ABSTRACT: This experiment was designed to study if there are differences in gene expression in the adipose tissue of women affected by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared to non-hyperandrogenic women. PCOS is the most common endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age, and is characterized by hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation. This disease is frequently associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and defects in insulin secretion, predisposing these women to type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease. We have applied high-density oligonucleotide arrays to omental adipose tissue samples obtained from eight morbidly obese PCOS patients and seven morbidly obese non-PCOS women at the time of bariatric surgery. Keywords: Disease state analysis Overall design: We have compared the omental adipose tissue of eight PCOS patients with the same tissue in seven control women without PCOS. All of them are morbidly obese subjects. We also have included two replicates, one biological and one technical.
INSTRUMENT(S): [HG-U133A] Affymetrix Human Genome U133A Array
Project description:CONTEXT: The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is frequently associated with visceral obesity, suggesting that omental adipose tissue might play an important role in the pathogenesis of the syndrome. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study the expression profiles of omental fat biopsy samples obtained from morbidly obese women with or without PCOS at the time of bariatric surgery. DESIGN: This was a case-control study. SETTINGS: We conducted the study in an academic hospital. PATIENTS: Eight PCOS patients and seven nonhyperandrogenic women submitted to bariatric surgery because of morbid obesity. INTERVENTIONS: Biopsy samples of omental fat were obtained during bariatric surgery. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The main outcome measure was high-density oligonucleotide arrays. RESULTS: After statistical analysis, we identified changes in the expression patterns of 63 genes between PCOS and control samples. Gene classification was assessed through data mining of Gene Ontology annotations and cluster analysis of dysregulated genes between both groups. These methods highlighted abnormal expression of genes encoding certain components of several biological pathways related to insulin signaling and Wnt signaling, oxidative stress, inflammation, immune function, and lipid metabolism, as well as other genes previously related to PCOS or to the metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSION: The differences in the gene expression profiles in visceral adipose tissue of PCOS patients compared with nonhyperandrogenic women involve multiple genes related to several biological pathways, suggesting that the involvement of abdominal obesity in the pathogenesis of PCOS is more ample than previously thought and is not restricted to the induction of insulin resistance.
Project description:Obesity is a strong risk factor for resistance to insulin-mediated glucose disposal, a precursor of type 2 diabetes and other disorders. However, not all obese individuals are insulin resistant. We sought to identify the molecular pathways that might cause obesity-associated insulin resistance in humans by studying the morbidly obese who were insulin sensitive versus insulin resistant, thereby eliminating obesity as a variable.Combining gene expression profiling with computational approaches, we determined the global gene expression signatures of omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue samples obtained from similarly obese patients undergoing gastric bypass surgery.Gene sets related to chemokine activity and chemokine receptor binding were identified as most highly expressed in the omental tissue from insulin-resistant compared with insulin-sensitive subjects, independent of the body mass index. These upregulated genes included chemokines (C-C motif) ligand 2, 3, 4, and 18 and interleukin-8/(CC-X motif) ligand 8 and were not differentially expressed in the subcutaneous adipose tissues between the 2 groups of subjects. Insulin resistance, but not the body mass index, was associated with increased macrophage infiltration in the omental adipose tissue, as was adipocyte size, in these morbidly obese subjects.Our findings have demonstrated that inflammation of the omental adipose tissue is strongly associated with insulin resistance in human obesity even in subjects with similar body mass index values.
Project description:Visfatin/Nampt, vaspin, and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP-4) play an important role in insulin resistance. The objectives of this study were to measure visfatin/Nampt, vaspin, and RBP-4 concentrations in blood, liver, muscle, subcutaneous, omental, and mesenteric adipose tissues in morbidly obese subjects and investigate their relationship to insulin resistance. Blood and tissue samples were collected from 38 morbidly obese subjects during Roux-en-Y surgery. Insulin resistance biomarkers were measured using standard kits. Visfatin/Nampt, vaspin, and RBP-4 gene expression levels in tissues were measured using real-time PCR. Their protein concentrations in blood and tissues were measured using ELISA kits. Diabetic subjects had significantly higher homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance and age and lower blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations than nondiabetic and prediabetic subjects. Diabetic and prediabetic subjects had significantly higher blood concentrations of visfatin/Nampt and vaspin than nondiabetic subjects. Liver RBP-4 concentrations were positively associated with blood glucose concentrations. Blood insulin resistance biomarker levels were positively associated with visfatin/Nampt concentrations in omental adipose tissue and liver, and vaspin concentrations in mesenteric adipose tissue. In conclusion, the correlations of visfatin/Nampt, vaspin, and RBP-4 with insulin resistance are tissue dependent.
