Profiling of growth and differentiation factor 15 regulated genes in hepatoma cells
ABSTRACT: To systematically profile the GDF15-regulated genes in hepatoma cells and to elucidate the possible role of GDF15 on biological processes, high-density oligonucleotide microarrays were hybridized with samples prepared from GDF15- or PBS-treated Huh7.5.1 cells. We found that a total of 894 genes were differentially expressed in response to GDF15 treatment based on the 2-fold cut-off range, and a majority (828 genes, about 92.6%) of the genes is up-regulated. According to the descriptions outlined by the Gene Ontology Biological Process, the differentially expressed genes were found to belong to a variety of functional categories. Overall design: Two samples were included in the experiment. They are Huh7.5.1 cells treated with PBS, and Huh7.5.1 cells treated with recombinant human growth and differentiation factor 15. Twenty four hours post treatment, the total RNA was isolated from the cells. The microarray hybridization and analysis were performed by CapitalBio Corporation using the 22K Human Genome Array. Two-channel hybridizations microarray assay was performed.
INSTRUMENT(S): Capitalbio 22K Human oligo array version 1.0
Project description:To systematically profile the GDF15-regulated genes in hepatoma cells and to elucidate the possible role of GDF15 on biological processes, high-density oligonucleotide microarrays were hybridized with samples prepared from GDF15- or PBS-treated Huh7.5.1 cells. We found that a total of 894 genes were differentially expressed in response to GDF15 treatment based on the 2-fold cut-off range, and a majority (828 genes, about 92.6%) of the genes is up-regulated. According to the descriptions outlined by the Gene Ontology Biological Process, the differentially expressed genes were found to belong to a variety of functional categories. Two samples were included in the experiment. They are Huh7.5.1 cells treated with PBS, and Huh7.5.1 cells treated with recombinant human growth and differentiation factor 15. Twenty four hours post treatment, the total RNA was isolated from the cells. The microarray hybridization and analysis were performed by CapitalBio Corporation using the 22K Human Genome Array. Two-channel hybridizations microarray assay was performed.
Project description:Recombinant human growth differentiation factor 15 (rhGDF15) affects dendritic cell (DC) maturation. However, whether GDF15 is expressed in DCs and its roles and signaling in DCs remain largely unknown. It is unclear whether GDF15-DCs can induce immune tolerance in heart transplantation (HT). This study aims to understand the impact of endogenous GDF15 on DC's development, function, underlying molecular mechanism including circular RNA (circRNA). This study will also explore GDF15-DC-mediated immune modulation in HT. Bone marrow (BM) derived DCs were cultured and treated to up- or down regulate GDF15 expression. Phenotype and function of DCs were detected. Expression of genes and circRNAs was determined by qRT-PCR. The signaling pathways activated by GDF15 were examined. The impact of GDF15 treated DCs on preventing allograft immune rejection was assessed in a MHC full mismatch mouse HT model. Our results showed that GDF15 was expressed in DCs. Knockout of GDF15 promoted DC maturation, enhanced immune responsive functions, up-regulated malat-1 circular RNA (circ_Malat 1), and activated the nuclear factor kappa B (NF?B) pathway. Overexpression of GDF15 in DCs increased immunosuppressive/inhibitory molecules, enhanced DCs to induce T cell exhaustion, and promoted Treg generation through IDO signaling. GDF15 utilized transforming growth factor (TGF) ? receptors I and II, not GFAL. Administration of GDF15 treated DCs prevented allograft rejection and induced immune tolerance in transplantation. In conclusion, GDF15 induces tolerogenic DCs (Tol-DCs) through inhibition of circ_Malat-1 and the NF?B signaling pathway and up-regulation of IDO. GDF15-DCs can prevent alloimmune rejection in HT.
