Dehong chicken blood samples: Control vs. 6 chicken blood samples belonging to 3 different breeds
ABSTRACT: Copy number variation profiles comparing control female Dehong chicken blood DNA with 3 different chicken breeds (white Leghorn, Cobb broiler, and Dou chicken) blood DNA. Each test breed had one male and one female sample, for a total of 6 test DNA samples. The goal is to determine the global copy number variation profiles between chicken breeds. Overall design: Female Dehong chicken DNA as reference DNA vs. 6 test chicken DNA samples.
Project description:Copy number variation profiles comparing control female Dehong chiken blood DNA with 11 different chicken breeds(Silkie, Tibetan Chicken, Gallus gallus spadiceus, Bearded Chicken, Jinhu Chicken, Anak Chicken, Beijing Fatty Chicken, Langshan Chicken, Qingyuan partridge Chicken, Shek-Ki Chicken, Wenchang Chicken) blood DNA. Each test breeds had one male and one female sample, totally 22 test DNA samples.Goal is to get the golbal copy number variation profile between chicken breeds. Overall design: Female Dehong chicken DNA as reference DNA vs 22 test chicken DNA samples
Project description:Copy number variation profiles comparing control female Dehong chicken blood DNA with 3 different chicken breeds (white Leghorn, Cobb broiler, and Dou chicken) blood DNA. Each test breed had one male and one female sample, for a total of 6 test DNA samples. The goal is to determine the global copy number variation profiles between chicken breeds. Female Dehong chicken DNA as reference DNA vs. 6 test chicken DNA samples.
Project description:The conservation and development of chicken has considerably affected human activities, but the admixture history of chicken breeds has so far been poorly demonstrated especially for Chinese indigenous breeds. Using genotypes from 580961 single nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 1201 animals, we evaluate the genetic diversity (heterozygosity and proportion of polymorphic markers), Linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay, population structure (principal component analysis and neighbor-joining tree), genetic differentiation (FST and genetic distance) and migration events (Treemix and f-statistics) of eight domesticated chicken breeds. All population analytical methods reveal patterns of hybridization which occurred after divergence in Tibetan chicken. We argue that chicken migration and admixture followed by trade have been important forces in shaping modern Chinese chicken genomic variation. Moreover, isolation by distance may play critical role in the shaping genomic variation within Eurasia continent chicken breeds. Overall design: Affymetrix SNP arrays were performed according to the manufacturer's directions on DNA extracted from blood samples.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Copy number variants contribute to genetic variation in birds. Analyses of copy number variants in chicken breeds had focused primarily on those from commercial varieties with nothing known about the occurrence and diversity of copy number variants in locally raised Chinese chicken breeds. To address this deficiency, we characterized copy number variants in 11 chicken breeds and compared the variation among these breeds. RESULTS: We presented a detailed analysis of the copy number variants in locally raised Chinese chicken breeds identified using a customized comparative genomic hybridization array. We identified 833 copy number variants contained within 308 copy number variant regions. The median and mean sizes of the copy number variant regions were 14.6 kb and 35.1 kb, respectively. Of the copy number variant regions, 138 (45%) involved gain of DNA, 159 (52%) involved loss of DNA, and 11 (3%) involved both gain and loss of DNA. Principal component analysis and agglomerative hierarchical clustering revealed the close relatedness of the four locally raised chicken breeds, Shek-Ki, Langshan, Qingyuan partridge, and Wenchang. Biological process enrichment analysis of the copy number variant regions confirmed the greater variation among the four aforementioned varieties than among the seven other breeds studied. CONCLUSION: Our description of the distribution of the copy number variants and comparison of the differences among the copy number variant regions of the 11 chicken breeds supplemented the information available concerning the copy number variants of other Chinese chicken breeds. In addition to its relevance for functional analysis, our results provided the first insight into how chicken breeds can be clustered on the basis of their genomic copy number variation.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The detection and functional characterization of genomic structural variations are important for understanding the landscape of genetic variation in the chicken. A recently recognized aspect of genomic structural variation, called copy number variation (CNV), is gaining interest in chicken genomic studies. The aim of the present study was to investigate the pattern and functional characterization of CNVs in five characteristic chicken breeds, which will be important for future studies associating phenotype with chicken genome architecture. RESULTS: Using a commercial 385 K array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) genome array, we performed CNV discovery using 10 chicken samples from four local Chinese breeds and the French breed Houdan chicken. The female Anka broiler was used as a reference. A total of 281 copy number variation regions (CNVR) were identified, covering 12.8 Mb of polymorphic sequences or 1.07% of the entire chicken genome. The functional annotation of CNVRs indicated that these regions completely or partially overlapped with 231 genes and 1032 quantitative traits loci, suggesting these CNVs have important functions and might be promising resources for exploring differences among various breeds. In addition, we employed quantitative PCR (qPCR) to further validate several copy number variable genes, such as prolactin receptor, endothelin 3 (EDN3), suppressor of cytokine signaling 2, CD8a molecule, with important functions, and the results suggested that EDN3 might be a molecular marker for the selection of dark skin color in poultry production. Moreover, we also identified a new CNVR (chr24: 3484617-3512275), encoding the sortilin-related receptor gene, with copy number changes in only black-bone chicken. CONCLUSIONS: Here, we report a genome-wide analysis of the CNVs in five chicken breeds using aCGH. The association between EDN3 and melanoblast proliferation was further confirmed using qPCR. These results provide additional information for understanding genomic variation and related phenotypic characteristics.