Project description:We previously reported that adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity is lower in adipose tissue of morbidly obese individuals who are insulin resistant than in comparably obese people who are insulin sensitive. However, the number of patients and parameters studied were small. Here, we compared abdominal subcutaneous, epiploic, and omental fat from 16 morbidly obese individuals classified as insulin sensitive or insulin resistant based on the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance. We confirmed that AMPK activity is diminished in the insulin resistant group. A custom PCR array revealed increases in mRNA levels of a wide variety of genes associated with inflammation and decreases in PGC-1? and Nampt in omental fat of the insulin resistant group. In contrast, subcutaneous abdominal fat of the same patients showed increases in PTP-1b, VEGFa, IFN?, PAI-1, and NOS-2 not observed in omental fat. Only angiotensinogen and CD4(+) mRNA levels were increased in both depots. Surprisingly, TNF? was only increased in epiploic fat, which otherwise showed very few changes. Protein carbonyl levels, a measure of oxidative stress, were increased in all depots. Thus, adipose tissues of markedly obese insulin resistant individuals uniformly show decreased AMPK activity and increased oxidative stress compared with insulin sensitive patients. However, most changes in gene expression appear to be depot-specific.
Project description:Obesity-induced white adipose tissue (WAT) fibrosis is believed to accelerate WAT dysfunction. Two progenitor populations could be distinguished in omental white adipose tissue (oWAT) of morbidly obese individuals based on CD9 expression. In addition, the frequency of CD9high progenitors in oWAT correlates with oWAT fibrosis level, insulin-resistance severity and type 2 diabetes. To further gain insight into the functional differences between the CD9high and CD9low progenitor subsets, we performed transcriptomic profiling of FACS-sorted progenitor populations isolated from oWAT of obese individuals. As CD9low progenitors were markedly decreased in glucose-intolerant or diabetic individuals, we investigated seven women with morbid obesity but without diabetes or glucose intolerance, according to the ADA definition. Overall design: Omental adipose tissue from 7 obese women with mean BMI of 42.9±1.7kg/m2 and mean age of 40.7±3.3 year-old was digested with collagenase. CD9high and CD9low progenitors from the stromal vascular fraction were FACS-sorted with CD45- CD31- CD34+ CD44+ PDGFRa+ CD9high and CD45- CD31- CD34+ CD44+ PDGFRa+ CD9low. Total RNA was amplified and labeled using Ovation Pico WTA System V2 (NuGEN) and Encore BiotinIL Module (NuGEN) kits according to the manufacturer's protocol.
Project description:Adipose tissues play an important role in the pathophysiology of obesity-related disease including type 2 diabetes. To describe gene expression patterns and functional pathways in obesity-related type 2 diabetes, we performed global transcript profiling of omental adipose tissue in morbidly obese individuals with or without diabetes. Fourteen (14) morbidly obese diabetics (cases) and 6 morbidly obese non-diabetics (reference) were included in this study.
