Valproic acid achieves its anticancer activity by re-expression of cyclin D2
ABSTRACT: In this study we could show that the treatment of primary murine prostate cancer(PCa) cells derived from the well-established TRAMP (transgenic adenocarcinoma ofmouse prostate) model with the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDI) valproic acid (VPA) has an anti-proliferative, anti-migrative and anti-invasive effect on the cells.To our knowledge this is the first study that identified that treatment of PCa cells with VPA leads to the re-expression of cyclin D2, which is known to be frequently inactive in patients with PCa. Additionally, we could demonstrate that VPA specifically induces re-expression of cyclin D2 as a family member of the highly conserved Dtype cyclins in human colorectal and mammary gland adenocarcinoma cell lines, whereas VPA treatment has no effect in NIH/3T3 fibroblasts. The observed cyclin D2 re-expression in cancer cells is activated by an increase of histone acetylation in the promoter region of the cyclin D2 gene and might be the underlying molecular mechanism of the inhibition of proliferation of cancer cells after VPA treatment. Taken together, our results confirm VPA as an anticancer therapeutic option in tumors with epigenetically repressed cyclin D2 expression. Overall design: For the comparison of vpa treatment in murine protate cancer cells we hybridized 3 replicates per condition
Project description:In this study we could show that the treatment of primary murine prostate cancer(PCa) cells derived from the well-established TRAMP (transgenic adenocarcinoma ofmouse prostate) model with the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDI) valproic acid (VPA) has an anti-proliferative, anti-migrative and anti-invasive effect on the cells.To our knowledge this is the first study that identified that treatment of PCa cells with VPA leads to the re-expression of cyclin D2, which is known to be frequently inactive in patients with PCa. Additionally, we could demonstrate that VPA specifically induces re-expression of cyclin D2 as a family member of the highly conserved Dtype cyclins in human colorectal and mammary gland adenocarcinoma cell lines, whereas VPA treatment has no effect in NIH/3T3 fibroblasts. The observed cyclin D2 re-expression in cancer cells is activated by an increase of histone acetylation in the promoter region of the cyclin D2 gene and might be the underlying molecular mechanism of the inhibition of proliferation of cancer cells after VPA treatment. Taken together, our results confirm VPA as an anticancer therapeutic option in tumors with epigenetically repressed cyclin D2 expression. For the comparison of vpa treatment in murine protate cancer cells we hybridized 3 replicates per condition
Project description:Previous studies have demonstrated that sera from patients with prostate cancer (PCa) contain autoantibodies that react with tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). Autoantibodies to cyclin B1 and fourteen other TAAs were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting in 464 sera from patients with PCa, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and other controls. Autoantibodies to cyclin B1 were detected in 31.0% of sera from randomly selected patients with PCa versus 4.8% in sera with BPH. In the further analysis, 31.4% of sera from PCa patients at the early stage contained anti-cyclin B1 autoantibody, and even 29.4% of patients who had normal prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in their serum samples were observed anti-cyclin B1 positive. The cumulative positive rate of autoantibodies against seven selected TAAs (cyclin B1, survivin, p53, DFS70/LEDGFp75, RalA, MDM2, and NPM1) in PCa reached 80.5%, significantly higher than that in normal control sera. In summary, autoantibody to cyclin B1 might be a potential biomarker for the immunodiagnosis of early stage PCa, especially useful in patients with normal PSA level. This study further supports the hypothesis that a customized TAA array can be used for enhancing anti-TAA autoantibody detection, and it may constitute a promising and powerful tool for immunodiagnosis of PCa.
