Profiling neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y with Paraquat treatment
ABSTRACT: Human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells treated with paraquat, a neurotoxic herbicide which both catalyzes the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induces mitochondrial damage in animal models was profiled using Affimetrix Exon 1.0 ST GeneChips® Overall design: Human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells was compared with respect to Human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells treated with Paraquat. Parqaut treatment was done as described by Maracchioni, A., Totaro, A., Angelini, D.F., Di Penta, A., Bernardi, G., Carri, M.T., and Achsel, T. (2007) J Neurochem 100, 142-153
INSTRUMENT(S): [HuEx-1_0-st] Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 ST Array [transcript (gene) version]
Project description:Human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells treated with paraquat, a neurotoxic herbicide which both catalyzes the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induces mitochondrial damage in animal models was profiled using Affimetrix Exon 1.0 ST GeneChips® Human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells was compared with respect to Human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells treated with Paraquat. Parqaut treatment was done as described by Maracchioni, A., Totaro, A., Angelini, D.F., Di Penta, A., Bernardi, G., Carri, M.T., and Achsel, T. (2007) J Neurochem 100, 142-153
Project description:Lithium is a mood stabilizing agent commonly used for the treatment of bipolar disorder. Here, we investigated the potential neuroprotective effect of lithium against paraquat toxicity and its underlying mechanisms in vitro. SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells were treated with paraquat (PQ) 0.5 mM concentration after lithium pretreatment to test lithium's capability in preventing cell toxicity. Cell death was evaluated by LDH, WST-8, and tryphan blue assays. Apoptosis was analyzed using DNA fragmentation, Annexin V immunostaining, Sub G1 cell cycle analysis, and caspase-3 activity assays. BCL2, BAX, and NRF2 protein expression were evaluated by Western-blotting and the BDNF protein level was determined with ELISA. mRNA levels of BCL2, BAX, BDNF, and NRF2 target genes (HO-1, GCS, NQO1), as well as miR-34a expression were analyzed by qPCR assay. Functional experiments were done via transfection with NRF2 siRNA and miR-34a mimic. Lithium treatment prevented paraquat induced cell death and apoptosis. Lithium treated cells showed increased anti-apoptotic protein BCL2 and decreased pro-apoptotic protein BAX expression. Lithium exerted a neurotrophic effect by increasing BDNF protein expression. It also diminished reactive oxygen species production and activated the redox sensitive transcription factor NRF2 and increased its target genes expression. Knockdown of NRF2 abolished neuroprotective, anti-apoptotic, and anti-oxidant effects of lithium. Furthermore, lithium significantly decreased both basal and PQ-induced expression of miR-34a. Transfection of miR-34a specific mimic reversed neuroprotective, anti-apoptotic, and anti-oxidant effects of lithium against PQ-toxicity. Our results revealed two novel mechanisms of lithium neuroprotection, namely NRF2 activation and miR-34a suppression.
Project description:Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, is neurotoxic to mammalian species. However, the underlying mechanism of its neurotoxicity was unclear. We hypothesized that PFOS suppresses BDNF expression to produce its neurotoxic effects by inhibiting the ERK-CREB pathway. SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells were exposed to various concentrations of PFOS to examine the role of the BDNF-ERK-CREB signalling pathway in PFOS-induced apoptosis and cytotoxicity. Furthermore, to ascertain the mechanism by which PFOS reduces BDNF signalling, we examined the expression levels of miR-16 and miR-22, which potentially regulate BDNF mRNA translation at the posttranscriptional level. Results indicated that PFOS significantly decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells. In addition, BDNF and pERK protein levels decreased after PFOS treatment; however, pCREB protein levels were significantly elevated in PFOS treated groups. TrkB protein expression increased in the 10??M and 50??M PFOS groups and significantly decreased in the 100??M PFOS group. Our results demonstrated that PFOS exposure decreased miR-16 expression and increased miR-22 expression, which may represent a possible mechanism by which PFOS decreases BDNF protein levels. PFOS may inhibit BDNF-ERK-CREB signalling by increasing miR-22 levels, which may, in part, explain the mechanism of PFOS neurotoxicity.
