Dynamic differentiation of F4/80+ tumor-associated macrophage and its role in tumor vascularization in a syngeneic mouse model of colorectal liver metastasis
ABSTRACT: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are highly heterogeneous, derived from myeloid monocyte/macrophages or tissue-resident macrophages, and play vital role in tumor progression. Here we adopted a C57BL/6 mouse model imitating the late-stage colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM) by Mc38 colorectal cancer cell injection via the portal vein. We defined the critical period at 7 to 9 days post injection (dpi) for tumor neovascularization on serial sections of CRLM biopsies. The tumor neovascularization was initiated from one of the liver blood vessels via vessel cooption and extended by vascular mimicry and growth of CD34+cells. In samples with increasing sized liver metastases of CRLM, infiltrated Ly6C+ CD11b+ F4/80 monocytes steadily gained the expression of F4/80, a Kupffer cell marker, and then transformed into Ly6C CD11bint F4/80+ cells, which, the same phenotype was also adapted by Ly6C CD11b F4/80+ Kupffer cells. F4/80+ TAMs showed proximity to neovascularization and tumor vessels. Depletion of macrophages or disturbance on macrophage polarization during the crucial period of neovascularization impeded tumor growth and vascularization and resulted in greatly reduced F4/80+ TAMs, yet increased CD11b+ cells due to inhibition of TAM differentiation. In summary, we showed dynamic F4/80+ TAM differentiation within the tumor microenvironment and strengthened its role as perivascular TAMs in CRLM. A set of aliquot samples (about 0.25 cm3) from for flow cytometry preparations (the above method and Fig. 4A) were used for bulk RNA-Sequencing, among these samples, Ht1 and Ht3 were identical samples; A total of 14 samples were sent for analysis. These collected tissues were flash-frozen in liquid nitrogen, stored at - 80°C and shipped on dry ice to the sequencing provider (Novogene, www.novogene.com), who then extracted RNA from these samples and confirmed that all sample RNA were in good quality and adequate concentrations. The resulted RNA-Sequencing data were verified as the clean reads > 95%, Q30 > 90%, and error rate < 0.05%; Square of Pearson Correlation Coefficient (R2) between the biological replicates was > 0.89; R2 of the identical samples (Ht-1 and Ht-3) was > 0.98. Overall design: Comparative gene expression profiling analysis of RNA-seq data for liver biopsy samples with/out varied metastases in syngeneic mouse model of colorectal liver metastasis.
Project description:In early age-related macular degeneration (AMD), complement component C3 can be observed in drusen, which is the accumulation of material beneath the retinal pigment epithelium. The complement pathways, via the activation of C3, can upregulate the expression of cytokines and their receptors and the recruitment of inflammatory leukocytes, both of which play an important role in the development of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in exudative AMD. Laser-induced CNV lesions were found to be significantly smaller in C3(-/-) mice than in wild-type mice. By using flow cytometry, we demonstrated that the proportions of intraocular granulocytes, CD11b(+)F4/80(+)Ly6C(hi) and CD11b(+)F4/80(+)Ly6C(lo) cells, were lower in C3(-/-) mice than in wild-type mice as early as day 1 after laser injury, and the proportions of granulocytes and three macrophage/monocyte subsets were significantly lower on day 3. In contrast, C3(-/-) mice had more granulocytes and CD11b(+)F4/80(+)Ly6C(hi) cells in peripheral blood than wild-type mice after injury. Further, the expression levels of Vegfa164 were upregulated in intraocular Ly6C(hi) macrophages/monocytes of C3(-/-) mice, but not as much as in wild-type mice. Collectively, our data demonstrate that despite a more pronounced induction of systemic inflammation, inhibition of complement factor C3 suppresses CNV by decreasing the recruitment of inflammatory cells to the lesion.