Project description:Molecular mechanisms underlying the development of resistance to platinum-based treatment in patients with ovarian cancer remain poorly understood. This is mainly due to the lack of appropriate in vivo models allowing the identification of resistance-related factors. In this study, we used human whole-genome microarrays and linear model analysis to identify potential resistance-related genes by comparing the expression profiles of the parental human ovarian cancer model A2780 and its platinum-resistant variant A2780cis before and after carboplatin treatment in vivo. Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) was identified as one of five potential resistance-related genes in the A2780cis tumor model. Although A2780-bearing mice showed a strong carboplatin-induced increase of GDF15 plasma levels, the basal higher GDF15 plasma levels of A2780cis-bearing mice showed no further increase after short-term or long-term carboplatin treatment. This correlated with a decreased DNA damage response, enhanced AKT survival signaling and abrogated cell cycle arrest in the carboplatin-treated A2780cis tumors. Furthermore, knockdown of GDF15 in A2780cis cells did not alter cell proliferation but enhanced cell migration and colony size in vitro. Interestingly, in vivo knockdown of GDF15 in the A2780cis model led to a basal-enhanced tumor growth, but increased sensitivity to carboplatin treatment as compared to the control-transduced A2780cis tumors. This was associated with larger necrotic areas, a lobular tumor structure and increased p53 and p16 expression of the carboplatin-treated shGDF15-A2780cis tumors. Furthermore, shRNA-mediated GDF15 knockdown abrogated p27 expression as compared to control-transduced A2780cis tumors. In conclusion, these data show that GDF15 may contribute to carboplatin resistance by suppressing tumor growth through p27. These data show that GDF15 might serve as a novel treatment target in women with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer.
Project description:Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is a member of the TGF-? superfamily, and evidence suggests that a substantial amount of GDF15 is secreted in various human cancers, such as ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, and breast cancer, among others. However, the function of GDF15 in cervical cancer has not yet been reported.Immunohistochemistry was used to detect GDF15 expression in normal cervix and in different cervical cancer lesions. Cell growth curves, MTT, tumor formation assays and flow cytometry were utilized to observe the effects of ectopic GDF15 expression on the proliferation and cell cycle of cervical cancer cells. Real-time PCR, western blotting and immunoprecipitation assays were conducted to measure the expression of genes related to the cell cycle and the PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK signaling pathways. A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was performed to confirm whether C-myc bound to a specific region of the GDF15 promoter. Inhibitor treatment and immunoprecipitation assays were employed to identify the association between GDF15 and ErbB2.GDF15 expression gradually increased during the progression of cervical carcinogenesis. GDF15 promoted cervical cancer cell proliferation via exogenous rhGDF15 treatment or the use of gene editing technology in vitro and in vivo and significantly accelerated the cell cycle transition from G0/G1 to S phase. The expression of p-ErbB2, p-AKT1, p-Erk1/2, CyclinD1 and CyclinE1 was up-regulated and the expression of p21 was down-regulated in GDF15-overexpressing and rhGDF15-treated cervical cancer cells. C-myc trans-activated GDF15 expression by binding to the E-box motifs in the promoter of GDF15 and contributed to the positive feedback of GDF15/C-myc/GDF15. Furthermore, GDF15 bound to ErbB2 in a protein complex in cervical cancer cells.Our data demonstrated that GDF15 promoted the proliferation of cervical cancer cells via the up-regulation of CyclinD1 and CyclinE1 and the down-regulation of p21 through both the PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK signaling pathways in a complex with ErbB2.
