ABSTRACT: We perform a self hybridisation comprative genomic hybridization (CGH) in order to validate the probe tiling design we done on Trichoderma reesei. This hybridization was done using QM6a wild type strain. Overall design: One biological replicate
Project description:We perform a self hybridisation comprative genomic hybridization (CGH) in order to validate the probe tiling design we done on Trichoderma reesei. This hybridization was done using QM6a wild type strain. One biological replicate
Project description:Trichoderma reesei is the main industrial producer of cellulases and hemicellulases used to depolymerize biomass in many biotechnical applications. Many production strains in use have been generated by classical mutagenesis. In this study we characterized genomic alterations in hyperproducing mutants of T. reesei by high-resolution comparative genomic hybridisation tiling array. We carried out aCGH analysis of four hyperproducing strains (QM9123, QM9414, NG14 and RutC-30) using QM6a genome as a reference. ArrayCGH analysis identified dozens of mutations in each strain analyzed. Overall design: 2.1 million oligonucleotide probe custom aCGH (HD2 format, RocheNimblegen) was designed according to T. reesei strain QM6a genome v2.0 (http://genome.jgi-psf.org/Trire2/Trire2.home.html). 14 samples are included in this set; 3 replicates of each strain (except two replicates of QM9123) were analyzed (four mutant strains and QM6a control strain for self-hybridization)
Project description:Trichoderma reesei is the main industrial producer of cellulases and hemicellulases used to depolymerize biomass in many biotechnical applications. Many production strains in use have been generated by classical mutagenesis. In this study we characterized genomic alterations in hyperproducing mutants of T. reesei by high-resolution comparative genomic hybridisation tiling array. We carried out aCGH analysis of four hyperproducing strains (QM9123, QM9414, NG14 and RutC-30) using QM6a genome as a reference. ArrayCGH analysis identified dozens of mutations in each strain analyzed. 2.1 million oligonucleotide probe custom aCGH (HD2 format, RocheNimblegen) was designed according to T. reesei strain QM6a genome v2.0 (http://genome.jgi-psf.org/Trire2/Trire2.home.html). 14 samples are included in this set; 3 replicates of each strain (except two replicates of QM9123) were analyzed (four mutant strains and QM6a control strain for self-hybridization)
Project description:BACKGROUND: Trichoderma reesei is the main industrial producer of cellulases and hemicellulases that are used to depolymerize biomass in a variety of biotechnical applications. Many of the production strains currently in use have been generated by classical mutagenesis. In this study we characterized genomic alterations in high-producing mutants of T. reesei by high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Our aim was to obtain genome-wide information which could be utilized for better understanding of the mechanisms underlying efficient cellulase production, and would enable targeted genetic engineering for improved production of proteins in general. RESULTS: We carried out an aCGH analysis of four high-producing strains (QM9123, QM9414, NG14 and Rut-C30) using the natural isolate QM6a as a reference. In QM9123 and QM9414 we detected a total of 44 previously undocumented mutation sites including deletions, chromosomal translocation breakpoints and single nucleotide mutations. In NG14 and Rut-C30 we detected 126 mutations of which 17 were new mutations not documented previously. Among these new mutations are the first chromosomal translocation breakpoints identified in NG14 and Rut-C30. We studied the effects of two deletions identified in Rut-C30 (a deletion of 85 kb in the scaffold 15 and a deletion in a gene encoding a transcription factor) on cellulase production by constructing knock-out strains in the QM6a background. Neither the 85 kb deletion nor the deletion of the transcription factor affected cellulase production. CONCLUSIONS: aCGH analysis identified dozens of mutations in each strain analyzed. The resolution was at the level of single nucleotide mutation. High-density aCGH is a powerful tool for genome-wide analysis of organisms with small genomes e.g. fungi, especially in studies where a large set of interesting strains is analyzed.
Project description:A 1,4-beta-D-glucan cellobiohydrolase (EC 18.104.22.168) was purified from the culture liquid of Trichoderma reesei by using biospecific sorption on amorphous cellulose and immunoaffinity chromatography. A single protein band in polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and one arc in immunoelectrophoresis corresponded to the enzyme activity. The Mr was 65 000. The pI was 4.2-3.6. The purified enzyme contained about 10% hexose. The enzyme differs from previously described cellobiohydrolases in being more effective in the hydrolysis of cellulose.