Project description:Monocyte/macrophage polarization in skeletal muscle regeneration is ill defined. We used CD11b-diphtheria toxin receptor transgenic mice to transiently deplete monocytes/macrophages at multiple stages before and after muscle injury induced by cardiotoxin. Fat accumulation within regenerated muscle was maximal when ablation occurred at the same time as cardiotoxin-induced injury. Early ablation (day 1 after cardiotoxin) resulted in the smallest regenerated myofiber size together with increased residual necrotic myofibers and fat accumulation. However, muscle regeneration after late (day 4) ablation was similar to controls. Levels of inflammatory cells in injured muscle following early ablation and associated with impaired muscle regeneration were determined by flow cytometry. Delayed, but exaggerated, monocyte [CD11b(+)(CD90/B220/CD49b/NK1.1/Ly6G)(-)(F4/80/I-Ab/CD11c)(-)Ly6C(+/-)] accumulation occurred; interestingly, Ly6C(+) and Ly6C(-) monocytes were present concurrently in ablated animals and control mice. In addition to monocytes, proinflammatory, Ly6C(+) macrophage accumulation following early ablation was delayed compared to controls. In both groups, CD11b(+)F4/80(+) cells exhibited minimal expression of the M2 markers CD206 and CD301. Nevertheless, early ablation delayed and decreased the transient accumulation of CD11b(+)F4/80(+)Ly6C(-)CD301(-) macrophages; in control animals, the later tissue accumulation of these cells appeared to correspond to that of anti-inflammatory macrophages, determined by cytokine production and arginase activity. In summary, impairments in muscle regeneration were associated with exaggerated monocyte recruitment and reduced Ly6C(-) macrophages; the switch of macrophage/monocyte subsets is critical to muscle regeneration.
Project description:In tumor microenvironment, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have been characterized as M1-like or M2-like phenotype. In this study, we investigated the characteristics and functional roles of different TAMs on cancer metastasis. We isolated TAMs from primary tumor and metastatic lung and performed microarrays to identify the gene expression in distinct TAMs populations. Overall design: TAMs were sorted by CD11B+ and F4/80+ from tumor-bearing mice. Bone marrow-derived macrophages were differentiated from the bone marrow of health mice and sorted by CD11b+ and F4/80+.
Project description:The roles of macrophages in type 2-driven inflammation and fibrosis remain unclear. Here, using CD11b-diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) transgenic mice and three models of interleukin 13 (IL-13)-dependent inflammation, fibrosis, and immunity, we show that CD11b(+) F4/80(+) Ly6C(+) macrophages are required for the maintenance of type 2 immunity within affected tissues but not secondary lymphoid organs. Direct depletion of macrophages during the maintenance or resolution phases of secondary Schistosoma mansoni egg-induced granuloma formation caused a profound decrease in inflammation, fibrosis, and type 2 gene expression. Additional studies with CD11c-DTR and CD11b/CD11c-DTR double-transgenic mice suggested that macrophages but not dendritic cells were critical. Mechanistically, macrophage depletion impaired effector CD4(+) T helper type 2 (Th2) cell homing and activation within the inflamed lung. Depletion of CD11b(+) F4/80(+) Ly6C(+) macrophages similarly reduced house dust mite-induced allergic lung inflammation and suppressed IL-13-dependent immunity to the nematode parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Consequently, therapeutic strategies targeting macrophages offer a novel approach to ameliorate established type 2 inflammatory diseases.