Project description:To investigate the mechanisms of excitotoxic effects of glutamate on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.SH-SY5Y cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Other damaged profile was detected by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and by 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. The cytosolic calcium concentration was tested by calcium influx assay. The glutamate-induced oxidative stress was analyzed by cytosolic glutathione assay, superoxide dismutase (SOD) assay and extracellular malondialdehyde (MDA) assay.Glutamate treatment caused damage in SH-SY5Y cells, including the decrease of cell viability, the increase of LDH release and the alterations of morphological structures. Furthermore, the concentration of cytoplasmic calcium in SH-SY5Y cells was not changed within 20 min following glutamate treatment, while cytosolic calcium concentration significantly increased within 24 h after glutamate treatment, which could not be inhibited by MK801, an antagonist of NMDA receptors, or by LY341495, an antagonist of metabotropic glutamate receptors. On the other hand, oxidative damage was observed in SH-SY5Y cells treated with glutamate, including decreases in glutathione content and SOD activity, and elevation of MDA level, all of which could be alleviated by an antioxidant Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA, a major active ingredient from a Chinese plant Salvia Miltiorrhiza Bge).Glutamate exerts toxicity in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells possibly through oxidative damage, not through calcium homeostasis destruction mediated by NMDA receptors.
Project description:SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were examined to determine changes in protein expression following exposure to the organophosphate paraoxon (O,O-diethyl-p-nitrophenoxy phosphate). Exposure of SH-SY5Y cells to paraoxon (20 ?M) for 48 h showed no significant change in cell viability as established using an MTT assay. Protein expression changes from the paraoxon-treated SH-SY5Y cells were determined using a comparative, subproteome approach by fractionation into cytosolic, membrane, nuclear, and cytoskeletal fractions. The fractionated proteins were separated by 2D-PAGE, identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and expression changes determined by densitometry. Over 400 proteins were separated from the four fractions, and 16 proteins were identified with altered expression ?1.3-fold including heat shock protein 90 (-1.3-fold), heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C (+2.8-fold), and H(+) transporting ATP synthase beta chain (-3.1-fold). Western blot analysis conducted on total protein isolates confirmed the expression changes in these three proteins.
Project description:Obesity-related central nervous system (CNS) pathologies like neuroinflammation and reactive gliosis are associated with high-fat diet (HFD) related elevation of saturated fatty acids like palmitic acid (PA) in neurons and astrocytes of the brain.Human neuroblastoma cells SH-SY5Y (as a neuronal model) and human glioblastoma cells T98G (as an astrocytic model), were treated with 100-500 µM PA, oleic acid (OA) or lauric acid (LA) for 24 h or 48 h, and their cell viability was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimetylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The effects of stable overexpression of γ-synuclein (γ-syn), a neuronal protein recently recognized as a novel regulator of lipid handling in adipocytes, and transient overexpression of Parkinson's disease (PD) α-synuclein [α-syn; wild-type (wt) and its pathogenic mutants A53T, A30P and E46K] in SH-SY5Y and T98G cells, were also evaluated. The effects of co-treatment of PA with paraquat (PQ), a Parkinsonian pesticide, and leptin, a hormone involved in the brain-adipose axis, were also assessed. Cell death mode and cell cycle were analyzed by Annexin V/PI flow cytometry. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was determined using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescien diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay and lipid peroxidation level was determined using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay.MTT assay revealed dose- and time-dependent PA cytotoxicity on SH-SY5Y and T98G cells, but not OA and LA. The cytotoxicity was significantly lower in SH-SY5Y-γ-syn cells, while transient overexpression of wt α-syn or its PD mutants (A30P and E46K, but not A53T) modestly (but still significantly) rescued the cytotoxicity of PA in SH-SY5Y and T98G cells. Co-treatment of increasing concentrations of PQ exacerbated PA's neurotoxicity. Pre-treatment of leptin, an anti-apoptotic adipokine, did not successfully rescue SH-SY5Y cells from PA-induced cytotoxicity-suggesting a mechanism of PA-induced leptin resistance. Annexin V/PI flow cytometry analysis revealed PA-induced increase in percentages of cells in annexin V-positive/PI-negative quadrant (early apoptosis) and subG0-G1 fraction, accompanied by a decrease in G2-M phase cells. The PA-induced ROS production and lipid peroxidation was at greater extent in T98G as compared to that in SH-SY5Y.In conclusion, PA induces apoptosis by increasing oxidative stress in neurons and astrocytes. Taken together, the results suggest that HFD may cause neuronal and astrocytic damage, which indirectly proposes that CNS pathologies involving neuroinflammation and reactive gliosis could be prevented via the diet regimen.
