Evaluating the transcriptomic and metabolic profile of mice exposed to source drinking water
ABSTRACT: Transcriptomic and metabonomic methods were used to investigate mice’s responses to drinking source water (DSW) exposure. After mice were fed with DSW for 90 days, hepatic transcriptome was characterized by microarray and serum metabonome were determined by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. A total of 243 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, among which 141 genes were up-regulated and 102 genes were down-regulated. Metabonomics revealed significant changes in concentrations of creatine, pyruvate, glutamine, lysine, choline, acetate, lipids, taurine and trimethylamine oxide. Four biological pathways were identified by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis where both gene expression and metabolite concentrations were altered in response to DSW exposure. These results highlight the significance of combined use of transcriptomic and metabonomic approaches in evaluating potential health risk induced by DSW contaminated with various hazardous materials. Overall design: Nine mice in each group were selected and the livers of every three mice were homogenized together to obtain a total RNA sample. Three RNA samples in the treated or control group were hybridized separately onto three arrays to compare the genomic expression between the two groups.
Project description:Transcriptomic and metabonomic methods were used to investigate mice’s responses to drinking source water (DSW) exposure. After mice were fed with DSW for 90 days, hepatic transcriptome was characterized by microarray and serum metabonome were determined by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. A total of 243 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, among which 141 genes were up-regulated and 102 genes were down-regulated. Metabonomics revealed significant changes in concentrations of creatine, pyruvate, glutamine, lysine, choline, acetate, lipids, taurine and trimethylamine oxide. Four biological pathways were identified by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis where both gene expression and metabolite concentrations were altered in response to DSW exposure. These results highlight the significance of combined use of transcriptomic and metabonomic approaches in evaluating potential health risk induced by DSW contaminated with various hazardous materials. Nine mice in each group were selected and the livers of every three mice were homogenized together to obtain a total RNA sample. Three RNA samples in the treated or control group were hybridized separately onto three arrays to compare the genomic expression between the two groups.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Growth hormone is an important regulator of post-natal growth and metabolism. We have investigated the metabolic consequences of altered growth hormone signalling in mutant mice that have truncations at position 569 and 391 of the intracellular domain of the growth hormone receptor, and thus exhibit either low (around 30% maximum) or no growth hormone-dependent STAT5 signalling respectively. These mutations result in altered liver metabolism, obesity and insulin resistance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The analysis of metabolic changes was performed using microarray analysis of liver tissue and NMR metabonomics of urine and liver tissue. Data were analyzed using multivariate statistics and Gene Ontology tools. The metabolic profiles characteristic for each of the two mutant groups and wild-type mice were identified with NMR metabonomics. We found decreased urinary levels of taurine, citrate and 2-oxoglutarate, and increased levels of trimethylamine, creatine and creatinine when compared to wild-type mice. These results indicate significant changes in lipid and choline metabolism, and were coupled with increased fat deposition, leading to obesity. The microarray analysis identified changes in expression of metabolic enzymes correlating with alterations in metabolite concentration both in urine and liver. Similarity of mutant 569 to the wild-type was seen in young mice, but the pattern of metabolites shifted to that of the 391 mutant as the 569 mice became obese after six months age. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The metabonomic observations were consistent with the parallel analysis of gene expression and pathway mapping using microarray data, identifying metabolites and gene transcripts involved in hepatic metabolism, especially for taurine, choline and creatinine metabolism. The systems biology approach applied in this study provides a coherent picture of metabolic changes resulting from impaired STAT5 signalling by the growth hormone receptor, and supports a potentially important role for taurine in enhancing beta-oxidation.
Project description:Cardiotoxicity remains a challenging concern both in drug development and in the management of various clinical situations. There are a lot of examples of drugs withdrawn from the market or stopped during clinical trials due to unpredicted cardiac adverse events. Obviously, current conventional methods for cardiotoxicity assessment suffer from a lack of predictivity and sensitivity. Therefore, there is a need for developing new tools to better identify and characterize any cardiotoxicity that can occur during the pre-clinical and clinical phases of drug development as well as after marketing in exposed patients. In this study, isoproterenol and clarithromycin were used as prototypical cardiotoxic agents in rats in order to evaluate potential biomarkers of heart toxicity at very early stages using 1H-NMR-based metabonomics. While isoproterenol is known to cause heart necrosis, clarithromycin may induce QT interval prolongation. Heart necrosis and QT prolongation were validated by histological analysis, serum measurement of lactate dehydrogenase/creatine phosphate kinase and QTc measurement by electrocardiogram (ECG). Urine samples were collected before and repeatedly during daily exposure to the drugs for 1H-NMR based-metabonomics investigations. Specific metabolic signatures, characteristic of each tested drug, were obtained from which potential predictive biomarkers for drug-induced heart necrosis and drug-induced QT prolongation were retrieved. Isoproterenol-induced heart necrosis was characterized by higher levels of taurine, creatine, glucose and by lower levels of Krebs cycle intermediates, creatinine, betaine/trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), dimethylamine (DMA)/sarcosine. Clarithromycin-induced QT prolongation was characterized by higher levels of creatinine, taurine, betaine/TMAO and DMA/sarcosine and by lower levels of Krebs cycle intermediates, glucose and hippurate.
