Expression data from mononuclear cells from bone marrow and peripheral blood of leukemia patient samples
ABSTRACT: Gene expression analysis was conducted using a GeneChip® Human Genome U133(HG–U133A & B) array with more than 39,000 transcripts Cytokines, growth factors, and their receptors are known to play important roles in cell survival, proliferation, differentiation and immune response in normal and cancer cells. Substantial evidence indicates that deregulation of growth factor and cytokine signaling contributes to leukemogenesis through aberrant activation of kinase-driven signaling pathways. In order to identify cytokine/growth factor receptors that are critical for leukemia cell growth, we established a novel functional RNAi-based screen targeting 188 non-kinase cytokine/growth factor receptors and associated proteins that are highly expressed in hematopoietic malignancies. In AML 46884 is missing for Set A and 103855 is missing for Set B and in T-ALL 52570 Set A is missing because of sample size limitation. Overall design: Gene expression profiling was done using mononuclear cells from bone marrow and peripheral blood of 141 leukemia patient samples including AML (N=38), precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL; N=17), T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL; N=13), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL; N=41), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML; N=22)), and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS; N=10).
INSTRUMENT(S): [HG-U133A] Affymetrix Human Genome U133A Array
Project description:8p11 myeloproliferative syndrome (EMS) represents a unique World Health Organization (WHO)-classified hematologic malignancy defined by translocations of the FGFR1 receptor. The syndrome is a myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by eosinophilia and lymphadenopathy, with risk of progression to either acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or T- or B-lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukemia. Within the EMS subtype, translocations between breakpoint cluster region (BCR) and fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) have been shown to produce a dominant fusion protein that is notoriously resistant to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Here, we report two cases of BCR-FGFR1 + EMS identified via RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Sanger sequencing revealed that both cases harbored the exact same breakpoint. In the first case, the patient presented with AML-like disease, and in the second, the patient progressed to B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). Additionally, we observed that that primary leukemia cells from Case 1 demonstrated sensitivity to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors ponatinib and dovitinib that can target FGFR1 kinase activity, whereas primary cells from Case 2 were resistant to both drugs. Taken together, these results suggest that some but not all BCR-FGFR1 fusion positive leukemias may respond to TKIs that target FGFR1 kinase activity.
Project description:The dual specificity protein/lipid kinase, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), promotes growth factor-mediated cell survival and is frequently deregulated in cancer. However, in contrast to canonical lipid-kinase functions, the role of PI3K protein kinase activity in regulating cell survival is unknown. We have employed a novel approach to purify and pharmacologically profile protein kinases from primary human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells that phosphorylate serine residues in the cytoplasmic portion of cytokine receptors to promote hemopoietic cell survival. We have isolated a kinase activity that is able to directly phosphorylate Ser585 in the cytoplasmic domain of the interleukin 3 (IL-3) and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptors and shown it to be PI3K. Physiological concentrations of cytokine in the picomolar range were sufficient for activating the protein kinase activity of PI3K leading to Ser585 phosphorylation and hemopoietic cell survival but did not activate PI3K lipid kinase signaling or promote proliferation. Blockade of PI3K lipid signaling by expression of the pleckstrin homology of Akt1 had no significant impact on the ability of picomolar concentrations of cytokine to promote hemopoietic cell survival. Furthermore, inducible expression of a mutant form of PI3K that is defective in lipid kinase activity but retains protein kinase activity was able to promote Ser585 phosphorylation and hemopoietic cell survival in the absence of cytokine. Blockade of p110? by RNA interference or multiple independent PI3K inhibitors not only blocked Ser585 phosphorylation in cytokine-dependent cells and primary human AML blasts, but also resulted in a block in survival signaling and cell death. Our findings demonstrate a new role for the protein kinase activity of PI3K in phosphorylating the cytoplasmic tail of the GM-CSF and IL-3 receptors to selectively regulate cell survival highlighting the importance of targeting such pathways in cancer.
Project description:Inhibitory killer immunoglobulin (Ig)-like receptors (KIRs) recognize HLA-C and -B epitopes on target cells, thereby regulating natural killer (NK) cell activity. In 178 patients receiving T-cell-depleted HLA-identical sibling transplants for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), analysis of donor KIR genotype with HLA genotype demonstrated that 62.9% of the patients lacked an HLA ligand for donor-inhibitory KIR. Lack of HLA ligand for donor-inhibitory KIR (missing KIR ligand) had no effect on disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), or relapse in patients receiving transplants for CML and ALL. In patients with AML and MDS, however, there was a significant missing KIR ligand effect on DFS (P = .014; hazard ratio [HR], 0.53; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.28-0.88) and OS (P = .03; HR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.3-0.93). Incidence of relapse was also lower in patients with AML and MDS who lacked the HLA ligand for donor-inhibitory KIR (P = .04; HR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.18-0.97). AML and MDS patients lacking 2 HLA ligands for donor-inhibitory KIR had the highest DFS (P = .002) and OS (P = .003). There was no significant contribution of donor-activating KIR to transplantation outcome in these patients. These data indicate that the absence of class I ligand in the recipient for donor-inhibitory KIR can be a prognostic factor for transplantation outcome in HLA-identical sibling transplantation and that the lack of HLA-C or -B ligands for donor-inhibitory KIR can contribute to improved outcomes for patients with AML and MDS.
