Methylation profiling in individuals with uniparental disomy identifies novel differentially methylated regions on chromosome 15
ABSTRACT: Methylation profiles of chr12-16 were generated by meDIP and array hybridisation in 3 cases with maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 15, and three cases of paternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 15. Comparison of these profiles reveals differentially methylated (imprinted) regions on chromosome 15. Overall design: Methylated DNA was enriched by immunoprecipitation using antibodies against 5-methylcytosine. meDIP and input DNA was labeled with cy5 and cy3 respectively and hybridized to Nimblegen arrays comprising 2.1 million 50-85mers covering human chromosomes 12-16 at a mean density of ~1 probe per 100bp. Resulting log2 fluorescence ratios correspond to methylation levels. Six samples were analyzed, with technical replicates for each DNA.
INSTRUMENT(S): Human Meth 2.1M WG-T 8-10 [0701_HG18_TILE_08_HX1]
Project description:Methylation profiles of chr12-16 were generated by meDIP and array hybridisation in 3 cases with maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 15, and three cases of paternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 15. Comparison of these profiles reveals differentially methylated (imprinted) regions on chromosome 15. Methylated DNA was enriched by immunoprecipitation using antibodies against 5-methylcytosine. meDIP and input DNA was labeled with cy5 and cy3 respectively and hybridized to Nimblegen arrays comprising 2.1 million 50-85mers covering human chromosomes 12-16 at a mean density of ~1 probe per 100bp. Resulting log2 fluorescence ratios correspond to methylation levels. Six samples were analyzed, with technical replicates for each DNA.
Project description:Whole exome sequencing of 5 MDS/MPN patients to identify the target of chromosome 22 acquired uniparental disomy (22aUPD). For samples E4051 and E6523, peripheral blood leucocytes (tumour) and cultured T-cells (germline) were prepared for exome sequencing using the Agilent SureSelect kit (Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, CA, USA) (Human All Exon 50 Mb) and then sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 (Illumina, Great Abington, UK) at the Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Oxford, UK. For samples ULSAM1182, ULSAM1242 and ULSAM1356, peripheral blood leukocyte DNA only were exome sequenced by SciLifeLab (Stockholm, Sweden).
Project description:The acquisition of uniparental disomy (aUPD) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) results in homozygosity for known gene mutations. Uncovering novel regions of aUPD has the potential to identify previously unknown mutational targets, therefore, we aimed to develop a comprehensive map of the regions of aUPD in AML. Here, we have analyzed a large set of diagnostic AML samples (n=455) using genotype arrays. Acquired UPD was found in 17% of the samples with a non-random distribution particularly affecting chromosomes 13q, 11p and 11q. Novel recurrent regions of aUPD were uncovered at 2p, 17p, 2q, 17q, 1p and Xq. Overall, aUPDs were observed across all cytogenetic risk groups, although samples with aUPD13q (5.4% of samples) belonged exclusively to the intermediate-risk group. All cases with a high FLT3-ITD level, measured previously, had aUPD13q covering the FLT3 gene. Of the 120 aUPDs observed, the majority (87%) were due to mitotic recombination while only 13% were due to non-disjunction. This study demonstrates aUPD is a frequent and significant finding in AML and pinpoints regions that may contain novel mutational targets. Keywords: Genomic analysis of AML samples Overall design: Genomic DNA from 459 diagnostic AML samples were analysed using Affymetrix 10K 2.0 SNP arrays. Genomic DNA from the blood of ten unrelated controls was used as reference for all 459 AML samples. Remission DNA from 8 AML samples was also studied. Prevalence and regions of homozygosity were identified.