Project description:The treatment of advanced prostate cancer (PCa) remains a challenge. Identification of new molecular mechanisms that regulate PCa initiation and progression would provide targets for the development of new cancer treatments. The Foxm1 transcription factor is highly up-regulated in tumor cells, inflammatory cells, and cells of tumor microenvironment. However, its functions in different cell populations of PCa lesions are unknown. To determine the role of Foxm1 in tumor cells during PCa development, we generated two novel transgenic mouse models, one exhibiting Foxm1 gain-of-function and one exhibiting Foxm1 loss-of-function under control of the prostate epithelial-specific Probasin promoter. In the transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate (TRAMP) model of PCa that uses SV40 large T antigen to induce PCa, loss of Foxm1 decreased tumor growth and metastasis. Decreased prostate tumorigenesis was associated with a decrease in tumor cell proliferation and the down-regulation of genes critical for cell proliferation and tumor metastasis, including Cdc25b, Cyclin B1, Plk-1, Lox, and Versican. In addition, tumor-associated angiogenesis was decreased, coinciding with reduced Vegf-A expression. The mRNA and protein levels of 11β-Hsd2, an enzyme playing an important role in tumor cell proliferation, were down-regulated in Foxm1-deficient PCa tumors in vivo and in Foxm1-depleted TRAMP C2 cells in vitro. Foxm1 bound to, and increased transcriptional activity of, the mouse 11β-Hsd2 promoter through the -892/-879 region, indicating that 11β-Hsd2 was a direct transcriptional target of Foxm1. Without TRAMP, overexpression of Foxm1 either alone or in combination with inhibition of a p19(ARF) tumor suppressor caused a robust epithelial hyperplasia, but was insufficient to induce progression from hyperplasia to PCa. Foxm1 expression in prostate epithelial cells is critical for prostate carcinogenesis, suggesting that inhibition of Foxm1 is a promising therapeutic approach for prostate cancer chemotherapy.
Project description:Treatment-induced neuroendocrine prostate cancer (t-NEPC) is an aggressive subtype of prostate cancer (PCa) that becomes more prevalent when hormonal therapy, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy is applied to patients with metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma (AdPC). How AdPC cells survive these anti-cancer therapies and progress into t-NEPC remains unclear. By comparing the whole transcriptomes between AdPC and t-NEPC, we identified Bif-1, an apoptosis-associated gene, which undergoes alternative RNA splicing in t-NEPC. We found that while Bif-1a is the predominant variant of the Bif-1 gene in AdPC, two neural-specific variants, Bif-1b and Bif-1c, are highly expressed in t-NEPC patients, patient derived xenografts, and cell models. The neural-specific RNA splicing factor, SRRM4, promotes Bif-1b and Bif-1c splicing, and the expression of SRRM4 in tumors is strongly associated with Bif-1b/-1c levels. Furthermore, we showed that Bif-1a is pro-apoptotic, while Bif-1b and Bif-1c are anti-apoptotic in PCa cells under camptothecin and UV light irritation treatments. Taken together, our data indicate that SRRM4 regulates alternative RNA splicing of the Bif-1 gene that enables PCa cells resistant to apoptotic stimuli under anti-cancer therapies, and may contribute to AdPC progression into t-NEPC.
Project description:Treatment-induced neuroendocrine transdifferentiation (NEtD) complicates therapies for metastatic prostate cancer (PCa). Based on evidence that PCa cells can transdifferentiate to other neuroectodermally-derived cell lineages in vitro, we proposed that NEtD requires first an intermediary reprogramming to metastable cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) of a neural class and we demonstrate that several different AR+/PSA+ PCa cell lines were efficiently reprogrammed to, maintained and propagated as CSCs by growth in androgen-free neural/neural crest (N/NC) stem medium. Such reprogrammed cells lost features of prostate differentiation; gained features of N/NC stem cells and tumor-initiating potential; were resistant to androgen signaling inhibition; and acquired an invasive phenotype in vitro and in vivo. When placed back into serum-containing mediums, reprogrammed cells could be re-differentiated to N-/NC-derived cell lineages or return back to an AR+ prostate-like state. Once returned, the AR+ cells were resistant to androgen signaling inhibition. Acute androgen deprivation or anti-androgen treatment in serum-containing medium led to the transient appearance of a sub-population of cells with similar characteristics. Finally, a 132 gene signature derived from reprogrammed PCa cell lines distinguished tumors from PCa patients with adverse outcomes. This model may explain neural manifestations of PCa associated with lethal disease. The metastable nature of the reprogrammed stem-like PCa cells suggests that cycles of PCa cell reprogramming followed by re-differentiation may support disease progression and therapeutic resistance. The ability of a gene signature from reprogrammed PCa cells to identify tumors from patients with metastasis or PCa-specific mortality implies that developmental reprogramming is linked to aggressive tumor behaviors.
