Comparative Genomic Analysis of PhoP Regulon in S. Typhi and S. Typhimurium
ABSTRACT: Transcriptional profiling of three sequenced S. enterica strains: S. Typhimurium LT2, S. Typhi CT18, and S. Typhi Ty2 in PhoP-inducing and non-inducing conditions in vitro, and compared these results to profiles of phoP-/Q- mutants derived from S. Typhimurium LT2 and S. Typhi Ty2. Overall design: Two-condition experiment: Each strain above was grown in PhoP-inducing (Low Magnesium concentration) and PhoP non-inducing conditions (High Magnesium concentration) with 1 dye reversal.
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of three sequenced S. enterica strains: S. Typhimurium LT2, S. Typhi CT18, and S. Typhi Ty2 in PhoP-inducing and non-inducing conditions in vitro, and compared these results to profiles of phoP-/Q- mutants derived from S. Typhimurium LT2 and S. Typhi Ty2. Two-condition experiment: Each strain above was grown in PhoP-inducing (Low Magnesium concentration) and PhoP non-inducing conditions (High Magnesium concentration) with 1 dye reversal.
Project description:BACKGROUND:S. Typhi, a human-restricted Salmonella enterica serovar, causes a systemic intracellular infection in humans (typhoid fever). In comparison, S. Typhimurium causes gastroenteritis in humans, but causes a systemic typhoidal illness in mice. The PhoP regulon is a well studied two component (PhoP/Q) coordinately regulated network of genes whose expression is required for intracellular survival of S. enterica. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Using high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), we examined the protein expression profiles of three sequenced S. enterica strains: S. Typhimurium LT2, S. Typhi CT18, and S. Typhi Ty2 in PhoP-inducing and non-inducing conditions in vitro and compared these results to profiles of phoP(-)/Q(-) mutants derived from S. Typhimurium LT2 and S. Typhi Ty2. Our analysis identified 53 proteins in S. Typhimurium LT2 and 56 proteins in S. Typhi that were regulated in a PhoP-dependent manner. As expected, many proteins identified in S. Typhi demonstrated concordant differential expression with a homologous protein in S. Typhimurium. However, three proteins (HlyE, STY1499, and CdtB) had no homolog in S. Typhimurium. HlyE is a pore-forming toxin. STY1499 encodes a stably expressed protein of unknown function transcribed in the same operon as HlyE. CdtB is a cytolethal distending toxin associated with DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, and cellular distension. Gene expression studies confirmed up-regulation of mRNA of HlyE, STY1499, and CdtB in S. Typhi in PhoP-inducing conditions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:This study is the first protein expression study of the PhoP virulence associated regulon using strains of Salmonella mutant in PhoP, has identified three Typhi-unique proteins (CdtB, HlyE and STY1499) that are not present in the genome of the wide host-range Typhimurium, and includes the first protein expression profiling of a live attenuated bacterial vaccine studied in humans (Ty800).
Project description:The O antigens of Salmonella serogroups A, B, and D differ structurally in their side chain sugar residues. The genes encoding O-antigen biosynthesis are clustered in the rfb operon. The gene rfbJ in strain LT2 (serovar typhimurium, group B) and the genes rfbS and rfbE in strain Ty2 (serovar typhi, group D) account for the known differences in the rfb gene clusters used for determination of group specificity. In this paper, we report the nucleotide sequence of 2.9 kb of DNA from the rfb gene cluster of strain Ty2 and the finding of two open reading frames which have limited similarity with the corresponding open reading frames of strain LT2. These two genes complete the sequence of the rfb region of group D strain Ty2 if we use strain LT2 sequence where restriction site data show it to be extremely similar to the strain Ty2 sequence. The restriction map of the rfb gene cluster in group A strain IMVS1316 (serovar paratyphi) is identical to that of the cluster in strain Ty2 except for a frameshift mutation in rfbE and a triplicated region. The rfb gene clusters of these three strains are compared, and the evolutionary origin of these genes is discussed.
Project description:The intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica has evolved an array of traits for propagation and invasion of the intestinal layers. It remains largely elusive how Salmonella adjusts its metabolic states to survive inside immune host cells. In this study, single-cell Raman biotechnology combined with deuterium isotope probing (Raman-DIP) have been applied to reveal metabolic changes of the typhoidal Salmonella Typhi Ty2, the nontyphoidal Salmonella Typhimurium LT2, and a clinical isolate Typhimurium D23580. By initially labeling the Salmonella strains with deuterium, we employed reverse labeling to track their metabolic changes in the time-course infection of THP-1 cell line, human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs) and macrophages (Mf). We found that, in comparison with a noninvasive serovar, the invasive Salmonella strains Ty2 and D23580 have downregulated metabolic activity inside human macrophages and dendritic cells and used lipids as alternative carbon source, perhaps a strategy to escape from the host immune response. Proteomic analysis using high sensitivity mass spectrometry validated the findings of Raman-DIP analysis.
Project description:Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Typhimurium cause typhoid fever and gastroenteritis, respectively. A unique feature of typhoid infection is asymptomatic carriage within the gallbladder, which is linked with S Typhi transmission. Despite this, S Typhi responses to bile have been poorly studied. Transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) of S Typhi Ty2 and a clinical S Typhi isolate belonging to the globally dominant H58 lineage (strain 129-0238), as well as S Typhimurium 14028, revealed that 249, 389, and 453 genes, respectively, were differentially expressed in the presence of 3% bile compared to control cultures lacking bile. fad genes, the actP-acs operon, and putative sialic acid uptake and metabolism genes (t1787 to t1790) were upregulated in all strains following bile exposure, which may represent adaptation to the small intestine environment. Genes within the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1), those encoding a type IIII secretion system (T3SS), and motility genes were significantly upregulated in both S Typhi strains in bile but downregulated in S Typhimurium. Western blots of the SPI-1 proteins SipC, SipD, SopB, and SopE validated the gene expression data. Consistent with this, bile significantly increased S Typhi HeLa cell invasion, while S Typhimurium invasion was significantly repressed. Protein stability assays demonstrated that in S Typhi the half-life of HilD, the dominant regulator of SPI-1, is three times longer in the presence of bile; this increase in stability was independent of the acetyltransferase Pat. Overall, we found that S Typhi exhibits a specific response to bile, especially with regard to virulence gene expression, which could impact pathogenesis and transmission.