Project description:Filamentous fungi are indispensable biotechnological tools for the production of organic chemicals, enzymes, and antibiotics. Most of the strains used for industrial applications have been--and still are--screened and improved by classical mutagenesis. Sexual crossing approaches would yield considerable advantages for research and industrial strain improvement, but interestingly, industrially applied filamentous fungal species have so far been considered to be largely asexual. This is also true for the ascomycete Trichoderma reesei (anamorph of Hypocrea jecorina), which is used for production of cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes. In this study, we report that T. reesei QM6a has a MAT1-2 mating type locus, and the identification of its respective mating type counterpart, MAT1-1, in natural isolates of H. jecorina, thus proving that this is a heterothallic species. After being considered asexual since its discovery more than 50 years ago, we were now able to induce sexual reproduction of T. reesei QM6a and obtained fertilized stromata and mature ascospores. This sexual crossing approach therefore opens up perspectives for biotechnologically important fungi. Our findings provide a tool for fast and efficient industrial strain improvement in T. reesei, thus boosting research toward economically feasible biofuel production. In addition, knowledge of MAT-loci and sexual crossing techniques will facilitate research with other Trichoderma spp. relevant for agriculture and human health.
Project description:The relationship of the important cellulase producing asexual fungus Trichoderma reesei to its putative teleomorphic (sexual) ancestor Hypocrea jecorina and other species of the Trichoderma sect. Longibrachiatum was studied by PCR-fingerprinting and sequence analyses of the nuclear ribosomal DNA region containing the internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) and the 5.8S rRNA gene. The differences in the corresponding ITS sequences allowed a grouping of anamorphic (asexual) species of Trichoderma sect. Longibrachiatum into Trichoderma longibrachiatum, Trichoderma pseudokoningii, and Trichoderma reesei. The sexual species Hypocrea schweinitzii and H. jecorina were also clearly separated from each other. H. jecorina and T. reesei exhibited identical sequences, suggesting close relatedness or even species identity. Intraspecific and interspecific variation in the PCR-fingerprinting patterns supported the differentiation of species based on ITS sequences, the grouping of the strains, and the assignment of these strains to individual species. The variations between T. reesei and H. jecorina were at the same order of magnitude as found between all strains of H. jecorina, but much lower than the observed interspecific variations. Identical ITS sequences and the high similarity of PCR-fingerprinting patterns indicate a very close relationship between T. reesei and H. jecorina, whereas differences of the ITS sequences and the PCR-fingerprinting patterns show a clear phylogenetic distance between T. reesei/H. jecorina and T. longibrachiatum. T. reesei is considered to be an asexual, clonal line derived from a population of the tropical ascomycete H. jecorina.
Project description:Trichoderma reesei QM9414, Trichoderma viride 3.316, Aspergillus niger M85, and Aspergillus niger M92 were screened for hydrolyzing geniposide into genipin. T. reesei was selected according to the ?-glucosidase activity of the fermentation broths using geniposide as a substrate. T. reesei was immobilized by embedding method using sodium alginate as the carrier. Geniposide was hydrolyzed by immobilized T. reesei at 28°C (200?rpm) for 34?h, and the yield of genipin was 89%. The product was purified and identified by UV, IR, EIMS, and 1H-NMR. Since there were two sets of signals in 1H-NMR spectra, a series of experiments were performed and verified that the existence of two conformations was the main reason. Generally, biotransformation of geniposide into genipin by immobilized T. reesei provides a promising solution to the genipin production.
Project description:The cellulase and hemicellulase genes of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei have been shown to be under carbon catabolite repression mediated by the regulatory gene cre1. In this study, strains were constructed in which the cre1 gene was either completely removed or replaced by a truncated mutant variant, cre1-1, found previously in the Rut-C30 mutant strain with enhanced enzyme production capability. The T. reesei transformants with either deletion or truncation of cre1 had clearly altered colony morphology compared with the parental strains, forming smaller colonies and fewer aerial hyphae and spores. Liquid cultures in a medium with glucose as a carbon source showed that the transformants were derepressed in cellulase and hemicellulase production. Interestingly, they also produced significantly elevated levels of these hydrolytic enzymes in fermentations carried out in a medium inducing the hydrolase genes. This suggests that cre1 acts as a modulator of cellulase and hemicellulase gene expression under both noninducing and inducing conditions. There was no phenotypic difference between the Deltacre1 and cre1-1 mutant strains in any of the experiments done, indicating that the cre1-1 gene is practically a null allele. The results of this work indicate that cre1 is a valid target gene in strain engineering for improved enzyme production in T. reesei.
Project description:Species of the fungal genus Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) are well-known for their production of various secondary metabolites. Nonribosomal peptides and polyketides represent a major portion of these products. In a recent phylogenomic investigation of Trichoderma polyketide synthase (PKS)-encoding genes, the pks4 from T. reesei was shown to be an orthologue of pigment-forming PKSs involved in synthesis of aurofusarin and bikaverin in Fusarium spp. In this study, we show that deletion of this gene in T. reesei results in loss of green conidial pigmentation and in pigmentation alteration of teleomorph structures. It also has an impact on conidial cell wall stability and the antagonistic abilities of T. reesei against other fungi, including formation of inhibitory metabolites. In addition, deletion of pks4 significantly influences the expression of other PKS-encoding genes of T. reesei. To our knowledge, this is the first indication that a low-molecular-weight pigment-forming PKS is involved in defense, mechanical stability, and stress resistance in fungi.