Budding yeast RNA polymerase II CTD phosphorylation and transcription termination factor localization
ABSTRACT: Whole genome analysis of total RNA pol II, Ser2-, Ser5- and Ser7-phosphorylated RNA pol II, in WT and mutants of the C-terminal domain (CTD) kinases Ctk1 and Kin28, and localization of the termination factors Pcf11, Nrd1 and Rat1. Overall design: ChIP-chip using ligation-mediated PCR-amplified material hybridized to NimbleGen 385K arrays (50mers, median probe spacing 32 bp, cat. No. C4214-00-01).
Project description:Whole genome analysis of total RNA pol II, Ser2-, Ser5- and Ser7-phosphorylated RNA pol II, in WT and mutants of the C-terminal domain (CTD) kinases Ctk1 and Kin28, and localization of the termination factors Pcf11, Nrd1 and Rat1. ChIP-chip using ligation-mediated PCR-amplified material hybridized to NimbleGen 385K arrays (50mers, median probe spacing 32 bp, cat. No. C4214-00-01).
Project description:Transcription termination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be performed by at least two distinct pathways and is directed by the phosphorylation status of the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II (Pol II). Late termination of mRNAs is performed by the CPF/CF complex and requires CTD-Ser2 phosphorylation. Early termination of shorter cryptic unstable transcripts (CUTs) and small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) is preformed by the Nrd1 complex, and requires CTD-Ser5 phosphorylation. In this study, mutants of the different termination pathways were compared by genome-wide expression analysis. Surprisingly, the expression changes observed upon loss of the CTD-Ser2 kinase Ctk1 are more similar to loss of a subunit of the Ser5P binding Nrd1-complex, than to loss of Ser2P binding factors. Tiling array analysis of ctk1Δ reveals readthrough at several hundred sites, including snoRNAs, as reported previously, but also many cryptic unstable transcripts, stable untranslated transcripts (SUTs) and other transcripts. Surprisingly, neither loss of CTK1 nor a Pol II CTD-Ser2 substitution mutant results in a global defect in termination of mRNAs, indicating that Ser2P is not essential for proper termination of most mRNAs. At snoRNA, Nrd1 location is shifted downstream in ctk1∆, indicating defective release rather than recruitment of Nrd1. Weakening the interaction between Nrd1 and Pol II rescues the readthrough in ctk1∆, likely by facilitating Nrd1 release. The termination defect is kinase activity dependent, but cannot be completely explained by loss of CTD-Ser2 phosphorylation , a major substrate of Ctk1, suggesting the involvement of an additional substrate. Mutant alleles of the elongation factor Spt5 rescue ctk1∆-dependent readthrough, indicating a role for Spt5 in this process, perhaps as a substrate of Ctk1. The results show that Ctk1 is more intimately involved in termination of small non-coding RNAs than was previously assumed and lead to a model in which Ctk1 influences Spt5 activity to achieve this. Two channel microarrays were used. RNA isolated from a large amount of wt yeast from a single culture was used as a common reference. This common reference was used in one of the channels for each hybridization and used in the statistical analysis to obtain an average expression-profile for each deletion mutant relative to the wt. Two independent cultures were hybridized on two separate microarrays. For the first hybridization the Cy5 (red) labeled cRNA from the deletion mutant is hybridized together with the Cy3 (green) labeled cRNA from the common reference. For the replicate hybridization, the labels are swapped. Each gene is represented twice on the microarray, resulting in four measurements per mutant. Using the Erlenmeyer growth protocol up to five deletion strains were grown on a single day. In the tecan platereader, up to eleven deletion strains could be grown on a single day. Wt cultures were grown parallel to the deletion mutants to assess day-to-day variance.
