Expression profiles from a variety of resting and activated human immune cells
ABSTRACT: Immune cell-specific expression is one indication of the importance of a gene's role in the immune response. In order to identify such patterns, we set out to broadly profile gene expression in a variety of immune cells. Overall design: We isolated twelve different types of human leukocytes from peripheral blood and bone marrow, treated them to induce activation and/or differentiation, and profiled their gene expression before and after treatment. The twelve cell types are: B cells, CD14+ cells, CD4+ CD45RO+ CD45RA- T cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, IgG/IgA memory B cells, IgM memory B cells, Monocytes, NK cells, Neutrophils, Plasma cells from bone marrow, and Plasma cells from PBMC.
Project description:Immune cell-specific expression is one indication of the importance of a gene's role in the immune response. In order to identify such patterns, we set out to broadly profile gene expression in a variety of immune cells. We isolated twelve different types of human leukocytes from peripheral blood and bone marrow, treated them to induce activation and/or differentiation, and profiled their gene expression before and after treatment. The twelve cell types are: B cells, CD14+ cells, CD4+ CD45RO+ CD45RA- T cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, IgG/IgA memory B cells, IgM memory B cells, Monocytes, NK cells, Neutrophils, Plasma cells from bone marrow, and Plasma cells from PBMC.
Project description:To compare human memory CD4+ T cell subsets in peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) of healthy individuals at transcriptional level, we analyzed the global gene expression of ex vivo PB CD69- as well as BM CD69- and CD69+ memory CD4+ T cells from 4 paired PB and BM samples. The gene expression of these subsets was additionally compared to the transcriptional profile of 8 PB samples taken ex vivo or stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and Ionomycin for 3 hours. Three ex vivo memory CD4+ T cell subsets (CD4+CD45RO+CD69+ and CD4+CD45RO+CD69- cells from bone marrow; CD4+CD45RO+CD69- cells from peripheral blood) were isolated from 4 paired bone marrow and blood samples (two males and two females) or from a different cohort of 8 blood samples (3 males and five females). The purity of sorted cells was higher than 95% as assessed by FACS. Subsequently, a fraction of purified cells from the 8 blood samples were stimulated with phorbol-myristic-acid/ionomycin (PMA/iono) for 3 h and used as high controls. Total RNA of each cell subset was extracted using a NucleoSpin RNA XS Kit (Macherey-Nagel) or RNeasy Mini kit (Qiagen). The integrity and amount of isolated RNA was assessed for each sample using an Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer (Agilent, Waldbronn, Germany) and a NanoDrop ND-1000 spectrophotometer (NanoDrop Technologies, Wilmington, DE). Double-stranded complementary RNA was synthesized from 1 µg total RNA using Message AmpII Biotin (Ambion, USA). Fifteen micrograms of fragmented cRNA of each sample were hybridized to 28 HG-U133A plus 2.0 GeneChips (Affymetrix). Hybridization was performed in a Hybridization Oven 640, and chips were washed and stained in the Fluidics Station 400 (both Affymetrix). Finally, the arrays were scanned with a GeneChip Scanner 3000 using the GCOS software, version 1.4, both Affymetrix. All relevant GCOS data of quality checked microarrays were analyzed with High Performance Chip Data Analysis (HPCDA, unpublished), using the BioRetis database (www.bioretis-analysis.de), as described and validated previously.
Project description:Disturbed expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulatory T-cells (Tregs) leads to development of autoimmunity in experimental mouse models. However, the miRNA expression signature characterizing Tregs of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has not been determined yet. Moreover, the technical limitations prevented the analysis of such minute T-cell population as naive and memory Tregs. In this study we have used a microarray approach to comprehensively analyze miRNA expression signatures of naive Tregs (CD4+CD45RO-CD25++), memory Tregs (CD4+CD45RO+CD25+++), as well as conventional naive (CD4+CD45RO-CD25-) and memory (CD4+CD45RO+CD25-) T-cells (Tconvs) derived from peripheral blood of RA patients, and matched healthy controls. Differential expression of selected miRNAs was validated by TaqMan-based qRT-PCR. We found a positive correlation between increased expression of miR-451 in T-cells of RA patients and disease activity score (DAS28), ESR levels, and serum levels of IL-6. Moreover, we found characteristic, disease and treatment independent, global miRNA expression signatures defining naive Tregs, memory Tregs, naive Tconvs and memory Tconvs. The analysis allowed us to define miRNAs characteristic for a general naive phenotype (e.g. miR-92a), a general memory phenotype (e.g. miR-21, miR-155), and most importantly miRNAs specifically expressed in both naive and memory Tregs, defining as such the Treg phenotype (i.e. miR-146a, miR-3162, miR-1202, miR-1246a, and miR-4281). MicroRNA profiling was performed in four CD4+ T-cell subsets: naive Tconventional (CD3+CD8-CD45RO-CD25-), naive Tregulatory (CD3+CD8-CD45RO-CD25+), memory Tconventional (CD3+CD8-CD45RO+CD25-), and memory Tregulatory (CD3+CD8-CD45RO+CD25+) derived from 2 healthy controls, and 6 rheumatoid arthritis patients (total n=8).