Project description:Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is sustained by small populations of leukemia stem cells (LSCs) that can resist available treatments and represent important barriers to cure. Although previous studies have shown increased signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 and STAT5 phosphorylation in AML leukemic blasts, the role of Janus kinase (JAK) signaling in primary AML compared with normal stem cells has not been directly evaluated. We show here that JAK/STAT signaling is increased in LSCs, particularly from high-risk AML. JAK2 inhibition using small molecule inhibitors or interference RNA reduced growth of AML LSCs while sparing normal stem cells both in vitro and in vivo. Increased JAK/STAT activity was associated with increased expression and altered signaling through growth factor receptors in AML LSCs, including receptor tyrosine kinase c-KIT and FMS-related tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3). Inhibition of c-KIT and FLT3 expression significantly inhibited JAK/STAT signaling in AML LSCs, and JAK inhibitors effectively inhibited FLT3-mutated AML LSCs. Our results indicate that JAK/STAT signaling represents an important signaling mechanism supporting AML LSC growth and survival. These studies support continued evaluation of strategies for JAK/STAT inhibition for therapeutic targeting of AML LSCs.
Project description:Lapatinib is an oral-form dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR or ErbB/Her) superfamily members with anticancer activity. In this study, we examined the effects and mechanism of action of lapatinib on several human leukemia cells lines, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells. We found that lapatinib inhibited the growth of human AML U937, HL-60, NB4, CML KU812, MEG-01, and ALL Jurkat T cells. Among these leukemia cell lines, lapatinib induced apoptosis in HL-60, NB4, and Jurkat cells, but induced nonapoptotic cell death in U937, K562, and MEG-01 cells. Moreover, lapatinib treatment caused autophagic cell death as shown by positive acridine orange staining, the massive formation of vacuoles as seen by electronic microscopy, and the upregulation of LC3-II, ATG5, and ATG7 in AML U937 cells. Furthermore, autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine and knockdown of ATG5, ATG7, and Beclin-1 using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) partially rescued lapatinib-induced cell death. In addition, the induction of phagocytosis and ROS production as well as the upregulation of surface markers CD14 and CD68 was detected in lapatinib-treated U937 cells, suggesting the induction of macrophagic differentiation in AML U937 cells by lapatinib. We also noted the synergistic effects of the use of lapatinib and cytotoxic drugs in U937 leukemia cells. These results indicate that lapatinib may have potential for development as a novel antileukemia agent.
Project description:Acute leukemia (AL) is a group of highly heterogeneous hematological malignancies. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are covalently closed circRNA molecules implicated in the development of many diseases. However, the role of circRNAs in AL remains largely unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to identify new classification diagnostic biomarkers for subgroups of AL. The circRNA expression signatures discriminating acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) from acute myeloid leukemia (AML) were identified by microarray, followed by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) validation. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to evaluate the diagnostic efficiencies of hsa_circ_0001857 and hsa_circ_0012152, and hsa_circ_0012152 was selected for Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis. The results showed that the circRNA expression profiles, hsa_circ_0001857, and hsa_circ_0012152 could clearly discriminate ALL from AML. The target genes of hsa_circ_0012152 might be involved in biological processes, such as myeloid cell differentiation, covalent chromatin modification, histone modification, and rat sarcoma (Ras) protein signal transduction, and participate in pathways such as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway. Hsa_circ_0012152 might be involved in the initiation and development of AML through miR-491-5p/epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/MAPK1 or miR-512-3p/EGFR/MAPK1 axis. Our results showed that circRNA expression profiles and specifically expressed circRNAs were promising classification biomarkers to designate AL into ALL or AML.