Project description:Genomic imprinting is a mechanism in which the expression of genes varies depending on their parent-of-origin. Imprinting occurs through differential DNA methylation and histone modifications on the two parental alleles, with most imprinted genes marked by CpG-rich differentially methylated regions (DMRs). DNA methylation profiling in cases of uniparental disomy (UPD) provides a unique system permitting the study of DNA derived from a single parent (PMID: 20631049). Approximately 70 human imprinted genes have been described, and imprinted loci have been associated with diseases such as diabetes and cancer. We profiled parent of origin DNA methylation marks to find novel imprinted loci. Methods: We have an unprecedented collection of whole blood DNA from XX patients with UPD covering 18 different chromosomes, allowing for the efficient detection of DMRs associated with imprinted genes for 84% of the human genome. Our study is complimented with Ovarian Teratoma DNA (maternal DNA) and Complete hydatidiform Mole (paternal DNA). DNA methylation was profiled using Illumina Infinium 450K Methylation BeadArrays. Imprinted DMRs were defined by sites at which the maternal and paternal methylation levels diverged significantly from the biparental average. We confirmed novel DMRs by bisulfite sequencing of informative trios and SequenomEpiTYPER assays. Allelic specific gene expression studies were also performed by RNA sequencing in independent biparental controls. Findings: Our results provide for the first comprehensive map of the human imprintome, doubling the number of known imprinted regions. We identified a total of 71 DMRs, 41 of which were novel. 27 novel DMRs were maternally methylated and 14 were paternally methylated. We identified DMRs on chromosomes 5, 21 and 22 previously considered devoid of imprinting, highlighting potential parent-of-origin effects in chromosomal aneuploidies such as Down syndrome. We also found DMRs in genes associated with Schizophrenia and epilepsy. Interpretation: Our data provide the first comprehensive genome-wide map of imprinted sites in the human genome, and provide novel insights into potential parent-of-origin effects in human disorders. 66 UPD samples analyzed in total, From each individual, whole bllod DNA was extracted and global DNA methylation levels were assessed using Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip.
Project description:Genome-wide analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms in 64 acute myeloid leukemias has revealed that 20% exhibited large regions of homozygosity that could not be accounted for by visible chromosomal abnormalities in the karyotype. Further analysis confirmed that these patterns were due to partial uniparental disomy (UPD). Remission bone marrow was available from five patients showing UPD in their leukemias, and in all cases the homozygosity was found to be restricted to the leukemic clone. Two examples of UPD11p were shown to be of different parental origin as indicated by the methylation pattern of the H19 gene. Furthermore, a previously identified homozygous mutation in the CEBPA gene coincided with a large-scale UPD on chromosome 19. These cryptic chromosomal abnormalities, which seem to be nonrandom, have the characteristics of somatic recombination events and may define an important new subclass of leukemia. Patient No. from Table 1 of Raghavan et al 2005 and Sample name Patient No: 1 = Sample name: AML sample 35 diagnosis Patient No: 1 = Sample name: AML sample 107 remission Patient No: 2 = Sample name: AML sample 37 diagnosis Patient No: 3 = Sample name: AML sample 10 diagnosis Patient No: 3 = Sample name: AML sample 44 remission Patient No: 4 = Sample name: AML sample 20 diagnosis Patient No: 5 = Sample name: AML sample 65 diagnosis Patient No: 6 = Sample name: AML sample 69 diagnosis Patient No: 6 = Sample name: AML sample 94 remission Patient No: 7 = Sample name: AML sample 40 diagnosis Patient No: 7 = Sample name: AML sample 41 remission Patient No: 8 = Sample name: AML sample 64 diagnosis Patient No: 9 = Sample name: AML sample 7 diagnosis Patient No: 10 = Sample name: AML sample 49 diagnosis Patient No: 10 = Sample name: AML sample 106 remission Patient No: 11 = Sample name: AML sample 76 diagnosis Patient No: 12 = Sample name: AML sample 79 diagnosis Keywords: DNA copy number, loss of heterozygosity Overall design: DNA from 64 diagnostic AML samples were analysed using Affymetrix 10K SNP arrays. Large regions of homozygosity were identified and compared with remission bone marrow where available.
Project description:Analysis of the molecular etiologies of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) has led to important insights into the control of immune cell development. Most cases of SCID result from either X-linked or autosomal recessive inheritance of mutations in a known causative gene. However, in some cases, the molecular etiology remains unclear. To identify the cause of SCID in a patient known to lack the protein tyrosine phosphatase CD45, we utilized single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) Cytogenetics arrays; The patient’s mother was heterozygous for an inactivating mutation in CD45, while the paternal alleles exhibited no detectable mutations. The patient exhibited a single CD45 mutation identical to the maternal allele. Patient SNP array analysis revealed no change in copy number but loss of heterozygosity for the entire length of chromosome 1 (Chr1), indicating that disease was caused by uniparental disomy (UPD) with isodisomy of the entire maternal Chr1 bearing the mutant CD45 allele. Non-lymphoid blood cells and other mesoderm and ectoderm-derived tissues retained UPD of the entire maternal Chr1 in this patient who had undergone successful bone marrow transplantation. These findings represent the first reported case of SCID caused by UPD and suggest UPD should be considered in SCID and other recessive disorders, especially when the patient appears homozygous for an abnormal gene found in only one parent. Evaluation for alterations in other genes affected by UPD should also be considered in such cases. Affymetrix SNP Cytogenetics arrays were performed according to the manufacturer's directions on DNA extracted from cryopreserved sorted PMBC and buccal samples. Copy number and allele analysis of Affymetrix Cytogenetics arrays was performed for the patient's and his parent's samples.