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as important players in the regulation of T-cell functionality. However, comprehensive insight into the extent of age-related miRNA changes in T cells is lacking. We established miRNA expression patterns of CD45RO- naïve and CD45RO+ memory T-cell subsets isolated from peripheral blood cells from young and elderly individuals. Unsupervised clustering of the miRNA expression data revealed an age-related clustering in the CD45RO- T cells, while CD45RO+ T cells clustered based on expression of CD4 and CD8. Seventeen miRNAs showed an at least 2-fold up- or downregulation in CD45RO- T cells obtained from young as compared to old donors. Validation on the same and independent samples revealed a statistically significant age-related upregulation of miR-21, miR-223 and miR-15a. In a T-cell subset analysis focusing on known age-related phenotypic changes, we showed significantly higher miR-21 and miR-223 levels in CD8+CD45RO-CCR7- TEMRA compared to CD45RO-CCR7+ TNAIVE-cells. Moreover, miR-21 but not miR-223 levels were significantly increased in CD45RO-CD31- post-thymic TNAIVE cells as compared to thymic CD45RO-CD31+ TNAIVE cells. Upon activation of CD45RO- TNAIVE cells we observed a significant induction of miR-21 especially in CD4+ T cells, while miR-223 levels significantly decreased only in CD4+ T cells. Besides composition and activation, we showed a borderline significant increase in miR-21 levels upon an increasing number of population doublings in CD4+ T-cell clones. Together, our results show that ageing related changes in miRNA expression are dominant in the CD45RO- T-cell compartment. The differential expression patterns can be explained by age related changes in T-cell composition, i.e. accumulation of CD8+ TEMRA and CD4+ post thymic expanded CD31- T cells and by cellular ageing, as demonstrated in a longitudinal clonal culture model. MicroRNA profiling was performed in eight T cell subsets: CD4 naive (CD3+CD4+CD45RO-), CD8 naive (CD3+CD4-CD45RO-), CD4 memory (CD3+CD4+CD45RO+) and CD8 memory (CD3+CD4-CD45RO+) T cells derived from 5 healthy young and 5 healthy old participants.
Project description:Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) were isolated from a buffy coat (Australian Blood Bank) using Ficoll methodology. CD4+ T cells were isolated using Dynal Beads kit. Pure CD4+ T cells were then stained using a cocktail of monoclonal antobodies (mAbs), including: anti-CD4PE, CD45RO ECD, CD62L APC-Cy7, CD25 APC, CD127 Pacific Blue. After incubation, cells were washed twice in PBS/FCS (0.2%), and sorted into five different cell subsets: CD4+CD25+CD127low CD62L+CD45RO- (naive regulatory T cells), CD4+CD25+CD127low CD62L+/- CD45RO+ (activated regulatory T cells), CD4+CD25+CD127hi CD62L+/- CD45RO+ (memory T cells), CD4+CD25-CD127low CD62L+/- CD45RO+ (effector T cells) and CD4+CD25-CD127hi CD62L+ CD45RO- (naive T cells).
Project description:We report that there are differences in V gene usage in memory B cells and long-lived plasma cells after oral immunization. The hapten NP was conjugated to cholera toxin (CT) to create NP-CT, an antigen that is highly immunogenic after oral immunization. The NP hapten induces immune responses dominated by the 1-72 (VH186.2) heavy chain V region. The relationship between NP binding IgA antibody genes from memory B cells from spleen, MLN and Peyer´s patches and long-lived plasma cells from lamina propria and bone marrow that persisted 6-12 months after an oral immunization in three C57BL/6 mice with NP-CT was investigated. Extensive clonal overlap im clones was observed between long-lived memory cells from lamina propria and bone marrow, but very limited overlap was found between memory cells and plasma cells. The data suggest that memory and plasma cells formed through temporarily or anatomically separate processes. Overall design: RNA was prepared from memory cells and long-lived plasma cells from C57BL/6 mice that had been orally immunized with NP-CT 6-12 months before analysis
Project description:CD4+ T lymphocytes are key to immunological memory, but little is known about the lifestyle of memory CD4+ T lymphocytes. We showed that in the memory phase of specific immune responses to antigens, most of the memory CD4+ T lymphocytes relocated into the bone marrow (BM) within 3-8 weeks after their generation, a process involving integrin a2. Antigen-specific memory CD4+ T lymphocytes expressed Ly-6C to a high degree, unlike most splenic CD44hiCD62L- CD4+ T lymphocytes. In adult mice, more than 80% of Ly-6Chi CD44hiCD62L- memory CD4+ T lymphocytes were in the BM. In the BM, they are located next to IL-7-expressing VCAM-1+ stroma cells, and were in a resting state. Upon challenge with antigen, they rapidly expressed cytokines and CD154 and induced the production of high-affinity antibodies, indicating their functional activity in vivo and marking them as professional memory T helper cells Experiment Overall Design: FACSAria sorted CD44highCD62L-CD25- CD4+ T cells of murine (C57BL/6 mice) bone marrow were compared to those of the spleen using Affymetrix GeneChip Mouse Genome 430A 2.0 Array. After total RNA extraction, reverse transcription, cDNA extraction, the biotinylated cRNA was transcribed, fragmented, and 15 µg cRNA hybridized in triplicates for each of the two groups to the GeneChip arrays. Group of bone marrow chips: BMCD4T1, BMCD4T2, BMCD4T3, group of spleen chips: SCD4T1, SCD4T2, SCD4T3. Lists of differentially regulated genes were created using High Performance Chip Data Analysis (HPCDA) with Bioretis database (http://www.bioretis-analysis.de).