Project description:Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF15), a member of the TGF-? superfamily, affects tumor biology of certain cancers, but remains poorly understood in bladder cancer cells. This study determined the expression, regulation, function, and potential downstream target genes of GDF15 in bladder carcinoma cells. The transitional papilloma carcionoma cells (RT4) expressed higher levels of GDF15 as compared with the bladder carcinoma cells (HT1376 and T24). Treatments of recombinant human GDF15 (rhGDF15) reduced the proliferations of HT1376 and T24 cells. Expression of GDF15 was upregulated via DNA demethylation and p53. The cell proliferation, invasion, and tumorigenesis were reduced in ectopic overexpression of GDF15, while enhanced in GDF15 knockdown. The expressions of mammary serine protease inhibitor (MASPIN) and N-myc downstream-regulated family genes (NDRG1, NDRG2, and NDRG3) were upregulated by GDF15 overexpressions and rhGDF15 treatments in bladder carcinoma cells. GDF15 knockdown induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and F-actin polarization in HT1376 cells. Our results suggest that enhanced expressions of MASPIN and N-myc downstream-regulated family genes and the modulation of EMT may account for the inhibitory functions of GDF15 in the cell proliferation, invasion, and tumorigenesis of bladder carcinoma cells. The GDF15 should be considered as a tumor suppressor in human bladder carcinoma cells.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The standard treatment of ovarian cancer is surgery followed by a chemotherapeutic combination consisting of a platinum agent, such as cisplatin and a taxane-like paclitaxel. We previously observed that patients with ovarian cancer wild-type for p53 had a poorer survival rate than did those with p53 mutations. Thus, a better understanding of the molecular changes of epithelial ovarian cancer cells with wild-type p53 in response to treatment with cisplatin could reveal novel mechanisms of chemoresistance. METHODS:Gene expression profiling was performed on an ovarian cancer cell line A2780 with wild-type p53 treated with cisplatin. A gene encoding a secretory protein growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) was identified to be highly induced by cisplatin treatment in vitro. This was further validated in a panel of wild-type and mutant p53 ovarian cancer cell lines, as well as in mouse orthotopic models. The mouse tumor tissues were further analyzed by histology and RNA-seq. RESULTS:GDF15 was identified as one of the highly induced genes by cisplatin or carboplatin in ovarian cancer cell lines with wild-type p53. The wild-type p53-induced expression of GDF15 and GDF15-confered chemotherapy resistance was further demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. This study also discovered that GDF15-knockdown (GDF15-KD) tumors had less stromal component and had different repertoires of activated and inhibited canonical pathways in the stromal cell and cancer cell components from that of the control tumors after cisplatin treatment. CONCLUSIONS:GDF15 expression from the wild-type p53 cancer cells can modulate the canonical pathways in the tumor microenvironment in response to cisplatin, which is a possible mechanism of chemoresistance.
Project description:Liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are commonly induced by chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We aimed to identify and characterize the involvement of previously screened cytokine GDF15 in HCV pathogenesis. We examined the GDF15 expression after HCV infection both in vitro and in vivo. Cultured JFH-1 HCV was used to determine the GDF15 function on virus propagation. GDF15 overexpression and RNA interference were employed to profile the GDF15-regulated genes, signaling pathways and cell biology phenotypes. The mRNA expression and protein secretion of GDF15 was dramatically increased in HCV-infected hepatoma cells, which maybe a host response to viral proteins or infection-induced cell stress. Patients infected with HCV had an average 15-fold higher blood GDF15 level than that of healthy volunteers. Three HCC individuals in the HCV cohort showed extremely high GDF15 concentrations. Transfection or exogenously supplied GDF15 enhanced HCV propagation, whereas knockdown of endogenous GDF15 resulted in inhibition of virus replication. Overexpressed GDF15 led to Akt activation and the phosphorylation of Akt downstream targeted GSK-3? and Raf. Several HCC-related molecules, such as E-cadherin, ?-catenin, Cyclin A2/B1/D1, were up-regulated by GDF15 stimulation in vitro. Overexpression of GDF15 in hepatoma cells resulted in increased DNA synthesis, promoted cell proliferation, and importantly enhanced invasiveness of the cells. In conclusion, these results suggest that an elevated serum GDF15 level is a potential diagnostic marker for viral hepatitis, and GDF15 may contribute to HCV pathogenesis by altering the signaling and growth of host cells.
Project description:Background: Recent studies have shown that growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), a member of the transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) superfamily, plays an important role in appetite, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Since thyroid hormone has pleiotropic effects on whole-body energy metabolism, we aimed to explore the effect of thyroid hormone on circulating GDF15 levels in humans and GDF15 genes expression in C57BL/6 mice.Methods: A total of 134 hyperthyroid patients and 105 healthy subjects were recruited. Of them, 43 hyperthyroid patients received thionamide treatment for 3 months until euthyroidism. Serum GDF15 levels were determined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. To determine the source for the increased circulating GDF15, C57BL/6 mice were treated with T3, and GDF15 gene expressions in the liver, skeletal muscle, brown adipose tissue (BAT), inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT), epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).Results: Serum GDF15 levels were significantly elevated in hyperthyroid patients as compared with healthy subjects (326.06 ± 124.13 vs. 169.24 ± 82.96 pg/mL; P < 0.001). After thionamide treatment, GDF15 levels in hyperthyroid patients declined markedly from 293.27 ± 119.49 to 118.10 ± 71.83 pg/mL (P < 0.001). After adjustment for potential confounders, serum GDF15 levels were independently associated with hyperthyroidism. T3 treatment increased GDF15 expression in the brown adipose tissue of C57BL/6 mice.Conclusions: Serum GDF15 levels were elevated in patients with hyperthyroidism and declined after thionamide treatment. Thyroid hormone treatment upregulated GDF15 expression in mice. Therefore, our results present the clinical relevance of GDF15 in humans under the condition of hyperthyroidism.