Project description:Identification of Acquired Copy Number Alterations and Uniparental Disomies in Cytogenetically Normal Acute Myeloid Leukemia Using High-Resolution Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Analysis Recent advances in genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analyses have revealed previously unrecognized microdeletions and uniparental disomy (UPD) in a broad spectrum of human cancers. As acute myeloid leukemia (AML) represents a genetically heterogeneous disease, this technology might prove helpful especially for cytogenetically normal AML (CN-AML) cases. Thus, we performed high-resolution SNP analyses in 157 adult cases of CN-AML. Regions of acquired UPD were identified in 12% of cases and most frequently affected chromosomes 6p, 11p, and 13q. Notably, acquired UPD was invariably associated with mutations in NPM1 or CEBPA that impair hematopoietic differentiation (P=0.008), suggesting that UPDs may preferentially target genes that are essential for proliferation and survival of hematopoietic progenitors. Acquired copy number alterations (CNAs) were detected in 49% of cases with losses found in two or more cases affecting e.g. chromosome bands 3p13-p14.1 and 12p13. Furthermore, we identified two cases with a cryptic t(6;11) as well as several non-recurrent aberrations pointing to leukemia relevant regions. With regard to clinical outcome, there appeared to be an association between UPD 11p and UPD 13q cases with overall survival. These data demonstrate the potential of high-resolution SNP analysis for identifying genomic regions of potential pathogenic and clinical relevance in AML. Overall design: Copy number analysis of Affymetrix 50K and/ or 500K SNP arrays was performed for 157 adult AML samples
Project description:Genomic imprinting is a mechanism in which gene expression varies depending on parental origin. Imprinting occurs through differential epigenetic marks on the two parental alleles, with most imprinted loci marked by the presence of differentially methylated regions (DMRs). To identify sites of parental epigenetic bias, here we have profiled DNA methylation patterns in a cohort of 57 individuals with uniparental disomy (UPD) for 19 different chromosomes, defining imprinted DMRs as sites where the maternal and paternal methylation levels diverge significantly from the biparental mean. Using this approach we identified 77 DMRs, including nearly all those described in previous studies, in addition to 34 DMRs not previously reported. These include a DMR at TUBGCP5 within the recurrent 15q11.2 microdeletion region, suggesting potential parent-of-origin effects associated with this genomic disorder. We also observed a modest parental bias in DNA methylation levels at every CpG analyzed across ∼1.9 Mb of the 15q11-q13 Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome region, demonstrating that the influence of imprinting is not limited to individual regulatory elements such as CpG islands, but can extend across entire chromosomal domains. Using RNA-seq data, we detected signatures consistent with imprinted expression associated with nine novel DMRs. Finally, using a population sample of 4,004 blood methylomes, we define patterns of epigenetic variation at DMRs, identifying rare individuals with global gain or loss of methylation across multiple imprinted loci. Our data provide a detailed map of parental epigenetic bias in the human genome, providing insights into potential parent-of-origin effects. Overall design: 66 UPD samples analyzed in total, From each individual, whole bllod DNA was extracted and global DNA methylation levels were assessed using Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip.
Project description:Chromosome 1p LOH was seen in one-third of cases. LOH events on chromosomes 11q and 1p were generally accompanied by copy number loss. The one exception was on chromosome 11p, where LOH in all 4 cases was accompanied by normal copy number or diploidy, implying uniparental disomy. Amplification of MYCN was also noted, and also, amplification of a second gene, ALK, in a single case. Experiment Overall Design: We analyzed paired blood and primary tumor samples from 22 children with high-risk neuroblastoma for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and DNA copy number change.