University of Manitoba/MGCB2 C thermocellum RNA-seq Experiment
ABSTRACT: Determine overall gene expression profiles; RNA expression observed in stationary relative to exponential phase cells of strain Clostridum thermocellum (ATCC 27405) grown on cellobiose; Comparative RNA expression of 3 Clostridium thermocellu strains (DSM 1237, 2650, and 4150) grown to mid exponential phase on cellobiose; Verify whether observed differences in fermentation end-product ratios are reflected in differences in RNA expression profiles. RNA-seq data will be compared with the same experiments performed with proteomic experiments; Compare gene expression across relative strains. Overall design: Each test condition was provided as 2 biological replicates for primary strain and 1 replicate for comparing strain
Project description:RNA expression observed in stationary relative to exponential phase cells of strain Clostridum thermocellum (ATCC 27405) grown on cellobiose. b) Comparative RNA expression of 3 Clostridium thermocellu strains (DSM 1237, 2650, and 4150) grown to mid exponential phase on cellobiose. There are 2 purposes for this experiment. 1) Purpose 1 was to verify whether observed differences in fermentation end-product ratios are reflected in differences in RNA expression profiles. Micro Array data will be compared with the same experiments performed with RNA seq and with proteomic experiments. Purpose 2 was to improve our general understanding of the genomes of these strains by doing the experiments on a chip that combined the current genome information for all three strains. It is expected that the Micro Array will confirm that these genomes as currently available are incomplete. Overall design: Each test condition was provided as 6 biological replicates in order to test the sample to sample variability intrinsic to this type of sample. Statistical analysis will reveal the number of replacates needed to ensure stable results
Project description:BACKGROUND: Clostridium thermocellum is a candidate consolidated bioprocessing biocatalyst, which is a microorganism that expresses enzymes for both cellulose hydrolysis and its fermentation to produce fuels such as lignocellulosic ethanol. However, C. thermocellum is relatively sensitive to ethanol compared to ethanologenic microorganisms such as yeast and Zymomonas mobilis that are used in industrial fermentations but do not possess native enzymes for industrial cellulose hydrolysis. RESULTS: In this study, C. thermocellum was grown to mid-exponential phase and then treated with ethanol to a final concentration of 3.9 g/L to investigate its physiological and regulatory responses to ethanol stress. Samples were taken pre-shock and 2, 12, 30, 60, 120, and 240 min post-shock, and from untreated control fermentations for systems biology analyses. Cell growth was arrested by ethanol supplementation with intracellular accumulation of carbon sources such as cellobiose, and sugar phosphates, including fructose-6-phosphate and glucose-6-phosphate. The largest response of C. thermocellum to ethanol shock treatment was in genes and proteins related to nitrogen uptake and metabolism, which is likely important for redirecting the cells physiology to overcome inhibition and allow growth to resume. CONCLUSION: This study suggests possible avenues for metabolic engineering and provides comprehensive, integrated systems biology datasets that will be useful for future metabolic modeling and strain development endeavors.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Clostridium thermocellum produces H2 and ethanol, as well as CO2, acetate, formate, and lactate, directly from cellulosic biomass. It is therefore an attractive model for biofuel production via consolidated bioprocessing. Optimization of end-product yields and titres is crucial for making biofuel production economically feasible. Relative protein expression profiles may provide targets for metabolic engineering, while understanding changes in protein expression and metabolism in response to carbon limitation, pH, and growth phase may aid in reactor optimization. We performed shotgun 2D-HPLC-MS/MS on closed-batch cellobiose-grown exponential phase C. thermocellum cell-free extracts to determine relative protein expression profiles of core metabolic proteins involved carbohydrate utilization, energy conservation, and end-product synthesis. iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation) based protein quantitation was used to determine changes in core metabolic proteins in response to growth phase. RESULTS: Relative abundance profiles revealed differential levels of putative enzymes