Project description:Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) represent prominent components in cancer progression. We previously showed that inhibition of the VEGFR-3 pathway by SAR131675 leads to reduction of TAM infiltration and tumor growth. Here, we found that treatment with SAR131675 prevents the accumulation of immunosuppressive blood and splenic MDSCs which express VEGFR-3, in 4T1 tumor bearing mice. Moreover we showed that soluble factors secreted by tumor cells promote MDSCs proliferation and differentiation into M2 polarized F4/80+ macrophages. In addition, cell sorting and transcriptomic analysis of tumor infiltrating myeloid cells revealed the presence of a heterogeneous population that could be divided into 3 subpopulations: (i) immature cells with a MDSC phenotype (GR1+/CD11b+/F4/80-); (ii) "immuno-incompetent" macrophages (F4/80high/CD86neg/MHCIILow) strongly expressing M2 markers such as Legumain, CD206 and Mgl1/2 and (iii) "immuno-competent"-M1 like macrophages (F4/80Low/CD86+/MHCIIHigh). SAR131675 treatment reduced MDSCs in lymphoid organs as well as F4/80High populations in tumors. Interestingly, in the tumor SAR131675 was able to increase the immunocompetent M1 like population (F4/80low). Altogether these results demonstrate that the specific VEGFR-3 inhibitor SAR131675 exerts its anti tumoral activity by acting on different players that orchestrate immunosuppression and cancer progression in a tumoral context: MDSCs in peripheral lymphoid organs and TAMs infiltrating the tumor.
Project description:Recent genome-wide association studies of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease have implicated the 17q12 loci, which contains the eosinophil-specific chemokine gene CCL11, with early-onset inflammatory bowel disease susceptibility. In the current study, we employed a murine model of experimental colitis to define the molecular pathways that regulate CCL11 expression in the chronic intestinal inflammation and pathophysiology of experimental colitis. Bone marrow chimera experiments showed that hematopoietic cell-derived CCL11 is sufficient for CCL11-mediated colonic eosinophilic inflammation. We show that dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) treatment promotes the recruitment of F4/80(+)CD11b(+)CCR2(+)Ly6C(high) inflammatory monocytes into the colon. F4/80(+)CD11b(+)CCR2(+)Ly6C(high) monocytes express CCL11, and their recruitment positively correlated with colonic eosinophilic inflammation. Phenotypic analysis of purified Ly6C(high) intestinal inflammatory macrophages revealed that these cells express both M1- and M2-associated genes, including Il6, Ccl4, Cxcl2, Arg1, Chi3l3, Ccl11, and Il10, respectively. Attenuation of DSS-induced F4/80(+)CD11b(+)CCR2(+)Ly6C(high) monocyte recruitment to the colon in CCR2(-/-) mice was associated with decreased colonic CCL11 expression, eosinophilic inflammation, and DSS-induced histopathology. These studies identify a mechanism for DSS-induced colonic eosinophilia mediated by Ly6C(high)CCR2(+) inflammatory monocyte/macrophage-derived CCL11.
Project description:Macrophages have been shown to play a role in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity, contributing to both pro- and anti-inflammatory processes. In these studies, we analyzed the role of the spleen as an extramedullary source of hepatic macrophages. APAP administration (300mg/kg, i.p.) to control mice resulted in an increase in CD11b(+) infiltrating Ly6G(+) granulocytic and Ly6G(-) monocytic cells in the spleen and the liver. The majority of the Ly6G(+) cells were also positive for the monocyte/macrophage activation marker, Ly6C, suggesting a myeloid derived suppressor cell (MDSC) phenotype. By comparison, Ly6G(-) cells consisted of 3 subpopulations expressing high, intermediate, and low levels of Ly6C. Splenectomy was associated with increases in mature (F4/80(+)) and immature (F4/80(-)) pro-inflammatory Ly6C(hi) macrophages and mature anti-inflammatory (Ly6C(lo)) macrophages in the liver after APAP; increases in MDSCs were also noted in the livers of splenectomized (SPX) mice after APAP. This was associated with increases in APAP-induced expression of chemokine receptors regulating pro-inflammatory (CCR2) and anti-inflammatory (CX3CR1) macrophage trafficking. In contrast, APAP-induced increases in pro-inflammatory galectin-3(+) macrophages were blunted in livers of SPX mice relative to control mice, along with hepatic expression of TNF-?, as well as the anti-inflammatory macrophage markers, FIZZ-1 and YM-1. These data demonstrate that multiple subpopulations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cells respond to APAP-induced injury, and that these cells originate from distinct hematopoietic reservoirs.