Project description:Follicular helper CD4 T (Tfh) cells provide B cells with signals that are important for the generation of high-affinity Abs and immunological memory and, therefore, are critical for the protective immunity elicited by most human vaccines. In this study we sought to define the gene expression signature of bona fide GC Tfh and Tfh cells. The CD4+ T cell subsets CD45RO+CXCR5-, CD45RO+CXCR5int (Tfh cells), and CD45RO+CXCR5hi (GC Tfh cells) were isolated from 6 tonsil samples for gene expression analysis.
Project description:Inflammasomes are multi-protein complexes that control the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1beta. Inflammasomes play an important role in the control of immunity to tumors and infections, and also in autoimmune diseases, but the mechanisms controlling the activation of human inflammasomes are largely unknown. We found that human activated CD4+CD45RO+ memory T-cells specifically suppress P2X7R-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation, without affecting P2X7R-independent NLRP3 or NLRP1 inflammasome activation. The concomitant increase in pro-IL-1β production induced by activated memory T-cells concealed this effect. Priming with IFNβ decreased pro-IL-1β production in addition to NLRP3 inflammasome inhibition and thus unmasked the inhibitory effect on NLRP3 inflammasome activation. IFNβ did not suppress NLRP3 inflammasome activation by acting directly on monocytes. The inhibition of pro-IL-1β production and suppression of NLRP3 inflammasome activation by IFNβ-primed human CD4+CD45RO+ memory T-cells is partly mediated by soluble FasL and is associated with down-regulated P2X7R mRNA expression and reduced response to ATP in monocytes. CD4+CD45RO+ memory T-cells from multiple sclerosis (MS) patients showed a reduced ability to suppress NLRP3 inflammasome activation, however their suppressive ability was recovered following in vivo treatment with IFNβ. Thus, our data demonstrate that human P2X7R-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation is regulated by activated CD4+CD45RO+ memory T cells, and provide new information on the mechanisms mediating the therapeutic effects of IFNβ in MS. Memory T-cells were cultured in the presence of monocytes with and without Interferon-beta, resorted and expression profile was determined
Project description:Resident memory T-cells (TRM) reside in the lung epithelium and mediate protective immunity against respiratory pathogens. While lung CD8+ TRM have been extensively characterized, the properties of CD4+ TRM remain unclear. Here we determined the transcriptional signature of CD4+ TRM, identified by the expression of CD103, retrieved from human lung resection material. Various tissue homing molecules were specifically upregulated on CD4+ TRM, while expression of tissue egress and lymph node homing molecules were low. CD103+ TRM expressed low levels of T-bet, only a small portion expressed Eomes, and while the mRNA levels for Hobit were increased, protein expression was absent. On the other hand, the CD103+ TRM showed a Notch signature. CD4+CD103+ TRM constitutively expressed high transcript levels of numerous cytotoxic mediators, which was functionally reflected by a fast recall response, magnitude of cytokine production, and a high degree of polyfunctionality. Interestingly, the superior cytokine production appears to be due to an accessible IFNγ locus and was partially due to rapid translation of preformed mRNA. Our studies provide a molecular understanding of the maintenance and potential function of CD4+ TRM in the human lung. Understanding the specific properties of CD4+ TRM is required to rationally improve vaccine design. Overall design: Lung material was collected from non-cancerous lobectomy tissue of six patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma. Lung mononuclear cells where isolated after digestion of the partial or complete human lung resection material. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from five healthy donors. Three populations were sorted from the lung, CD3+CD4+CD45RO+CD27-CD103+, CD3+CD4+CD45RO+CD27-CD103-, and CD3+CD4+CD45RO+CD27+CD103-. For the blood three populations were also sorted, CD3+CD4+CD45RA+CD45RO-CD27+ (memory), CD3+CD4+CD45RO+CD27+ (naive), CD3+CD4+CD45RO+CD27- (effector memory). RNA was isolated from the sorted cell samples. For the blood T cell naive, memory and effector memory subsets, RNA from five individually sorted samples was pooled. RNA from 24 samples (n=6 for the three lung T cell subsets; n=1 for the three blood T cell subsets, in duplicate) was hybridised on Illumina HumanHT-12 V4.0 microarrays. Four microarray samples were excluded after hybridization since their average signal was too low and one microarray was excluded after quality control using the arrayQualityMetrics R package.