Effect of cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of glucocorticoid receptor on gene expression of the cardiac tissue during early postnatal development
ABSTRACT: To investigate the role of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the regulation of cardiomyocyte maturation and proliferation, we established a cardiomyocyte-specific GR knock-out (GR-cKO) mouse model by Cre-Lox technology. We thus performed gene expression profiling analysis using data obtained from RNA-seq of the cardiac tissue of GR-cKO and control mouse models extracted during the early postnatal development. Our analyses unveiled a role for GR in regulating gene networks related to the energetic metabolism, which in turn may impact on cardiomyocyte proliferative and regenerative ability. Overall design: Comparative gene expression profiling analysis of RNA-seq data of cardiac tissue lysates from GR-cKO and control mouse models at postnatal-day-7 (P7).
Project description:To investigate the role of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the regulation of cardiomyocyte maturation and proliferation, we established a cardiomyocyte-specific GR knock-out (GR-cKO) mouse model by Cre-Lox technology. We thus performed gene expression profiling analysis using data obtained from RNA-seq of cardiomyocytes isolated from GR-cKO and control mouse models at neonatal stage and cultured in vitro. Our analyses unveiled a role for GR in regulating gene networks related to the energetic metabolism, which in turn may impact on cardiomyocyte proliferative and regenerative ability. Overall design: Comparative gene expression profiling analysis of RNA-seq data of cardiomyocytes isolated from GR-cKO and control mouse models at postnatal-day-1 (P1) and cultured in vitro
Project description:Adult heart size is determined predominantly by the cardiomyocyte number and size. The cardiomyocyte number is determined primarily in the embryonic and perinatal period, as adult cardiomyocyte proliferation is restricted in comparison to that seen during the perinatal period. Recent evidence has implicated the mammalian Hippo kinase pathway as being critical in cardiomyocyte proliferation. Though the transcription factor, Tead1, is the canonical downstream transcriptional factor of the hippo kinase pathway in cardiomyocytes, the specific role of Tead1 in cardiomyocyte proliferation in the perinatal period has not been determined. Here, we report the generation of a cardiomyocyte specific perinatal deletion of Tead1, using Myh6-Cre deletor mice (Tead1-cKO). Perinatal Tead1 deletion was lethal by postnatal day 9 in Tead1-cKO mice due to dilated cardiomyopathy. Tead1-deficient cardiomyocytes have significantly decreased proliferation during the immediate postnatal period, when proliferation rate is normally high. Deletion of Tead1 in HL-1 cardiac cell line confirmed that cell-autonomous Tead1 function is required for normal cardiomyocyte proliferation. This was secondary to significant decrease in levels of many proteins, in vivo, that normally promote cell cycle in cardiomyocytes. Taken together this demonstrates the non-redundant critical requirement for Tead1 in regulating cell cycle proteins and proliferation in cardiomyocytes in the perinatal heart.
Project description:Pressure overload-induced cardiac stress induces left ventricular hypertrophy driven by increased cardiomyocyte mass. The increased energetic demand and cardiomyocyte size during hypertrophy necessitate increased fuel and oxygen delivery and stimulate angiogenesis in the left ventricular wall. We have previously shown that the transcriptional regulator steroid receptor coactivator-2 (SRC-2) controls activation of several key cardiac transcription factors and that SRC-2 loss results in extensive cardiac transcriptional remodeling. Pressure overload in mice lacking SRC-2 induces an abrogated hypertrophic response and decreases sustained cardiac function, but the cardiomyocyte-specific effects of SRC-2 in these changes are unknown. Here, we report that cardiomyocyte-specific loss of SRC-2 (SRC-2 CKO) results in a blunted hypertrophy accompanied by a rapid, progressive decrease in cardiac function. We found that SRC-2 CKO mice exhibit markedly decreased left ventricular vasculature in response to transverse aortic constriction, corresponding to decreased expression of the angiogenic factor VEGF. Of note, SRC-2 knockdown in cardiomyocytes decreased VEGF expression and secretion to levels sufficient to blunt <i>in vitro</i> tube formation and proliferation of endothelial cells. During pressure overload, both hypertrophic and hypoxic signals can stimulate angiogenesis, both of which stimulated SRC-2 expression <i>in vitro</i> Furthermore, SRC-2 coactivated the transcription factors GATA-binding protein 4 (GATA-4) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and -2α in response to angiotensin II and hypoxia, respectively, which drive VEGF expression. These results suggest that SRC-2 coordinates cardiomyocyte secretion of VEGF downstream of the two major angiogenic stimuli occurring during pressure overload bridging both hypertrophic and hypoxia-stimulated paracrine signaling.