capable of catalyzing parallel pathways. The majority of proteins involved in pyruvate catabolism and end-product synthesis were detected with high abundance, with the exception of aldehyde dehydrogenase, ferredoxin-dependent Ech-type [NiFe]-hydrogenase, and RNF-type NADH:ferredoxin oxidoreductase. Using 4-plex 2D-HPLC-MS/MS, 24% of the 144 core metabolism proteins detected demonstrated moderate changes in expression during transition from exponential to stationary phase. Notably, proteins involved in pyruvate synthesis decreased in stationary phase, whereas proteins involved in glycogen metabolism, pyruvate catabolism, and end-product synthesis increased in stationary phase. Several proteins that may directly dictate end-product synthesis patterns, including pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductases, alcohol dehydrogenases, and a putative bifurcating hydrogenase, demonstrated differential expression during transition from exponential to stationary phase. CONCLUSIONS: Relative expression profiles demonstrate which proteins are likely utilized in carbohydrate utilization and end-product synthesis and suggest that H2 synthesis occurs via bifurcating hydrogenases while ethanol synthesis is predominantly catalyzed by a bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase. Differences in expression profiles of core metabolic proteins in response to growth phase may dictate carbon and electron flux towards energy storage compounds and end-products. Combined knowledge of relative protein expression levels and their changes in response to physiological conditions may aid in targeted metabolic engineering strategies and optimization of fermentation conditions for improvement of biofuels production.
Project description:Ruminiclostridium thermocellum DSM 1313 strain adhE*(EA) expression was studied along with ∆hydG and ∆hydG∆ech mutants strains deposited under GSE54082. All strains have been described in a study entitled Elimination of hydrogenase post-translational modification blocks H2 production and increases ethanol yield in Clostridium thermocellum. Biswas, et .al. Biotechnology for Biofuels 2015 8:20 Ruminiclostridium (Clostridium) thermocellum is a leading candidate organism for implementing a consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) strategy for biofuel production due to its native ability to rapidly consume cellulose and its existing ethanol production pathway. C. thermocellum converts cellulose and cellobiose to lactate, formate, acetate, H2, ethanol, amino acids, and other products. Elimination of the pathways leading to products such as H2 could redirect carbon flux towards ethanol production. Rather than delete each hydrogenase individually, we targeted a hydrogenase maturase gene (hydG), which is involved in converting the three [FeFe] hydrogenase apoenzymes into holoenzymes by assembling the active site. This functionally inactivated all three Fe-Fe hydrogenases simultaneously, as they were unable to make active enzymes. In the ∆hydG mutant, the [NiFe] hydrogenase-encoding ech was also deleted to obtain a mutant that functionally lacks all hydrogenase. The ethanol yield increased nearly 2-fold in ∆hydG∆ech compared to wild type, and H2 production was below the detection limit. Interestingly, ∆hydG and ∆hydG∆ech exhibited improved growth in the presence of acetate in the medium. Transcriptomic and proteomic analysis reveal that genes related to sulfate transport and metabolism were up-regulated in the presence of added acetate in ∆hydG, resulting in altered sulfur metabolism. Further genomic analysis of this strain revealed a mutation in the bi-functional alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenase adhE gene, resulting in a strain with both NADH- and NADPH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase activities, whereas the wild type strain can only utilize NADH. This is the exact same adhE mutation found in ethanol-tolerant C. thermocellum strain E50C, but ∆hydG∆ech is not more ethanol tolerant than the wild type. Targeting protein post-translational modification is a promising new approach to target multiple enzymes simultaneously for metabolic engineering. This GEO study pertains to expression profiles generated for C. thermocellum DSM 1313 strain adhE*(EA) Overall design: A six array study using total RNA recovered from Clostridium thermocellum DSM 1313 adhE*(EA) 27405 cultures. Cells were harvested at an OD 0.4-0.5 from cultures grown in the presence of additional 5mM acetate and compared to untreated controls. Three biological replicates were performed for treated and untreated cultures.