Project description:The incidence of prostate cancer (PCa) is increasing, and it is currently the second most frequent cause of death by cancer in men. Despite advancements in cancer therapies, new therapeutic approaches are still needed for treatment-refractory advanced metastatic PCa. Cross-species analysis presents a robust strategy for the discovery of new potential therapeutic targets. This strategy involves the integration of genomic data from genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) and human PCa datasets. Considering the role of antioxidant pathways in tumor initiation and progression, we searched oxidative stress-related genes for a potential therapeutic target for PCa. First, we analyzed RNA-sequencing data from Pb-Cre4; Ptenf/f mice and discovered an increase in sulfiredoxin (Srxn1) mRNA expression in high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), well-differentiated adenocarcinoma (medium-stage tumors), and poor-differentiated adenocarcinoma (advanced-stage prostate tumors). The increase of SRXN1 protein expression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry in mouse prostate tumor paraffin samples. Analyses of human databases and prostate tissue microarrays demonstrated that SRXN1 is overexpressed in a subset of high-grade prostate tumors and correlates with aggressive PCa with worse prognosis and decreased survival. Analyses in vitro showed that SRXN1 expression is also higher in most PCa cell lines compared to normal cell lines. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated downregulation of SRXN1 led to decreased viability of PCa cells LNCaP. In conclusion, we identified the antioxidant enzyme SRXN1 as a potential therapeutic target for PCa. Our results suggest that the use of specific SRXN1 inhibitors may be an effective strategy for the adjuvant treatment of castration-resistant PCa with SRXN1 overexpression.
Project description:Prostate Cancer (PCa) is a leading cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality in men. Therefore, novel mechanistically-driven approaches are needed for PCa management. Here, we determined the effects of grape antioxidants quercetin and/or resveratrol (60 and 600 mg/kg, respectively, in diet) against PCa in Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate (TRAMP)-model in prevention and intervention settings. We found resveratrol alone and in combination significantly inhibited prostate tumorigenesis in prevention setting, while the same was seen only in combination after intervention. The observed effects were associated with marked inhibition in proliferation, oxidative stress, and tumor survival markers, and induced apoptosis markers. Utilizing PCa PCR array analysis with prevention tumor tissues, we identified that quercetin-resveratrol modulates genes involved in promoter methylation, cell cycle, apoptosis, fatty acid metabolism, transcription factors, androgen response, PI3K/AKT and PTEN signaling. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) identified IGF1 and BCL2 as central players in two gene networks. Functional annotation predicted increased apoptosis and inhibited cell viability/proliferation, hyperplasia, vasculogenesis, and angiogenesis with dual treatment. Furthermore, IPA predicted upstream inhibition of major PCa signaling VEGF, Ca2+, PI3K, CSF2, PTH). Based on PCR array, we identified decreased levels of EGFR, EGR3, and IL6, and increased levels of IGFBP7 and NKX3.1, overall supporting anti-PCa effects of quercetin-resveratrol.
