, the inflammation of the mice injected with vitamin D was significantly reduced. Finally, we uncovered that Hmox1 and vitamin D is related to achieve the anti-inflammatory effect of vitamin D. This provides a strategy for skin anti-UV treatment Overall design: Single cell sequencing of 9 weeks old normal and UV-irradiated mice
Project description:Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation from the sunlight is a major etiologic factor for premature skin aging. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in various biological processes, and their roles in UV irradiation-induced skin aging have recently been described. Previously, we found that the lncRNA RP11-670E13.6 was up-regulated and delayed cellular senescence in UVB-irradiated primary human dermal fibroblasts. Here, we performed further investigations of RP11-670E13.6 function. The results showed that this lncRNA directly bound to miR-663a and functioned as a sponge for miR-663a to modulate the derepression of Cdk4 and Cdk6, thereby delaying cellular senescence during UV irradiation-induced skin photoaging. Moreover, we found that RP11-670E13.6 may facilitate DNA damage repair by increasing ATM and ?H2A.X levels. In addition, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H physically interacted with RP11-670E13.6 and blocked its expression. Collectively, our results suggested that the RP11-670E13.6/miR-663a/CDK4 and RP11-670E13.6/miR-663a/CDK6 axis, which may function as competitive endogenous RNA networks, played important roles in UVB-induced cellular senescence.
Project description:Ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced loss of dermal extracellular matrix is associated with skin photoaging. Recent studies demonstrated that keratinocyte-releasable stratifin (SFN) plays a critical role in skin collagen metabolism by inducing matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1) expression in target fibroblasts. In the present study, we examined whether SFN released from UVB-irradiated epidermal keratinocytes increases MMP1 release from dermal fibroblasts, and whether these events are affected by p-coumaric acid (p-CA), a natural phenolic compound with UVB-shielding and antioxidant properties. HaCaT cells were exposed to UVB in the absence and presence of p-CA, and the conditioned medium was used to stimulate fibroblasts in medium transfer experiments. The cells and media were analyzed to determine the expressions/releases of SFN and MMP1. UVB exposure increased SFN release from keratinocytes into the medium. The conditioned medium of UVB-irradiated keratinocytes increased MMP1 release from fibroblasts. The depletion of SFN using a siRNA rendered the conditioned medium of UVB-irradiated keratinocytes ineffective at stimulating fibroblasts to release MMP1. p-CA mitigated UVB-induced SFN expression in keratinocytes, and attenuated the MMP1 release by fibroblasts in medium transfer experiments. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the use of UV absorbers such as p-CA would reduce UV-induced SFN-centered signaling events involved in skin photoaging.
Project description:We investigated whether standardized edible bird's nest extract (BNE-PK) can prevent ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation-mediated oxidative stress and photoaging in the skin using in vitro and in vivo models. BNE-PK increased skin hydration by hyaluronic acid synthesis and activation of ceramide synthase in UVB-irradiated hairless mice and HaCaT cells. Furthermore, BNE-PK suppressed melanogenesis by down-regulation of the cAMP/PKA/CREB/MITF/TRP-1/TRP-2/tyrosinase pathway in UVB-irradiated hairless mice and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX)-treated B16F10 cells. In UVB-irradiated hairless mice, BNE-PK attenuated the wrinkle formation-related JNK/c-FOS/c-Jun/MMP pathway and activated the TGF-βRI/SMAD3/pro-collagen type I pathway during UVB-mediated oxidative stress. Based on these findings, our data suggest that BNE-PK may potentially be used for the development of effective natural anti-photoaging functional foods for skin health.