Project description:The association between central obesity and insulin resistance reflects the properties of visceral adipose tissue. Our aim was to gain further insight into this association by analysing the lipid composition of subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue in obese women with and without insulin resistance. Subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue and serum were obtained from 29 obese nondiabetic women, 13 of whom were hyperinsulinemic. Histology, and lipid and gene profiling were performed. In omental adipose tissue of obese, insulin-resistant women, adipocyte hypertrophy and macrophage infiltration were accompanied by an increase in GM3 ganglioside and its synthesis enzyme ST3GAL5; in addition, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) lipids were increased and their degradation enzyme, PEMT, decreased. ST3GAL5 was expressed predominantly in adipose stromovascular cells and PEMT in adipocytes. Insulin resistance was also associated with an increase in PE lipids in serum. Total RNA was isolated and up to 400 ng of total RNA per sample was labelled and hybridized to Illumina HumanHT-12_V4 expression BeadChip platform. Paired subcutaneous and omental samples from 6 women were analysed.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To assess chemerin levels and regulation in sera and adipose tissue from women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and matched control subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to assess mRNA and protein expression of chemerin. Serum chemerin was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We investigated the in vivo effects of insulin on serum chemerin levels via a prolonged insulin-glucose infusion. Ex vivo effects of insulin, metformin, and steroid hormones on adipose tissue chemerin protein production and secretion into conditioned media were assessed by Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. RESULTS: Serum chemerin, subcutaneous, and omental adipose tissue chemerin were significantly higher in women with PCOS (n = 14; P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Hyperinsulinemic induction in human subjects significantly increased serum chemerin levels (n = 6; P < 0.05, P < 0.01). In adipose tissue explants, insulin significantly increased (n = 6; P < 0.05, P < 0.01) whereas metformin significantly decreased (n = 6; P < 0.05, P < 0.01) chemerin protein production and secretion into conditioned media, respectively. After 6 months of metformin treatment, there was a significant decrease in serum chemerin (n = 21; P < 0.01). Importantly, changes in homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance were predictive of changes in serum chemerin (P = 0.046). CONCLUSIONS: Serum and adipose tissue chemerin levels are increased in women with PCOS and are upregulated by insulin. Metformin treatment decreases serum chemerin in these women.
Project description:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with infertility, increased androgen levels, and insulin resistance. In adipose tissue, zinc facilitates insulin signaling. Circulating zinc levels are altered in obesity, diabetes, and PCOS; and zinc supplementation can ameliorate metabolic disturbances in PCOS. In adipose tissue, expression of zinc influx transporter ZIP14 varies with body mass index (BMI), clinical markers of metabolic syndrome, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG). In this study, we investigated expression levels of ZIP14 and PPARG in subcutaneous adipose tissue of 36 PCOS women (17 lean and 19 obese women) compared with 23 healthy controls (7 lean and 16 obese women). Further, expression levels of zinc transporter ZIP9, a recently identified androgen receptor, and zinc efflux transporter ZNT1 were investigated, alongside lipid profile and markers of glucose metabolism [insulin degrading enzyme, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4)]. We find that ZIP14 expression is reduced in obesity and positively correlates with PPARG expression, which is downregulated with increasing BMI. ZNT1 is upregulated in obesity, and both ZIP14 and ZNT1 expression significantly correlates with clinical markers of altered glucose metabolism. In addition, RBP4 and GLUT4 associate with obesity, but an association with PCOS as such was present only for PPARG and RBP4. ZIP14 and ZNT1 does not relate to clinical androgen status and ZIP9 is unaffected by all parameters investigated. In conclusion, our findings support the existence of a zinc dyshomeostasis in adipose tissue in metabolic disturbances including PCOS-related obesity.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: Insulin resistance and other features of the metabolic syndrome have been causally linked to adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) in mice with diet-induced obesity. We aimed to characterize macrophage phenotype and function in human subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue in relation to insulin resistance in obesity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Adipose tissue was obtained from lean and obese women undergoing bariatric surgery. Metabolic markers were measured in fasting serum and ATMs characterized by immunohistology, flow cytometry, and tissue culture studies. RESULTS ATMs comprised CD11c(+)CD206(+) cells in "crown" aggregates and solitary CD11c(-)CD206(+) cells at adipocyte junctions. In obese women, CD11c(+) ATM density was greater in subcutaneous than omental adipose tissue and correlated with markers of insulin resistance. CD11c(+) ATMs were distinguished by high expression of integrins and antigen presentation molecules; interleukin (IL)-1beta, -6, -8, and -10; tumor necrosis factor-alpha; and CC chemokine ligand-3, indicative of an activated, proinflammatory state. In addition, CD11c(+) ATMs were enriched for mitochondria and for RNA transcripts encoding mitochondrial, proteasomal, and lysosomal proteins, fatty acid metabolism enzymes, and T-cell chemoattractants, whereas CD11c(-) ATMs were enriched for transcripts involved in tissue maintenance and repair. Tissue culture medium conditioned by CD11c(+) ATMs, but not CD11c(-) ATMs or other stromovascular cells, impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by human adipocytes. CONCLUSIONS: These findings identify proinflammatory CD11c(+) ATMs as markers of insulin resistance in human obesity. In addition, the machinery of CD11c(+) ATMs indicates they metabolize lipid and may initiate adaptive immune responses.