Project description:It is well-known that environment influences DNA methylation, however, the extent of heritable DNA methylation variation following animal domestication remains largely unknown. Using meDIP-chip we mapped the promoter methylomes for 23,316 genes in muscle tissues of ancestral and domestic chickens. We systematically examined the variation of promoter DNA methylation in terms of different breeds, differentially expressed genes, SNPs and genes undergo genetic selection sweeps. While considerable changes in DNA sequence and gene expression programs were prevalent, we found that the inter-strain DNA methylation patterns were highly conserved in promoter region between the wild and domestic chicken breeds. Our data suggests a global preservation of DNA methylation between the wild and domestic chicken breeds in either a genome-wide or locus-specific scale in chick muscle tissues.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Gene expression variation is a key underlying factor influencing phenotypic variation, and can occur via cis- or trans-regulation. To understand the role of cis- and trans-regulatory variation on population divergence in chicken, we developed reciprocal crosses of two chicken breeds, White Leghorn and Cornish Game, which exhibit major differences in body size and reproductive traits, and used them to determine the degree of cis versus trans variation in the brain, liver, and muscle tissue of male and female 1-day-old specimens. RESULTS:We provided an overview of how transcriptomes are regulated in hybrid progenies of two contrasting breeds based on allele specific expression analysis. Compared with cis-regulatory divergence, trans-acting genes were more extensive in the chicken genome. In addition, considerable compensatory cis- and trans-regulatory changes exist in the chicken genome. Most importantly, stronger purifying selection was observed on genes regulated by trans-variations than in genes regulated by the cis elements. CONCLUSIONS:We present a pipeline to explore allele-specific expression in hybrid progenies of inbred lines without a specific reference genome. Our research is the first study to describe the regulatory divergence between two contrasting breeds. The results suggest that artificial selection associated with domestication in chicken could have acted more on trans-regulatory divergence than on cis-regulatory divergence.
Project description:The conservation and development of chicken have received considerable attention, but the admixture history of chicken breeds, especially Chinese indigenous breeds, has been poorly demonstrated. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the genetic diversity and population structure of eight chicken breeds (including conserved chicken breeds) from different geographic origin and to identify admixture within these breeds using a 600-K single-nucleotide polymorphism panel for genotyping. Using the genotype of 580,961 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 1,200 animals, we evaluated the genetic diversity (heterozygosity and proportion of polymorphic markers), linkage disequilibrium decay, population structure (principal component analysis and neighbor-joining tree), genetic differentiation (FST and genetic distance), and migration events (TreeMix and f-statistics) of the eight domesticated chicken breeds. The results of population analytical methods revealed patterns of hybridization that occurred after divergence in Tibetan chicken. We argue that chicken migration and admixture, followed by trade, have been important forces in shaping the genomic variation in modern Chinese chicken. Moreover, isolation by distance might play a critical role in shaping the genomic variation within Eurasia continent chicken breeds. Moreover, genetic information provided in this study is valuable resources for production applications (genomic prediction, and breeding strategy) and scientific research (genetic basis detection, studying evolution, or domestication).
Project description:The genetic structure of 65 chicken populations was studied using 29 simple sequence repeat loci. Six main clusters which corresponded to geographical origins and histories were identified: Brown Egg Layers; predominantly Broilers; native Chinese breeds or breeds with recent Asian origin; predominantly breeds of European derivation; a small cluster containing populations with no common history and populations that had breeding history with White Leghorn. Another group of populations that shared their genome with several clusters was defined as 'Multi-clusters'. Gallus gallus gallus (Multi-clusters), one of the subspecies of the Red Jungle Fowl, which was previously suggested to be one of the ancestors of the domesticated chicken, has almost no shared loci with European and White Egg layer populations. In a further sub-clustering of the populations, discrimination between all the 65 populations was possible, and relationships between each were suggested. The genetic variation between populations was found to account for about 34% of the total genetic variation, 11% of the variation being between clusters and 23% being between populations within clusters. The suggested clusters may assist in future studies of genetic aspects of the chicken gene pool.