Project description:Reduced sunlight exposure has been associated with an increased incidence of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The effect of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on the faecal microbiome and susceptibility to colitis has not been explored. C57Bl/6 female mice were fed three different vitamin D-containing diets for 24 days before half of the mice in each group were UV-irradiated (1 kJ/m²) for each of four days, followed by twice-weekly irradiation of shaved dorsal skin for 35 days. Faecal DNA was extracted and high-throughput sequencing of the 16S RNA gene performed. UV irradiation of skin was associated with a significant change in the beta-diversity of faeces compared to nonirradiated mice, independently of vitamin D. Specifically, members of phylum Firmicutes, including <i>Coprococcus</i>, were enriched, whereas members of phylum Bacteroidetes, such as Bacteroidales, were depleted. Expression of colonic <i>CYP27B1</i> increased by four-fold and <i>IL1?</i> decreased by five-fold, suggesting a UVR-induced anti-inflammatory effect. UV-irradiated mice, however, were not protected against colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), although distinct faecal microbiome differences were documented post-DSS between UV-irradiated and nonirradiated mice. Thus, skin exposure to UVR alters the faecal microbiome, and further investigations to explore the implications of this in health and disease are warranted.
Project description:Positive physiological benefits of several plant oils on the UV-induced photoaging have been reported in some cell lines and model mice, but perilla oil collected from the seeds of Perilla frutescens L. has not been investigated in this context. To study the therapeutic effects of cold-pressed perilla oil (CPO) on UV-induced photoaging in vitro and in vivo, UV-induced cellular damage and cutaneous photoaging were assessed in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) and HR-1 hairless mice. CPO contained five major fatty acids including linolenic acid (64.11%), oleic acid (16.34%), linoleic acid (11.87%), palmitic acid (5.06%), and stearic acid (2.48%). UV-induced reductions in NHDF cell viability, ROS production, SOD activity, and G2/M cell cycle arrest were remarkably improved in UV + CPO treated NHDF cells as compared with UV + Vehicle treated controls. Also, UV-induced increases in MMP-1 protein and galactosidase levels were remarkably suppressed by CPO. In UV-radiated hairless mice, topical application of CPO inhibited an increase in wrinkle formation, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema value, hydration and melanin index on dorsal skin of UVB-irradiated hairless mice. CPO was observed to similarly suppress UV-induced increases in epidermal thickness, mast cell numbers, and galactosidase and MMP-3 mRNA levels. These results suggest CPO has therapeutic potential in terms of protecting against skin photoaging by regulating skin morphology, histopathology and oxidative status.
Project description:?Np63?, a proto-oncogene, is up-regulated in non-melanoma skin cancers and directly regulates the expression of both Vitamin D receptor (VDR) and phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN). Since ?Np63? has been shown to inhibit cell invasion via regulation of VDR, we wanted to determine whether dietary Vitamin D3 protected against UVB induced tumor formation in SKH-1 mice, a model for squamous cell carcinoma development. We examined whether there was a correlation between dietary Vitamin D3 and ?Np63?, VDR or PTEN expression in vivo in SKH-1 mice chronically exposed to UVB radiation and fed chow containing increasing concentrations of dietary Vitamin D3. Although we observed differential effects of the Vitamin D3 diet on ?Np63? and VDR expression in chronically irradiated normal mouse skin as well as UVB induced tumors, Vitamin D3 had little effect on PTEN expression in vivo. While low-grade papillomas in mice exposed to UV and fed normal chow displayed increased levels of ?Np63?, expression of both ?Np63? and VDR was reduced in invasive tumors. Interestingly, in mice fed high Vitamin D3 chow, elevated levels of ?Np63? were observed in both local and invasive tumors but not in normal skin suggesting that oral supplementation with Vitamin D3 may increase the proliferative potential of skin tumors by increasing ?Np63? levels.