Project description:Regulatory T cells (T reg cells) are characterized by the expression of the forkhead lineage-specific transcription factor Foxp3, and their main function is to suppress T cells. While evaluating T reg cells, we identified a population of Foxp3-positive cells that were CD11b(+)F4/80(+)CD68(+), indicating macrophage origin. These cells were observed in spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow, thymus, liver, and other tissues of naive animals. To characterize this subpopulation of macrophages, we devised a strategy to purify CD11b(+)F4/80(+)Foxp3(+) macrophages using Foxp3-GFP mice. Analysis of CD11b(+)F4/80(+)Foxp3(+) macrophage function indicated that these cells inhibited the proliferation of T cells, whereas Foxp3(-) macrophages did not. Suppression of T cell proliferation was mediated through soluble factors. Foxp3(-) macrophages acquired Foxp3 expression after activation, which conferred inhibitory properties that were indistinguishable from natural Foxp3(+) macrophages. The cytokine and transcriptional profiles of Foxp3(+) macrophages were distinct from those of Foxp3(-) macrophages, indicating that these cells have different biological functions. Functional in vivo analyses indicated that CD11b(+)F4/80(+)Foxp3(+) macrophages are important in tumor promotion and the induction of T reg cell conversion. For the first time, these studies demonstrate the existence of a distinct subpopulation of naturally occurring macrophage regulatory cells in which expression of Foxp3 correlates with suppressive function.
Project description:Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) tend to infiltrate into tumors and form a major component of the tumor microenvironment. These tumor-resident MSCs are known to affect tumor growth, but the mechanisms are largely unknown. We found that MSCs isolated from spontaneous lymphomas in mouse (L-MSCs) strikingly enhanced tumor growth in comparison to bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs). L-MSCs contributed to greater recruitment of CD11b(+)Ly6C(+) monocytes, F4/80(+) macrophages, and CD11b(+)Ly6G(+) neutrophils to the tumor. Depletion of monocytes/macrophages, but not neutrophils, completely abolished tumor promotion of L-MSCs. Furthermore, L-MSCs expressed high levels of CCR2 ligands, and monocyte/macrophage accumulation and L-MSC-mediated tumor promotion were largely abolished in CCR2(-/-) mice. Intriguingly, TNF?-pretreated BM-MSCs mimicked L-MSCs in their chemokine production profile and ability to promote tumorigenesis of lymphoma, melanoma, and breast carcinoma. Therefore, our findings demonstrate that, in an inflammatory environment, tumor-resident MSCs promote tumor growth by recruiting monocytes/macrophages.
Project description:The liver X receptors (LXRs), LXR? and LXR?, are nuclear receptors that regulate lipid homeostasis. LXRs also regulate inflammatory responses in cultured macrophages. However, the role of LXRs in hepatic immune cells remains poorly characterized. We investigated the role of LXRs in regulation of inflammatory responses of hepatic mononuclear cells (MNCs) in mice. Both LXR? and LXR? were expressed in mouse hepatic MNCs and F4/80+ Kupffer cells/macrophages. LXR?/?-knockout (KO) mice had an increased number of hepatic MNCs and elevated expression of macrophage surface markers and inflammatory cytokines compared to wild-type (WT) mice. Among MNCs, F4/80+CD11b+ cells, not F4/80+CD11b- or F4/80+CD68+ cells, were increased in LXR?/?-KO mice more than WT mice. Isolated hepatic MNCs and F4/80+CD11b+ cells of LXR?/?-KO mice showed enhanced production of inflammatory cytokines after stimulation by lipopolysaccharide or CpG-DNA compared to WT cells, and LXR ligand treatment suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine expression in hepatic MNCs. Lipopolysaccharide administration also stimulated inflammatory cytokine production in LXR?/?-KO mice more effectively than WT mice. Thus, LXR deletion enhances recruitment of F4/80+CD11b+ Kupffer cells/macrophages and acute immune responses in the liver. LXRs regulate the Kupffer cell/macrophage population and innate immune and inflammatory responses in mouse liver.