Project description:Medulloblastomas in children can be categorized into 4 molecular subgroups with differing clinical characteristics, such that subgroup determination aids in prognostication and risk-adaptive treatment strategies. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a widely available, noninvasive tool that is used to determine the metabolic characteristics of tumors and provide diagnostic information without the need for tumor tissue. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that metabolite concentrations measured by MRS would differ between molecular subgroups of medulloblastoma and allow accurate subgroup determination.MRS was used to measure metabolites in medulloblastomas across molecular subgroups (SHH = 12, Groups 3/4 = 17, WNT = 1). Levels of 14 metabolites were analyzed to determine those that were the most discriminant for medulloblastoma subgroups in order to construct a multivariable classifier for distinguishing between combined Group 3/4 and SHH tumors.Medulloblastomas across molecular subgroups revealed distinct spectral features. Group 3 and Group 4 tumors demonstrated metabolic profiles with readily detectable taurine, lower levels of lipids, and high levels of creatine. SHH tumors showed prominent choline and lipid with low levels of creatine and little or no evidence of taurine. A 5-metabolite subgroup classifier inclusive of creatine, myo-inositol, taurine, aspartate, and lipid 13a was developed that could discriminate between Group 3/4 and SHH medulloblastomas with excellent accuracy (cross-validated area under the curve [AUC] = 0.88).The data show that medulloblastomas of Group 3/4 differ metabolically as measured using MRS when compared with SHH molecular subgroups. MRS is a useful and accurate tool to determine medulloblastoma molecular subgroups.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is a hereditary disorder that causes progressive muscle wasting. This study evaluates the use of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H MRS) as a biomarker of muscle strength and function in FSHD. METHODS:Thirty-six individuals with FSHD and 15 healthy controls underwent multivoxel 1 H MRS of a cross-section of the mid-thigh. Concentrations of creatine, intramyocellular and extramyocellular lipids, and trimethylamine (TMA)-containing compounds in skeletal muscle were calculated. Metabolite concentrations for individuals with FSHD were compared with those of controls. The relationship between metabolite concentrations and muscle strength was also examined. RESULTS:The TMA/creatine (Cr) ratio in individuals with FSHD was reduced compared with controls. The TMA/Cr ratio in the hamstrings also showed a moderate linear correlation with muscle strength. DISCUSSION:1 H MRS offers a potential method of detecting early muscle pathology in FSHD prior to the development of fat infiltration. Muscle Nerve 57: 958-963, 2018.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a lethal progressive neurological disorder affecting the memory. Recently, US Food and Drug Administration mitigated the standard for drug approval, allowing symptomatic drugs that only improve cognitive deficits to be allowed to accelerate on to clinical trials. Our study focuses on taurine, an endogenous amino acid found in high concentrations in humans. It has demonstrated neuroprotective properties against many forms of dementia. In this study, we assessed cognitively enhancing property of taurine in transgenic mouse model of AD. We orally administered taurine via drinking water to adult APP/PS1 transgenic mouse model for 6 weeks. Taurine treatment rescued cognitive deficits in APP/PS1 mice up to the age-matching wild-type mice in Y-maze and passive avoidance tests without modifying the behaviours of cognitively normal mice. In the cortex of APP/PS1 mice, taurine slightly decreased insoluble fraction of Aβ. While the exact mechanism of taurine in AD has not yet been ascertained, our results suggest that taurine can aid cognitive impairment and may inhibit Aβ-related damages.
Project description:Stanniocalcin 1 (STC1) and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) are calciotropic hormones in vertebrates. Here, a recently hypothesized metabolic role for these hormones is tested on European sea bass treated with: (i) teleost PTHrP(1-34), (ii) PTHrP(1-34) and anti-STC1 serum (pro-PTHrP groups), (iii) a PTHrP antagonist PTHrP(7-34) or (iv) PTHrP(7-34) and STC1 (pro-STC1 groups). Livers were analysed using untargeted metabolic profiling based on proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy. Concentrations of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA), alanine, glutamine and glutamate increased in pro-STC1 groups suggesting their mobilization from the muscle to the liver for degradation and gluconeogenesis from alanine and glutamine. In addition, only STC1 treatment decreased the concentrations of succinate, fumarate and acetate, indicating slowing of the citric acid cycle. In the pro-PTHrP groups the concentrations of glucose, erythritol and lactate decreased, indicative of gluconeogenesis from lactate. Taurine, trimethylamine, trimethylamine N-oxide and carnitine changed in opposite directions in the pro-STC1 versus the pro-PTHrP groups, suggesting opposite effects, with STC1 stimulating lipogenesis and PTHrP activating lipolysis/?-oxidation of fatty acids. These findings suggest a role for STC1 and PTHrP related to strategic energy mechanisms that involve the production of glucose and safeguard of liver glycogen reserves for stressful situations.