Project description:The mechanisms contributing to heart failure remain incompletely understood. d-dopachrome tautomerase (DDT) is a member of the macrophage migration inhibitory factor family of cytokines and is highly expressed in cardiomyocytes. This study examined the role of cardiomyocyte DDT in the setting of heart failure. Patients with advanced heart failure undergoing transplantation demonstrated decreased cardiac DDT expression. To understand the effect of loss of cardiac DDT in experimental heart failure, cardiomyocyte-specific DDT-KO (DDT-cKO) and littermate control mice underwent surgical transverse aortic constriction (TAC) to induce cardiac pressure overload. DDT-cKO mice developed more rapid cardiac contractile dysfunction, greater cardiac dilatation, and pulmonary edema after TAC. Cardiomyocytes from DDT-cKO mice after TAC had impaired contractility, calcium transients, and reduced expression of the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase. The DDT-cKO hearts also exhibited diminished angiogenesis with reduced capillary density and lower VEGF-A expression after TAC. In pharmacological studies, recombinant DDT (rDDT) activated endothelial cell ERK1/2 and Akt signaling and had proangiogenic effects in vitro. The DDT-cKO hearts also demonstrated more interstitial fibrosis with enhanced collagen and connective tissue growth factor expression after TAC. In cardiac fibroblasts, rDDT had an antifibrotic action by inhibiting TGF-β-induced Smad-2 activation. Thus, endogenous cardiomyocyte DDT has pleiotropic actions that are protective against heart failure.
Project description:Cardiac maturation lays the foundation for postnatal heart development and disease, yet little is known about the contributions of the microenvironment to cardiomyocyte maturation. By integrating single-cell RNA-sequencing data of mouse hearts at multiple postnatal stages, we construct cellular interactomes and regulatory signaling networks. Here we report switching of fibroblast subtypes from a neonatal to adult state and this drives cardiomyocyte maturation. Molecular and functional maturation of neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes and human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes are considerably enhanced upon co-culture with corresponding adult cardiac fibroblasts. Further, single-cell analysis of in vivo and in vitro cardiomyocyte maturation trajectories identify highly conserved signaling pathways, pharmacological targeting of which substantially delays cardiomyocyte maturation in postnatal hearts, and markedly enhances cardiomyocyte proliferation and improves cardiac function in infarcted hearts. Together, we identify cardiac fibroblasts as a key constituent in the microenvironment promoting cardiomyocyte maturation, providing insights into how the manipulation of cardiomyocyte maturity may impact on disease development and regeneration.
Project description:Sprouty1 (Spry1) is a negative modulator of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling, but its role in cardiomyocyte survival has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of cardiomyocyte Spry1 in cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Infarct areas of mouse hearts showed an increase in Spry1 protein expression, which localized to cardiomyocytes. To investigate if cardiomyocyte Spry1 regulates I/R injury, 8-week-old inducible cardiomyocyte Spry1 knockout (Spry1 cKO) mice and control mice were subjected to cardiac I/R injury. Spry1 cKO mice showed reduction in release of cardiac troponin I and reduced infarct size after I/R injury compared to control mice. Similar to Spry1 knockdown in cardiomyocytes in vivo, RNAi-mediated Spry1 silencing in isolated cardiomyocytes improved cardiomyocyte survival following simulated ischemia injury. Mechanistically, Spry1 knockdown induced cardiomyocyte extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation in healthy hearts and isolated cardiomyocytes, and enhanced ERK phosphorylation after I/R injury. Spry1-deficient cardiomyocytes showed better preserved mitochondrial membrane potential following ischemic injury and an increase in levels of phosphorylated ERK and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) in mitochondria of hypoxic cardiomyocytes. Overexpression of constitutively active GSK-3? abrogated the protective effect of Spry1 knockdown. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of GSK-3? protected wild-type cardiomyocytes from cell death, but did not further protect Spry1-silenced cardiomyocytes from hypoxia-induced injury. Cardiomyocyte Spry1 knockdown promotes ERK phosphorylation and offers protection from I/R injury. Our findings indicate that Spry1 is an important regulator of cardiomyocyte viability during ischemia-reperfusion injury.
