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In vitro carcinogenicity testing with Balb/c 3T3 Cells treated with various chemical carcinogens

ABSTRACT: Background: Information on the carcinogenic potential of chemicals is only availably for High Production Volume products. There is however, a pressing need for alternative methods allowing for the chronic toxicity of substances, including carcinogenicity, to be detected earlier and more reliably. Here we applied advanced genomics to a cellular transformation assay to identify gene signatures useful for the prediction of risk for carcinogenicity. Methods: Genome wide gene expression analysis and qRT-PCR were applied to untransformed and transformed Balb/c 3T3 cells that exposed to 2, 4-diaminotoluene (DAT), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), 2-Acetylaminoflourene (AAF) and 3-methycholanthrene (MCA) for 24h and 120h, at different concentrations, respectively. Furthermore, various bioinformatics tools were used to identify gene signatures predicting for the carcinogenic risk. Results: Bioinformatics analysis revealed distinct datasets for the individual chemicals tested while the number of significantly regulated genes increased with ascending treatment concentration of the cell cultures. Filtering of the data revealed a common gene signature that comprised of 13 genes whose regulation in cancer tissue has already been established. Strikingly, this gene signature was already identified prior to cell transformation therefore confirming the predictive power of this gene signature in identifying carcinogenic risks of chemicals. Comparison of fold changes determined by microarray analysis and qRT-PCR were in good agreement. Conclusion: Our data describes selective and commonly regulated carcinogenic pathways observed in an easy to use in vitro carcinogenicity assay. Here we defined a set of genes which can serve as a simply assay to predict the risk for carcinogenicity by use of an alternative in vitro testing strategy. Overall design: Balb/c 3T3 cells were seeded at 200 cells in each 60 x 15 mm culture dish with 4 ml M10F, using six culture dishes for every treatment. When cells reached a confluence of 60-65%, the culture medium was removed and replaced with fresh medium containing all tested chemicals at a specific concentration and two time points (24 and 120h). First we treated the cells both 24h and 120h with concentrations reported in the literature (0.5µM BaP, 50µM DAT, 25µM AAF and 2µM MCA). In a second approach IC20 concentrations were investigated for each chemical at both time points. The concentrations determined for IC20 ranged from 1.5 µM BaP to 700 µM DAT for 24h of treatment, and from 0.1 µM BaP or MCA to 10µM AAF for 120h of treatment. Balb/c 3T3 cells treated with 0.75% DMSO alone were kept as controls. Each experiment was run in triplicate.

INSTRUMENT(S): [Mouse430_2] Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430 2.0 Array

ORGANISM(S): Mus musculus  

SUBMITTER: Astrid Rohrbeck  




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