Project description:Neuroblastoma, a sympathetic nervous system tumor, accounts for 15% of cancer deaths in children. In contrast to most human tumors, p53 is rarely mutated in human primary neuroblastoma, suggesting impaired p53 activation in neuroblastoma. Various studies have shown correlations between fgf1 expression levels and both prognosis severity and tumor chemoresistance. As we previously showed that fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) inhibited p53-dependent apoptosis in neuron-like PC12 cells, we initiated the study of the interaction between the FGF1 and p53 pathways in neuroblastoma. We focused on the activity of either extracellular FGF1 by adding recombinant rFGF1 in media, or of intracellular FGF1 by overexpression in human SH-SY5Y and mouse N2a neuroblastoma cell lines. In both cell lines, the genotoxic drug etoposide induced a classical mitochondrial p53-dependent apoptosis. FGF1 was able to inhibit p53-dependent apoptosis upstream of mitochondrial events in SH-SY5Y cells by both extracellular and intracellular pathways. Both rFGF1 addition and etoposide treatment increased fgf1 expression in SH-SY5Y cells. Conversely, rFGF1 or overexpressed FGF1 had no effect on p53-dependent apoptosis and fgf1 expression in neuroblastoma N2a cells. Using different FGF1 mutants (that is, FGF1K132E, FGF1S130A and FGF1S130D), we further showed that the C-terminal domain and phosphorylation of FGF1 regulate its intracrine anti-apoptotic activity in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. This study provides the first evidence for a role of an intracrine growth factor pathway on p53-dependent apoptosis in neuroblastoma, and could lead to the identification of key regulators involved in neuroblastoma tumor progression and chemoresistance.
Project description:The immortalized and proliferative cell line SH-SY5Y is one of the most commonly used cell lines in neuroscience and neuroblastoma research. However, undifferentiated SH-SY5Y cells share few properties with mature neurons. In this study, we present an optimized neuronal differentiation protocol for SH-SY5Y that requires only two work steps and 6 days. After differentiation, the cells present increased levels of ATP and plasma membrane activity but reduced expression of energetic stress response genes. Differentiation results in reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased robustness toward perturbations with 6-hydroxydopamine. We are convinced that the presented differentiation method will leverage genetic and chemical high-throughput screening projects targeting pathways that are involved in the selective vulnerability of neurons with high energetic stress levels.
Project description:Clinical evidence has implicated diabetes mellitus as one of the risk factors for the development and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the neurotoxic pathway activated due to abnormalities in glucose metabolism has not yet been identified in AD. In order to investigate the relationship between impaired cerebral glucose metabolism and the pathophysiology of AD, SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells were exposed to glyceraldehyde (GA), an inhibitor of glycolysis. GA induced the production of GA-derived advanced glycation end-products (GA-AGEs) and cell apoptosis, glycolytic inhibition, decreases in the medium concentrations of diagnostic markers of AD, such as amyloid β 1-42 (Aβ42), and increases in tau phosphorylation. These results suggest that the production of GA-AGEs and/or inhibition of glycolysis induce AD-like alterations, and this model may be useful for examining the pathophysiology of AD.
Project description:The human neuroblastoma cell line, SH-SY5Y, is a commonly used cell line in studies related to neurotoxicity, oxidative stress, and neurodegenerative diseases. Although this cell line is often used as a cellular model for Parkinson's disease, the relevance of this cellular model in the context of Parkinson's disease (PD) and other neurodegenerative diseases has not yet been systematically evaluated.We have used a systems genomics approach to characterize the SH-SY5Y cell line using whole-genome sequencing to determine the genetic content of the cell line and used transcriptomics and proteomics data to determine molecular correlations. Further, we integrated genomic variants using a network analysis approach to evaluate the suitability of the SH-SY5Y cell line for perturbation experiments in the context of neurodegenerative diseases, including PD.The systems genomics approach showed consistency across different biological levels (DNA, RNA and protein concentrations). Most of the genes belonging to the major Parkinson's disease pathways and modules were intact in the SH-SY5Y genome. Specifically, each analysed gene related to PD has at least one intact copy in SH-SY5Y. The disease-specific network analysis approach ranked the genetic integrity of SH-SY5Y as higher for PD than for Alzheimer's disease but lower than for Huntington's disease and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis for loss of function perturbation experiments.