Project description:ChIP-chip was performed to identify the genomic binding locations for the termination factors Nrd1, and Rtt103, and for RNA polymerase (Pol) II phosphorylated at the tyrosine 1 and threonine 4 position of its C-terminal domain (CTD). In different phases of the transcription cycle, Pol II recruits different factors via its CTD, which consists of heptapeptide repeats with the sequence Tyr1-Ser2-Pro3-Thr4-Ser5-Pro6-Ser7. Here we show that the CTD of transcribing yeast Pol II is phosphorylated at Tyr1, and that this impairs recruitment of termination factors. Tyr1 phosphorylation levels rise downstream of the transcription start site (TSS), and decrease before the polyadenylation (pA) site. Tyr1-phosphorylated gene bodies are depleted of CTD-binding termination factors Nrd1, Pcf11, and Rtt103. Tyr1 phosphorylation blocks CTD binding by these termination factors, but stimulates binding of elongation factor Spt6. These results show that CTD modifications can not only stimulate but also block factor recruitment, and lead to an extended CTD code for transcription cycle coordination.
Project description:In Saccharomyces cerevisiae short non-coding RNA (ncRNA) generated by RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) are terminated by the NRD complex consisting of Nrd1, Nab3 and Sen1. We now show that Pcf11, a component of the cleavage and polyadenylation complex (CPAC), is generally required for NRD-dependent transcription termination through the action of its CTD interacting domain (CID). Pcf11 localizes downstream of Nrd1 on NRD terminators, and its recruitment depends on Nrd1. Furthermore mutation of the Pcf11 CID results in Nrd1 retention on chromatin, delayed degradation of ncRNA and restricts Pol II CTD Ser2 phosphorylation and Sen1-Pol II interaction. Finally, the pcf11-13 and sen1-1 mutant phenotypes are very similar as both accumulate RNA:DNA hybrids and display Pol II pausing downstream of NRD terminators. We predict a mechanism whereby Nrd1 and Pcf11 exchange on chromatin facilitates Pol II pausing and CTD Ser2-P phosphorylation. This in turn promotes Sen1 activity that is required for NRD-dependent transcription termination in vivo. ChIP-seq with antibody against pol II in wild type and Pcf11 mutants: Pcf11-2, Pcf11-9 and Pcf11-13 grown at 25C and 37C along with input samples
Project description:Spt6 is a multifunctional histone chaperone involved in the maintenance of chromatin structure during elongation by RNA polymerase II (Pol II). Spt6 has a tandem SH2 (tSH2) domain within its C-terminus that recognizes Pol II CTD peptides phosphorylated on Ser2, Ser5 or Try1 in vitro. Deleting the tSH2 domain, however, only has a partial effect on Spt6 occupancy in vivo, suggesting that more complex mechanisms are involved in the Spt6 recruitment. Our results show that the Ser2 kinases Bur1 and Ctk1, but not the Ser5 kinase Kin28, cooperate in recruiting Spt6, genome-wide. Interestingly, the Ser2 kinases promote the association of Spt6 in early transcribed regions and not toward the 3' end of genes, where phosphorylated Ser2 reaches its maximum level. Additionally, our results uncover an unexpected role for histone deacetylases (Rpd3 and Hos2) in promoting Spt6 interaction with elongating Pol II. Finally, our data suggest that phosphorylation of the Pol II CTD on Tyr1 promotes the association of Spt6 with the 3' end of transcribed genes, independently of Ser2 phosphorylation. Collectively, our results show that a complex network of interactions, involving the Spt6 tSH2 domain, CTD phosphorylation and histone deacetylases, coordinate the recruitment of Spt6 to transcribed genes in vivo. We examined the genome-wide distribution (using ChIP-chip) of Spt6. Spt6 occupancy was also assayed in mutants for CTD Serine 2 and Serine 5 kinases and in mutants for histone deacetylases. ChIPs were performed with a Myc-tagged version of Spt6. Most ChIPs (in Cy5) were hybridyzed against a control ChIP sample from an isogenic non-tagged strain (in Cy3). In the ChIP experiments with the spt6-202del mutant, non immunoprecipitated DNA (input) was used as the control. In addition to Spt6 ChIPs, the project includes RNAPII (Rpb3) ChIP-chip datasets, where an anti-Rpb3 antibody was used to ChIP RNAPII and non immunoprecipitated DNA (input) was used as the control. All ChIP-chip experiments were done in duplicates. Each microarray was normalized using the Lima Loess and replicates were combined using a weighted average method as previously described (Pokholok et al., 2005).