Project description:Despite the predominance of ultraviolet A (UVA) relative to UVB in terrestrial sunlight, solar mutagenesis in humans and rodents is characterized by mutations specific for UVB. We have investigated the kinetics of repair of UVA- and UVB-induced DNA lesions in relation to mutagenicity in transgenic mouse fibroblasts irradiated with equilethal doses of UVA and UVB in comparison to simulated-sunlight UV (SSL). We have also analyzed mutagenesis-derived carcinogenesis in sunlight-associated human skin cancers by compiling the published data on mutation types found in crucial genes in nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Here, we demonstrate a resistance to repair of UVB-induced cis-syn cyclobutane pyrimidine-dimers (CPDs) together with rapid removal of UVA-induced oxidized purines in the genome overall and in the cII transgene of SSL-irradiated cells. The spectra of mutation induced by both UVB and SSL irradiation in this experimental system are characterized by significant increases in relative frequency of C-->T transitions at dipyrimidines, which are the established signature mutation of CPDs. This type of mutation is also the predominant mutation found in human nonmelanoma and melanoma tumor samples in the TP53, CDKN2, PTCH, and protein kinase genes. The prevailing role of UVB over UVA in solar mutagenesis in our test system can be ascribed to different kinetics of repair for lesions induced by the respective UV irradiation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>UVB irradiation can cause acute damage such as sunburn, or photoaging and melanoma, all of which are major health threats.<h4>Objective</h4>This study was designed to investigate the mechanism of skin photoaging induced by UVB radiation in mice through the analysis of the differential expression of miRNAs.<h4>Methods</h4>A UVB irradiation photoaging model was constructed. HE and Masson special stains were used to examine the modifications in the epidermis and dermis of mice. The miRNA expression profiles of the mouse skin model exposed to UVB radiation and the normal skin of mice were analyzed using miRNA-sequence analysis. GO and Pathway analysis were employed for the prediction of miRNA targets.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 23 miRNAs were evaluated for significantly different expressions in comparison to normal skin. Among them, 7 miRNAs were up-regulated and 16 were down-regulated in the skin with photoaging of mice exposed to UVB irradiation. The differential expression of miRNA is related to a variety of signal transduction pathways, among which mmu-miR-195a-5p and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathways are crucial. There was a significant differential expression of miRNA in the skin of normal mice in comparison with the skin with photoaging induced by UVB irradiation.<h4>Study limitations</h4>Due to time and energy constraints, the specific protein level verification, MAPK pathway exploration, and miR-195a-5p downstream molecular mechanism need to be further studied in the future.<h4>Conclusions</h4>UVB-induced skin photoaging can be diagnosed and treated using miRNA.
Project description:Photoaging results from the damaging effects of long-term exposure to UV. It is characterized by deep wrinkle, but the mechanism is still lack. To better understand molecular events contributing to photoaging, We used microarray analysis using an optimized in time-dependent wrinkle model in mice. Overall design: We used non UV-irradiated 1 and 8 weeks as a control group and compared expression patterns with UV-irradiated 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks mouse skin. Three animals were used per each group.
Project description:Skin photoaging is mainly caused by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light, which increases expressions of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and destroys collagen fibers, consequently inducing wrinkle formation. Nutritional factors have received scientific attention for use as agents for normal skin functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hot water extracts from the leaves of Hydrangea serrata (Thunb.) Ser. (WHS) against ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced skin photoaging and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms in human foreskin fibroblasts (Hs68) and HR-1 hairless mice. WHS recovered UVB-reduced cell viability and ameliorated oxidative stress by inhibiting intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in Hs68 cells. WHS rescued UVB-induced collagen degradation by suppressing MMP expression, and reduced the mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines. These anti-photoaging activities of WHS were associated with inhibition of the activator protein 1 (AP-1), signal transduction and activation of transcription 1 (STAT1), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. Oral administration of WHS effectively alleviated dorsal skin from wrinkle formation, epidermal thickening, collagen degradation, and skin dehydration in HR-1 hairless mice exposed to UVB. Notably, WHS suppressed UVB activation of the AP-1 and MAPK signaling pathways in dorsal mouse skin tissues. Taken together, our data indicate that WHS prevents UVB-induced skin damage due to collagen degradation and MMP activation via inactivation of MAPK/AP-1 signaling pathway.