Project description:Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by recurrent mutations that affect the epigenetic regulatory machinery and signaling molecules, leading to a block in hematopoietic differentiation. Constitutive signaling from mutated growth factor receptors is a major driver of leukemic growth, but how aberrant signaling affects the epigenome in AML is less understood. Furthermore, AML cells undergo extensive clonal evolution, and the mutations in signaling genes are often secondary events. To elucidate how chronic growth factor signaling alters the transcriptional network in AML, we performed a system-wide multi-omics study of primary cells from patients suffering from AML with internal tandem duplications in the FLT3 transmembrane domain (FLT3-ITD). This strategy revealed cooperation between the MAP kinase (MAPK) inducible transcription factor AP-1 and RUNX1 as a major driver of a common, FLT3-ITD-specific gene expression and chromatin signature, demonstrating a major impact of MAPK signaling pathways in shaping the epigenome of FLT3-ITD AML.
Project description:Ponatinib (AP24534) is a novel multitargeted kinase inhibitor that potently inhibits native and mutant BCR-ABL at clinically achievable drug levels. Ponatinib also has in vitro inhibitory activity against a discrete set of kinases implicated in the pathogenesis of other hematologic malignancies, including FLT3, KIT, fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1), and platelet derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα). Here, using leukemic cell lines containing activated forms of each of these receptors, we show that ponatinib potently inhibits receptor phosphorylation and cellular proliferation with IC50 values comparable to those required for inhibition of BCR-ABL (0.3 to 20 nmol/L). The activity of ponatinib against the FLT3-ITD mutant, found in up to 30% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients, was particularly notable. In MV4-11 (FLT3-ITD(+/+)) but not RS4;11 (FLT3-ITD(-/-)) AML cells, ponatinib inhibited FLT3 signaling and induced apoptosis at concentrations of less than 10 nmol/L. In an MV4-11 mouse xenograft model, once daily oral dosing of ponatinib led to a dose-dependent inhibition of signaling and tumor regression. Ponatinib inhibited viability of primary leukemic blasts from a FLT3-ITD positive AML patient (IC50 4 nmol/L) but not those isolated from 3 patients with AML expressing native FLT3. Overall, these results support the investigation of ponatinib in patients with FLT3-ITD-driven AML and other hematologic malignancies driven by KIT, FGFR1, or PDGFRα.
Project description:The SET oncoprotein, a potent inhibitor of the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), is overexpressed in leukemia. We evaluated the efficacy of SET antagonism in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines, a murine leukemia model, and primary patient samples using OP449, a specific, cell-penetrating peptide that antagonizes SET's inhibition of PP2A.In vitro cytotoxicity and specificity of OP449 in CML and AML cell lines and primary samples were measured using proliferation, apoptosis, and clonogenic assays. Efficacy of target inhibition by OP449 was evaluated by immunoblotting and PP2A assay. In vivo antitumor efficacy of OP449 was measured in human HL-60 xenografted murine model.We observed that OP449 inhibited growth of CML cells including those from patients with blastic phase disease and patients harboring highly drug-resistant BCR-ABL1 mutations. Combined treatment with OP449 and ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors was significantly more cytotoxic to K562 cells and primary CD34(+) CML cells. SET protein levels remained unchanged with OP449 treatment, but BCR-ABL1-mediated downstream signaling was significantly inhibited with the degradation of key signaling molecules such as BCR-ABL1, STAT5, and AKT. Similarly, AML cell lines and primary patient samples with various genetic lesions showed inhibition of cell growth after treatment with OP449 alone or in combination with respective kinase inhibitors. Finally, OP449 reduced the tumor burden of mice xenografted with human leukemia cells.We demonstrate a novel therapeutic paradigm of SET antagonism using OP449 in combination with tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of CML and AML.
Project description:We investigated the effects of targeting the mitotic regulators aurora kinase A and B in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Aurora protein expression levels in pediatric ALL and AML patient samples were determined by western blot and reverse phase protein array. Both kinases were overexpressed in ALL and AML patients (P<0.0002), especially in E2A-PBX1-translocated ALL cases (P<0.002), compared with normal bone-marrow mononuclear cells. Aurora kinase expression was silenced in leukemic cell lines using short hairpin RNAs and locked nucleic acid-based mRNA antagonists. Aurora B knockdown resulted in proliferation arrest and apoptosis, whereas aurora A knockdown caused no or only minor growth delay. Most tested cell lines were highly sensitive to the AURKB-selective inhibitor barasertib-hydroxyquinazoline-pyrazol-anilide (AZD1152-HQPA) in the nanomolar range, as tested with an MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium) assay. But most importantly, primary ALL cells with a high aurora B protein expression, especially E2A-PBX1-positive cases, were sensitive as well. In adult AML early clinical trials, clear responses are observed with barasertib. Here we show that inhibition of aurora B, more than aurora A, has an antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effect on acute leukemia cells, indicating that particularly targeting aurora B may offer a new strategy to treat pediatric ALL and AML.