Project description:Salmonella typhimurium causes systemic and fatal infection in inbred mice, while the related serotype Salmonella typhi is avirulent for mammals other than humans. In order to identify genes from the virulent strain S. typhimurium ATCC 14028 that are absent in S. typhi Ty2, and therefore might be involved in S. typhimurium mouse virulence, a PCR-supported genomic subtractive hybridization procedure was employed. We have identified a novel putative fimbrial operon, stfACDEFG, located at centisome 5 of the S. typhimurium chromosome, which is absent in S. typhi, Salmonella arizonae, and Salmonella bongori but was detected in several other Salmonella serotypes. The fimbrial genes represent a genomic insertion in S. typhimurium compared to the respective region between fhuB and hemL in Escherichia coli K-12. In addition, the subtraction procedure yielded F plasmid-related sequences from the S. typhimurium virulence plasmid, a number of DNA fragments representing parts of lambdoid prophages and putative sugar transporters, and several fragments with unknown sequences. The majority of subtracted chromosomal sequences map to three distinct locations, around centisomes 5, 27, and 57.
Project description:Bacterial small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) are not translated into proteins, but act as functional RNAs. They are involved in diverse biological processes like virulence, stress response and quorum sensing. Several high-throughput techniques have enabled identification of sRNAs in bacteria, but experimental detection remains a challenge and grossly incomplete for most species. Thus, there is a need to develop computational tools to predict bacterial sRNAs. Here, we propose a computational method to identify sRNAs in bacteria using support vector machine (SVM) classifier. The primary sequence and secondary structure features of experimentally-validated sRNAs of Salmonella Typhimurium LT2 (SLT2) was used to build the optimal SVM model. We found that a tri-nucleotide composition feature of sRNAs achieved an accuracy of 88.35% for SLT2. We validated the SVM model also on the experimentally-detected sRNAs of E. coli and Salmonella Typhi. The proposed model had robustly attained an accuracy of 81.25% and 88.82% for E. coli K-12 and S. Typhi Ty2, respectively. We confirmed that this method significantly improved the identification of sRNAs in bacteria. Furthermore, we used a sliding window-based method and identified sRNAs from complete genomes of SLT2, S. Typhi Ty2 and E. coli K-12 with sensitivities of 89.09%, 83.33% and 67.39%, respectively.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:A whole-genome screen at sub-gene resolution was performed to identify candidate loci that contribute to enhanced or diminished ciprofloxacin susceptibility in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. METHODS:A pool of over 1 million transposon insertion mutants of an S. Typhi Ty2 derivative were grown in a sub-MIC concentration of ciprofloxacin, or without ciprofloxacin. Transposon-directed insertion site sequencing (TraDIS) identified relative differences between the mutants that grew following the ciprofloxacin treatment compared with the untreated mutant pool, thereby indicating which mutations contribute to gain or loss of ciprofloxacin susceptibility. RESULTS:Approximately 88% of the S. Typhi strain's 4895 annotated genes were assayed, and at least 116 were identified as contributing to gain or loss of ciprofloxacin susceptibility. Many of the identified genes are known to influence susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, thereby providing method validation. Genes were identified that were not known previously to be involved in susceptibility, and some of these had no previously known phenotype. Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was enhanced by insertion mutations in genes coding for efflux, other surface-associated functions, DNA repair and expression regulation, including phoP, barA and marA. Insertion mutations that diminished susceptibility were predominantly in genes coding for surface polysaccharide biosynthesis and regulatory genes, including slyA, emrR, envZ and cpxR. CONCLUSIONS:A genomics approach has identified novel contributors to gain or loss of ciprofloxacin susceptibility in S. Typhi, expanding our understanding of the impact of fluoroquinolones on bacteria and of mechanisms that may contribute to resistance. The data also demonstrate the power of the TraDIS technology for antibacterial research.
Project description:The two-component system PhoP-PhoQ is highly conserved in bacteria and regulates virulence in response to various signals for bacteria within the mammalian host. Here, we demonstrate that PhoP could be acetylated by Pat and deacetylated by deacetylase CobB enzymatically in vitro and in vivo in Salmonella Typhimurium. Specifically, the conserved lysine residue 201(K201) in winged helix-turn-helix motif at C-terminal DNA-binding domain of PhoP could be acetylated, and its acetylation level decreases dramatically when bacteria encounter low magnesium, acid stress or phagocytosis of macrophages. PhoP has a decreased acetylation and increased DNA-binding ability in the deletion mutant of pat. However, acetylation of K201 does not counteract PhoP phosphorylation, which is essential for PhoP activity. In addition, acetylation of K201 (mimicked by glutamine substitute) in S. Typhimurium causes significantly attenuated intestinal inflammation as well as systemic infection in mouse model, suggesting that deacetylation of PhoP K201 is essential for Salmonella pathogenesis. Therefore, we propose that the reversible acetylation of PhoP K201 may ensure Salmonella promptly respond to different stresses in host cells. These findings suggest that reversible lysine acetylation in the DNA-binding domain, as a novel regulatory mechanism of gene expression, is involved in bacterial virulence across microorganisms.