Project description:To investigate specific changes in metabolites and proteins of Kidney-Yin Deficiency Syndrome (KYDS) patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) in China.KYDS (n=29) and non-KYDS (n=23) patients with DM were recruited for this study. The KYDS was diagnosed by two senior TCM clinicians separately. The metabonomic and proteomic profiles of the patients were assessed using a metabonomic strategy based on NMR with multivariate analysis and a proteomic strategy based on MALDI-TOF-MS, respectively.Eighteen upregulated peptides and thirty downregulated peptides were observed in the plasma of the KYDS patients. Comparing the proteomic profiles of the KYDS and non-KYDS groups, however, no significantly differentially expressed peptides were found. At the same time, major metabolic alterations were found to distinguish the two groups, including eight significantly changed metabolites (creatinine, citrate, TMAO, phenylalanine, tyrosine, alanine, glycine and taurine). The levels of creatinine, citrate, TMAO, phenylalanine and tyrosine were decreased, whereas the levels of alanine, glycine and taurine were increased in the KYDS patients. These biochemical changes were found to be associated with alterations in amino acid metabolism, energy metabolism and gut microflora.The identification of distinct expression profiles of metabolites and signaling pathways in KYDS patients with DM suggests that there are indeed molecular signatures underlying the principles of 'Syndrome Differentiation' in traditional Chinese medicine.
Project description:Taurine (a sulfur-containing ?-amino acid), creatine (a metabolite of arginine, glycine and methionine), carnosine (a dipeptide; ?-alanyl-L-histidine), and 4-hydroxyproline (an imino acid; also often referred to as an amino acid) were discovered in cattle, and the discovery of anserine (a methylated product of carnosine; ?-alanyl-1-methyl-L-histidine) also originated with cattle. These five nutrients are highly abundant in beef, and have important physiological roles in anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory reactions, as well as neurological, muscular, retinal, immunological and cardiovascular function. Of particular note, taurine, carnosine, anserine, and creatine are absent from plants, and hydroxyproline is negligible in many plant-source foods. Consumption of 30 g dry beef can fully meet daily physiological needs of the healthy 70-kg adult human for taurine and carnosine, and can also provide large amounts of creatine, anserine and 4-hydroxyproline to improve human nutrition and health, including metabolic, retinal, immunological, muscular, cartilage, neurological, and cardiovascular health. The present review provides the public with the much-needed knowledge of nutritionally and physiologically significant amino acids, dipeptides and creatine in animal-source foods (including beef). Dietary taurine, creatine, carnosine, anserine and 4-hydroxyproline are beneficial for preventing and treating obesity, cardiovascular dysfunction, and ageing-related disorders, as well as inhibiting tumorigenesis, improving skin and bone health, ameliorating neurological abnormalities, and promoting well being in infants, children and adults. Furthermore, these nutrients may promote the immunological defense of humans against infections by bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses (including coronavirus) through enhancing the metabolism and functions of monocytes, macrophages, and other cells of the immune system. Red meat (including beef) is a functional food for optimizing human growth, development and health.
Project description:The androgen receptor (AR) is the master regulator of prostate cancer cell metabolism. Degarelix is a novel gonadotrophin-releasing hormone blocker, used to decrease serum androgen levels in order to treat advanced human prostate cancer. Little is known of the rapid metabolic response of the human prostate cancer tissue samples to the decreased androgen levels.To investigate the metabolic responses in benign and cancerous tissue samples from patients after treatment with Degarelix by using HRMAS 1H NMR spectroscopy.Using non-destructive HR-MAS 1H NMR spectroscopy we analysed the metabolic changes induced by decreased AR signalling in human prostate cancer tissue samples. Absolute concentrations of the metabolites alanine, lactate, glutamine, glutamate, citrate, choline compounds [t-choline = choline + phosphocholine (PC) + glycerophosphocholine (GPC)], creatine compounds [t-creatine = creatine (Cr) + phosphocreatine (PCr)], taurine, myo-inositol and polyamines were measured in benign prostate tissue samples (n = 10), in prostate cancer specimens from untreated patients (n = 7) and prostate cancer specimens from patients treated with Degarelix (n = 6).Lactate, alanine and t-choline concentrations were significantly elevated in high-grade prostate cancer samples when compared to benign samples in untreated patients. Decreased androgen levels resulted in significant decreases of lactate and t-choline concentrations in human prostate cancer biopsies.The reduced concentrations of lactate and t-choline metabolites due to Degarelix could in principle be monitored by in vivo 1H MRS, which suggests that it would be possible to monitor the effects of physical or chemical castration in patients by that non-invasive method.