Project description:A vital step in the development of heart failure is the transition from compensatory cardiac hypertrophy to decompensated dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) during cardiac remodeling under mechanical or pathological stress. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of DCM and heart failure remain incompletely understood. In the present study, we investigate whether Gab1, a scaffolding adaptor protein, protects against hemodynamic stress-induced DCM and heat failure. We first observed that the protein levels of Gab1 were markedly reduced in hearts from human patients with DCM and from mice with experimental viral myocarditis in which DCM developed. Next, we generated cardiac-specific Gab1 knockout mice (Gab1-cKO) and found that Gab-cKO mice developed DCM in hemodynamic stress-dependent and age-dependent manners. Under transverse aorta constriction (TAC), Gab1-cKO mice rapidly developed decompensated DCM and heart failure, whereas Gab1 wild-type littermates exhibited adaptive left ventricular hypertrophy without changes in cardiac function. Mechanistically, we showed that Gab1-cKO mouse hearts displayed severe mitochondrial damages and increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Loss of cardiac Gab1 in mice impaired Gab1 downstream MAPK signaling pathways in the heart under TAC. Gene profiles further revealed that ablation of Gab1 in heart disrupts the balance of anti- and pro-apoptotic genes in cardiomyocytes. These results demonstrate that cardiomyocyte Gab1 is a critical regulator of the compensatory cardiac response to aging and hemodynamic stress. These findings may provide new mechanistic insights and potential therapeutic target for DCM and heart failure.
Project description:Cardiomyocyte proliferation accounts for the increase of cardiac muscle during fetal mammalian heart development. Shortly after birth, cardiomyocyte transits from hyperplasia to hypertrophic growth. Here, we have investigated the role of fatty acid ?-oxidation in cardiomyocyte proliferation and hypertrophic growth during early postnatal life in mice. A transient wave of increased cell cycle activity of cardiomyocyte was observed between postnatal day 3 and 5, that proceeded as cardiomyocyte hypertrophic growth and maturation. Assessment of cardiomyocyte metabolism in neonatal mouse heart revealed a myocardial metabolic shift from glycolysis to fatty acid ?-oxidation that coincided with the burst of cardiomyocyte cell cycle reactivation and hypertrophic growth. Inhibition of fatty acid ?-oxidation metabolism in infant mouse heart delayed cardiomyocyte cell cycle exit, hypertrophic growth and maturation. By contrast, pharmacologic and genetic activation of PPAR?, a major regulator of cardiac fatty acid metabolism, induced fatty acid ?-oxidation and initially promoted cardiomyocyte proliferation rate in infant mice. As the cell cycle proceeded, activation of PPAR?-mediated fatty acid ?-oxidation promoted cardiomyocytes hypertrophic growth and maturation, which led to cell cycle exit. As a consequence, activation of PPAR?-mediated fatty acid ?-oxidation did not alter the total number of cardiomyocytes in infant mice. These findings indicate a unique role of fatty acid ?-oxidation in regulating cardiomyocyte proliferation and hypertrophic growth in infant mice.
Project description:Cardiac energy metabolism must cope with early postnatal changes in tissue oxygen tensions, hemodynamics, and cell proliferation to sustain development. Here, we tested the hypothesis that proliferating neonatal cardiomyocytes are dependent on high oxidative energy metabolism. We show that energy-related gene expression does not correlate with functional oxidative measurements in the developing heart. Gene expression analysis suggests a gradual overall upregulation of oxidative-related genes and pathways, whereas functional assessment in both cardiac tissue and cultured cardiomyocytes indicated that oxidative metabolism decreases between the first and seventh days after birth. Cardiomyocyte extracellular flux analysis indicated that the decrease in oxidative metabolism between the first and seventh days after birth was mostly related to lower rates of ATP-linked mitochondrial respiration, suggesting that overall energetic demands decrease during this period. In parallel, the proliferation rate was higher for early cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, in vitro nonlethal chemical inhibition of mitochondrial respiration reduced the proliferative capacity of early cardiomyocytes, indicating a high energy demand to sustain cardiomyocyte proliferation. Altogether, we provide evidence that early postnatal cardiomyocyte proliferative capacity correlates with high oxidative energy metabolism. The energy requirement decreases as the proliferation ceases in the following days, and both oxidative-dependent metabolism and anaerobic glycolysis subside.
Project description:The neonatal mammalian heart is capable of substantial regeneration following injury through cardiomyocyte proliferation. However, this regenerative capacity is lost by postnatal day 7 and the mechanisms of cardiomyocyte cell cycle arrest remain unclear. The homeodomain transcription factor Meis1 is required for normal cardiac development but its role in cardiomyocytes is unknown. Here we identify Meis1 as a critical regulator of the cardiomyocyte cell cycle. Meis1 deletion in mouse cardiomyocytes was sufficient for extension of the postnatal proliferative window of cardiomyocytes, and for re-activation of cardiomyocyte mitosis in the adult heart with no deleterious effect on cardiac function. In contrast, overexpression of Meis1 in cardiomyocytes decreased neonatal myocyte proliferation and inhibited neonatal heart regeneration. Finally, we show that Meis1 is required for transcriptional activation of the synergistic CDK inhibitors p15, p16 and p21. These results identify Meis1 as a critical transcriptional regulator of cardiomyocyte proliferation and a potential therapeutic target for heart regeneration.