Project description:Cellular oscillators in the uterus play critical roles in the gestation processes of mammals through entraining of the clock proteins to numerous downstream genes, including growth/differentiation factor (Gdf)10 and Gdf15. The expression of Gdf10 and Gdf15 is significantly increased in the uterus during decidualization, but the mechanism underlying the regulation of Gdf gene expression in the uterus is poorly understood. Here, we focused on the function of the cellular oscillators in the expression of Gdf family by using uterine endometrial stromal cells (UESCs) isolated from pregnant Per2-dLuc transgenic rats. A significant decline of Per2-dLuc bioluminescence activity was induced in in vitro decidualized UESCs, and concomitantly the expression of canonical clock genes was downregulated. Conversely, the expression of Gdf10 and Gdf15 of the Gdf was upregulated. In UESCs transfected with Bmal1-specific siRNA, in which Rev-erb? expression was downregulated, Gdf10 and Gdf15 were upregulated. However, Gdf5, Gdf7, and Gdf11 were not significantly affected by Bmal1 silencing. The expression of Gdf10 and Gdf15 was enhanced after treatment with a REV-ERB? antagonist in the presence or absence of progesterone. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR analysis revealed the inhibitory effect of REV-ERB? on the expression of Gdf10 and Gdf15 in UESCs by recognizing their gene promoters. Collectively, our findings indicate that the attenuation of REV-ERB? leads to an upregulation of Gdf10 and Gdf15 in decidual cells, in which cellular oscillators are impaired. Our results provide novel evidence regarding the functions of cellular oscillators regulating the expression of downstream genes during the differentiation of UESCs.
Project description:Hepcidin is the principal iron regulatory hormone, controlling the systemic absorption and remobilization of iron from intracellular stores. The expression of the hepcidin gene, HAMP, is increased in patients with anemia of chronic disease. Previously, the synthetic compound K7174 was identified through chemical screening as a novel inhibitor of the adhesion of monocytes to cytokine-stimulated endothelial cells. K7174 also ameliorated anemia induced by inflammatory cytokines in mice, which suggests a possible involvement of hepcidin regulation. The present study was performed to assess the impact of K7174 on hepcidin expression in a human hematoma cell line and in mice in vivo. We first demonstrated that K7174 treatment in HepG2 cells significantly decreased HAMP expression. Then, we conducted microarray analysis to determine the molecular mechanism by which K7174 inhibits HAMP expression. Transcriptional profiling confirmed the downregulation of HAMP. Surprisingly, we found that K7174 strongly induced GDF15, known as a negative regulator of HAMP expression. Western blotting analysis as well as ELISA confirmed the induction of GDF15 by K7174 treatment. Furthermore, K7174-mediated HAMP suppression was rescued by the silencing of GDF15 expression. Interestingly, we found that K7174 also upregulates CEBPB. Promoter analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that CEBPB could contribute to K7174-mediated transcriptional activation of GDF15. Subsequently, we also examined whether K7174 inhibits hepcidin expression in mice. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis with liver samples from K7174-treated mice demonstrated significant upregulation of Gdf15 and downregulation of Hamp expression, as compared to control mice. Furthermore, serum hepcidin concentration was also significantly decreased in K7174-treated mice. In conclusion, K7174 inhibits hepcidin expression partly by inducing GDF15. K-7174 may be a potential therapeutic option to treat anemia of chronic disease.