Project description:Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) have been used as a powerful targeting therapeutic agent for treatment of lung adenocarcinoma for years. Nevertheless, the efficacy of TKI was hampered by the appearance of acquired TKI-resistance. In the present study, we aimed to search, predict, and screen the agents that can overcome the acquired TKI-resistance of lung adenocarcinoma by using the expression profiles of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and Connectivity map (CMAP). The profiles of DEGs were obtained by searching GEO microarray database, and then, they were submitted to CMAP for analysis in order to predict and screen the agent that might reverse the TKI-resistance of lung cancer cells. Next, the effects of the selected agent on TKI-resistant cancer cells were tested and the possible signaling pathways were also evaluated. As a result, valproic acid (VPA) was selected. Then, we used a low-concentration of VPA that has little effect on the cell growth for analysis. Interestingly, the results showed that treatment with a combination of VPA and Erlotinib significantly led to a decrease in cell viability and an increase in cell apoptosis for TKI-resistant HCC827-ER cells, relative to those treated with VPA or Erlotinib alone. Further experiments confirmed that inhibition of MAPK and AKT might be involved in this process. Analyzing the DEGs through the CMAP is a good strategy for exploitation of anti-tumor agents. VPA might markedly increase the sensitivity of TKI-resistant lung adenocarcinoma cells to Erlotinib, thus reversing the acquired TKI-resistance of cancer cells and raising VPA as a potential agent for TKI-resistant lung cancer therapy.
Project description:Background: Mucinous prostate cancer (PCa) is an extremely rare form of prostate malignancy. To date, the limited knowledge of its biology and outcomes stems from mostly small, single institution experiences. We analyzed the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to explore the incidence and treatment of mucinous PCa together with its prognostic factors to gain relatively large and consolidated insights. Methods: Age-adjusted incidence (AAI) rates were evaluated over time. Propensity score matching (PSM) and Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to compare the prognosis between mucinous PCa and typical prostate acinar adenocarcinoma. We assessed cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) after patient stratification according to summary stage and treatment choice. Cox hazards regression analysis was performed to determine independent predictors of CSS and OS. Results: The AAI in 2016 was 0.24 per million. Patients with mucinous PCa had similar CSS and OS to matched individuals with typical prostate acinar adenocarcinoma. In terms of treatment, 65.3% of mucinous PCa patients underwent surgery, and 23.9% received radiation therapy. Patients who underwent surgery had longer survival (CSS, p = 0.012; OS, p < 0.001), and patients who received radiation therapy had similar survival to those who did not receive radiation therapy (CSS, p = 0.794; OS, p = 0.097). A multivariate Cox analysis for CSS and OS showed that older age (CSS: HR: 4.982, p = 0.001; OS: HR: 4.258, p < 0.001) and distant stage (CSS: HR: 40.224, p < 0.001; OS: HR: 9.866, p < 0.001) were independent prognostic factors for mucinous PCa patients. Conclusions: Mucinous PCa has an extremely low AAI. Analysis of its outcomes indicates that it is not a more malignant tumor as previously suspected. Mucinous PCa shows a similar prognosis to typical prostate acinar carcinoma. Surgery was associated with prolonged survival. An older age at diagnosis and distant stage was associated with poor survival.
Project description:Previously we reported that valproic acid (VPA) acts in synergy with GOS to enhance cell death in human DU145 cells. However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. In this study, we observed that such synergistic cytotoxicity of GOS and VPA could be extended to human A375, HeLa, and PC-3 cancer cells. GOS and VPA co-treatment induced robust apoptosis as evidenced by caspase-8/-9/-3 activation, PARP cleavage, and nuclear fragmentation. GOS and VPA also markedly decreased cyclin A2 protein expression. Owing to the reduction of cyclin A2, Akt signaling was suppressed, leading to dephosphorylation of FOXO3a. Consequently, FOXO3a was activated and the expression of its target genes, including pro-apoptotic FasL and Bim, was upregulated. Supporting this, FOXO3a knockdown attenuated FasL and Bim upregulation and apoptosis induction in GOS+VPA-treated cells. Furthermore, blocking proteasome activity by MG132 prevented the downregulation of cyclin A2, dephosphorylation of Akt and FOXO3a, and induction of apoptosis in cells co-treated with GOS and VPA. In mouse model, GOS and VPA combination significantly inhibited the growth of A375 melanoma xenografts. Our findings indicate that GOS and VPA co-treatment induces apoptosis in human cancer cells by suppressing the cyclin-A2/Akt/FOXO3a pathway.