Smallpox vaccination with LC16m8 vaccinia virus provides a gene expression profile similar to DryVax vaccination
ABSTRACT: Transcriptional analysis of global gene expression changes in naïve subjects in response to smallpox vaccination with either DryVax or the replication-competent, attenuated LC16m8 vaccinia virus. Overall design: Subjects were vaccinated with either DryVax or LC16m8 (5 from each group), and blood samples were taken at days 0, 3, 7, 10, 13, and 21 post-vaccination. PBMCs were isolated from the samples, and were then further separated into cell subpopulations using positive selection against CD markers (CD4+, CD20+). There are a total of 142 samples analyzed in this dataset.
INSTRUMENT(S): SFGF HEEBO Human Set v1.00 with custom orthopox oligos
Project description:Transcriptional analysis of global gene expression changes in naïve subjects in response to smallpox vaccination with either DryVax or the replication-competent, attenuated LC16m8 vaccinia virus. Subjects were vaccinated with either DryVax or LC16m8 (5 from each group), and blood samples were taken at days 0, 3, 7, 10, 13, and 21 post-vaccination. PBMCs were isolated from the samples, and were then further separated into cell subpopulations using positive selection against CD markers (CD4+, CD20+). There are a total of 142 samples analyzed in this dataset.
Project description:Successful vaccination against smallpox with conventional vaccinia virus is usually determined by the development of a vesicular skin lesion at the site of vaccinia inoculation, called a ‘take’. Although previous vaccination is known to be associated with attenuation of the take, the immunology that underlies a no-take in vaccinia-naïve individuals is not well understood. We hypothesized that antibody profiling of individuals before and after receiving vaccinia would reveal differences between takes and no-takes that may help better understand the phenomenon. Using vaccinia proteome microarrays and recombinant protein ELISAs we first examined the antibody response in vaccinia-naïve individuals that failed to take after receiving different doses of the replication competent smallpox vaccines, DryVax® and APSV. Most that received diluted vaccine failed to respond, whereas 4 other no-takes receiving diluted vaccine, and 4 receiving undiluted vaccine, mounted an antibody response. Interestingly, their antibody profiles were not significantly different from controls that did show a take. However, we did find elevated antibody titers in no-takes prior to receiving DryVax® that was significantly different from takes. Although the sample size studied was small, we conclude the failure to take in responders correlates with pre-existing immunity of unknown etiology that may attenuate the skin reaction in a way similar to previous smallpox vaccination. Antibody profiling was peformed on sera from vaccinees receiving smallpox vaccines, either Wyeth DryVax or Aventis Pasteur Vaccine ('WetVax') in NIH-sponsored clinical trials. These samples comprise 23 vaccinia naïve no-takes, and 50 vaccinia naïve takes and 25 previoulsy vaccinated takes as controls. Samples from d0 (day of vaccination) and at the peak of the antibody repsonse (d28) were taken from each donor and probed in triplicate against the proteome arrays.
Project description:Daily sampling of peripheral blood from human subjects vaccinated for influenza was done immediately before vaccination and for 10 days after vaccination. Temporal patterns of gene expression, determined by RNA-seq, in unfractionated PBMC suggested migration of myeloid/dendritic cell lineage cells one day after vaccination. Five subjects, 11 time points per subject (pre-vaccination and daily for 10 days post-vaccination)
Project description:Daily sampling of peripheral blood from human subjects vaccinated for influenza was done immediately before vaccination and for 10 days after vaccination. In B cells, 90% of transcriptomic variation in subjects who received influenza vaccine within the previous three years was explained by a single temporal pattern unique to the individual. A common set of 742 genes was strongly correlated with the migration of differentiating plasma cell subtypes. Five subjects, 11 time points per subject (pre-vaccination and daily for 10 days post-vaccination)
Project description:A greater understanding of the relationships between a vaccine, the immune response it induces, and protection from disease would greatly facilitate vaccine development. Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara expressing antigen 85A (MVA85A) is a novel tuberculosis (TB) vaccine designed to enhance responses induced by Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG). Antigen-specific interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production is greatly enhanced by MVA85A and peaks one week post-vaccination, however, the variability in response between healthy individuals is extensive. In this study we have sought to characterize the early changes in gene expression following vaccination with MVA85A and understand how these are related to long-term immunogenicity. 24 volunteers were vaccinated with 10^8 pfu MVA85A. 12 volunteers were vaccinated intramuscularly and 12 intradermally. Volunteers were healthy and did not have HIV, HCV, HBV or latent or active tuberculosis. Blood for this study was taken on the day of vaccination, immediately prior to the vaccine being given (day 0), and 2 and 7 days post-vaccination. Volunteers with a prior BCG vaccination were vaccinated with 1x10^8 pfu MVA85A either intradermally (id) or intramuscularly (im). Blood was taken immediately prior to vaccination (day 0) and 2 and 7 days post-vaccination. PBMCs were separated and frozen down. PBMCs were then thawed and RNA was extracted directly for microarray analysis. Some arrays contain control samples: from volunteers, incubated with either media alone or antigen 85, MVA85A or MVA wild type. These samples were used separately.