Project description:To investigate the chromatin transcription cycle, we determined genome-wide occupancy profiles for RNA polymerase (Pol) II, its phosphorylated forms, and transcription factors in growing yeast. ChIP-chip was performed to identify the genomic binding locations for Rpb3, TFIIB, Tfg1, Kin28, Cet1, Spt4, Spt5, Spt6, Elf1, Spn1, Bur1, Ctk1, Paf1, Spt16, Pcf11, and Rpb1 phosphorylated at serine 2, 5, and 7 residues of the CTD, respectively.
Project description:Genome-wide studies have identified abundant small, non-coding RNAs including snRNAs, snoRNAs, cryptic unstable transcripts (CUTs), and upstream regulatory RNAs (uRNAs) that are transcribed by RNA polymerase II (pol II) and terminated by a Nrd1-dependent pathway. Here, we show that the prolyl isomerase, Ess1, is required for Nrd1-dependent termination of ncRNAs. Ess1 binds the carboxy terminal domain (CTD) of pol II and is thought to regulate transcription by conformational isomerization of Ser-Pro bonds within the CTD. In ess1 mutants, expression of ~10% of the genome was altered, due primarily to defects in termination of snoRNAs, CUTs, SUTs and uRNAs. Ess1 promoted dephosphorylation of Ser5 (but not Ser2) within the CTD, most likely by the Ssu72 phosphatase, and we provide evidence for a competition between Nrd1 and Pcf11 for CTD-binding that is regulated by Ess1-dependent isomerization. This is the first example of a prolyl isomerase required for interpreting the “CTD code.” Overall design: Two separate experiments were done: a standard Expression Array, and a Tiling Array. For the Expression Array, two independent methods were used. First, we compared wild-type and ess1(H164R) ts-mutants, where the mutant allele is integrated at the normal genomic locus. Cells were shifted to 34°C for 2 hr and RNA was prepared. In the second method, we used ESS1 deletion mutants that carried wild-type or H164R on a centromeric plasmid driven by the GAL1 promoter. These constructs were activated by a GAL4-ER-VP16 driver, which even in the absence of beta-estradiol (“0 hormone”), drives low level protein expression. For the Tiling Array we compared wild-type and ess1(H164R) ts-mutants after a shift to 34°C for 2 hr.
Project description:The carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) orchestrates dynamic recruitment of specific cellular machines during different stages of transcription. Signature phosphorylation patterns of Y1S2P3T4S5P6S7 heptapeptide repeats of the CTD engage specific “readers.” While phospho-Ser5 and phospho-Ser2 marks are ubiquitous, phospho-Thr4 is reported to only impact specific genes. Here, we investigate the RNA expression profile in WT and CTD-mutant strains of S. cerevisiae. Overall design: RNA expression analysis in RNA Pol II CTD mutants
Project description:Chromatin Immunoprecipitation in JTY1, SHY546, BY4743, and Bur1as strains using antibodies against RNA Pol II (RPB3) and its 3 phosphorylation states Ser2-P, Ser5-P, and Ser7-P, with and without inhibition with small molecule inhibitors.
Project description:During transcription initiation, the TFIIH-kinase Kin28/Cdk7 marks RNA polymerase II (Pol II) by phosphorylating the C-terminal domain (CTD) of its largest subunit. Here we describe a structure-guided chemical approach to covalently and specifically inactivate Kin28 kinase activity in vivo. This method of irreversible inactivation recapitulates both the lethal phenotype and the key molecular signatures that result from genetically disrupting Kin28 function in vivo. Inactivating Kin28 impacts promoter release to differing degrees and reveals a “checkpoint” during the transition to productive elongation. While promoter-proximal pausing is not observed in budding yeast, inhibition of Kin28 attenuates elongation-licensing signals, resulting in Pol II accumulation at the +2 nucleosome and reduced transition to productive elongation. Furthermore, upon inhibition, global stabilization of mRNA masks different degrees of reduction in nascent transcription. This study resolves long-standing controversies on the role of Kin28 in transcription and provides a rational approach to irreversibly inhibit other kinases in vivo. Overall design: Rpb3-TAP, Ser2P, Ser5P, and Ser7P ChIP of irreversibly sensitive kin28is strain treated with inhibitors 1-NAPP-1 and CMK or solvent control (DMSO)