Project description:Gene expression analysis in lymph nodes and site of injection (intradermal) after vaccination with adenovirus (Ad), modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) or a mixed formulation of Ad+MVA. The hypothesis tested in the present study was that co-administration of two viral vectors induce a differential gene expression in the site of vaccination (dermis) and the draining lymph nodes that ultimately influences the protective ability of a vaccine against pre-erythrocytic malaria. Total RNA was isolated from the vaccination site (dermis) and lymph nodes after vaccination with adenovirus, MVA or Ad+MVA mixed co-administration after 6h and 24h (ear biopsies) and 9h, 24h and 72h for lymph nodes. Differential gene expression was assessed between vaccinated and non-immunized mice. Four ear biopsy samples did not pass quality control, and are not included in this submission.
Project description:Whole organs or CD8+ T cell populations sorted by FACS from tissues were isolated at various time points following vaccination with Vaccinia virus strain Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA; subcutaneously) and/or infection with strain Western Reserve (WR; intranasally). Total RNA was extracted from whole organs or sorted cell populations, RNA-seq libraries were prepared with a custom protocol, and sequenced at an average depth of ~5M/sample. Overall design: We compared three types of immune responses in vivo: (1) vaccinating (MVA only; 10^7 PFUs subcutaneously), (2) lethal (WR only; 10^7 PFUs intranasally), and (3) protective (MVA followed by WR challenge; same doses and routes as in 1 and 2, respectively). Overall, 6 datasets were generated from the following experiments and samples: (i) Whole-tissue samples from MVA, WR, MVA+WR cohorts with WR challenge at day 7, 21 (Exp. 1), or 80 (Exp. 2) in wild-type mice; (ii) Whole-tissue samples from MVA+WR at day 21 in wild-type versus knockout animals: Tcra-/- (Exp. 3), and Ifng-/-, Il22-/-, and Csf2-/- (Exp. 5); (iii) Sorted CD8+ T cell populations profiled from tissues of MVA-vaccinated (day 21) and control mice with (Exp. 6) or without (Exp. 4) intravascular staining (anti-CD45-PE antibody) to distinguish parenchyma-associated from vasculature-associated cells.
Project description:Human Glioblastoma Multiforme tumors taken before dendritic cell vaccination, the recurrent tumors taken after vaccination and control GBM tumors from non vaccinated patients. Experiment Overall Design: Six Glioblastoma Multiforme patients underwent surgery. Their brain tumors were removed and analyzed via microarray. The lysate from the tumors were cultured with the patients' dendritic cells and the DCs were injected back into the patients. The patients GBMs returned and they underwent surgery a second time and those tumors were also analyzed via microarray. Tumors from the first and second GBM surgeries of 5 patients who did not receive DC vaccines are included as controls.
Project description:The female reproductive tract is one of the major mucosal invasion site of HIV-1. This site has been neglected in previous HIV-1 vaccine studies. Immune responses in the female reproductive tract after systemic vaccination remain to be characterized. Using a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) as a vaccine model, we characterized specific immune responses in all compartments of the female reproductive tract (FRT) of non-human primates after systemic vaccination. Memory T cells were preferentially found in the lower tract (vagina and cervix), whereas antigen-presenting cells and innate lymphoid cells were mainly located in the upper tract (uterus and fallopian tubes). This compartmentalisation of immune cells in the FRT was supported by transcriptomic analyses and correlation network. Polyfunctional MVA-specific CD8+ T cells were detected in the blood, lymph nodes, vagina, cervix, uterus and fallopian tubes. Anti-MVA IgG and IgA were detected in cervicovaginal fluid after a second vaccine dose. Systemic vaccination with an MVA vector thus elicits cellular and antibody responses in the female reproductive tract.
Project description:In this study we attempt to elucidate some of the pathways involved in the immune response to vaccination and subsequent disease challenge using a transcriptomic approach. We exposed, via intra-peritoneal injection, three months old Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) to a Streptococcus iniae vaccine. A control group was also set up where no vaccine was injected. Spleen and head kidney samples were collected at one and seven days post vaccination for transcriptomic analysis. At this point, there are four groups per organ: Day 1 vaccinated, Day 1 control, Day 7 vaccinated and Day 7 control. Subsequently, a pathogen challenge was carried out three weeks later and spleen and head kidneys were sampled at 25-29 hours post challenge for transcriptomic analysis. For control, mock challenged was carried out. At this point, there are four groups per organ: unvaccinated challenged, unvaccinated mock challenged, vaccinated challenged and vaccinated mock challenged. Total 57 samples. Spleen samples: At Day 1 and Day 7 post vaccination, 4 spleens were analyzed for each of the D1 control and D1 vaccinated groups and 3 spleens were analyzed for each of the D7 control and D7 vaccinated groups (total = 14 samples). At post pathogen challenge, 4 spleens were analyzed for each of these three groups - unvaccinated mock challenged, vaccinated challenged and vaccinated mock challenged and 3 spleens for the unvaccinated challenged group (total = 15 samples). Head Kidney samples: At Day 1 and Day 7 post vaccination, 3 head kidneys were analyzed for the control and vaccinated groups for both time points (total = 12 samples). At post pathogen challenge, 4 head kidneys were analyzed for each of the groups: unvaccinated challenged, unvaccinated mock challenged, vaccinated challenged and vaccinated mock challenged (total = 16 samples).