Project description:Differential RNA-Seq analyses to investigate the basis for metabolic inhibition of Clostridium thermocellum M1570 by xylose. The M1570 strain was developed in the C. thermocellum DSM 1313 Δhpt background strain. Lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh) and phosphotransacetylase (Pta) genes are deleted (Argyros DA, Tripathi SA, Barrett TF, Rogers SR, Feinberg LF, Olson DG, Foden JM, Miller BB, Lynd LR, Hogsett DA, Caiazza NC: High ethanol titers from cellulose by using metabolically engineered thermophilic, anaerobic microbes. Appl Environ Microbiol 2010, 77:8288-8294 ) Overall design: Differential RNA-Seq analyses was used to investigate the basis for metabolic inhibition of Clostridium thermocellum M1570 by xylose. Cultures were grown in serum bottles containing 40 mL of MTC medium with or without 15 g/L xylose and were harvested at mid-exponential phase. Quadruplicate cultures were used for each experimental condition tested.
Project description:Clostridium thermocellum is a major candidate for bioethanol production via consolidated bioprocessing. However, the low ethanol tolerance of the organism dramatically impedes its usage in industry. To explore the mechanism of ethanol tolerance in this microorganism, systematic metabolomics was adopted to analyse the metabolic phenotypes of a C. thermocellum wild-type (WT) strain and an ethanol-tolerant strain cultivated without (ET0) or with (ET3) 3% (v/v) exogenous ethanol. Metabolomics analysis elucidated that the levels of numerous metabolites in different pathways were changed for the metabolic adaption of ethanol-tolerant C. thermocellum. The most interesting phenomenon was that cellodextrin was significantly more accumulated in the ethanol-tolerant strain compared with the WT strain, although cellobiose was completely consumed in both the ethanol-tolerant and wild-type strains. These results suggest that the cellodextrin synthesis was active, which might be a potential mechanism for stress resistance. Moreover, the overflow of many intermediate metabolites, which indicates the metabolic imbalance, in the ET0 cultivation was more significant than in the WT and ET3 cultivations. This indicates that the metabolic balance of the ethanol-tolerant strain was adapted better to the condition of ethanol stress. This study provides additional insight into the mechanism of ethanol tolerance and is valuable for further metabolic engineering aimed at higher bioethanol production.
Project description:Cost-efficient saccharification is one of the main bottlenecks for industrial lignocellulose conversion. Clostridium thermocellum naturally degrades lignocellulose efficiently using the cellulosome, a multiprotein supermolecular complex, and thus can be potentially used as a low-cost catalyst for lignocellulose saccharification. The industrial use of C. thermocellum is restrained due largely to the inhibition of the hydrolysate cellobiose to its cellulosome. Although the supplementation of beta-glucosidase may solve the problem, the production of the enzymes greatly complicates the process and may also increase the cost of saccharification.To conquer the feedback inhibition and establish an efficient whole-cell catalyst for highly efficient cellulose saccharification, we constructed a recombinant strain of C. thermocellum ∆pyrF::CaBglA which produced a secretory exoglucanase CelS-bearing heterologous BGL using a newly developed seamless genome editing system. Without the extra addition of enzymes, the relative saccharification level of ∆pyrF::CaBglA was stimulated by over twofolds compared to its parent strain ∆pyrF through a two-stage saccharification process with 100 g/L Avicel as the carbon source. The production of reducing sugars and the relative saccharification level were further enhanced to 490 mM and 79.4%, respectively, with increased cell density.The high cellulose-degrading ability and sugar productivity suggested that the whole-cell-catalysis strategy for cellulose saccharification is promising, and the C. thermocellum strain ∆pyrF::CaBglA could be potentially used as an efficient whole-cell catalyst for industrial cellulose saccharification.
Project description:Bioethanol production processes involve enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars. Due to the relatively high cost of enzyme production, the development of potent and cost-effective cellulolytic cocktails is critical for increasing the cost-effectiveness of bioethanol production. In this context, the multi-protein cellulolytic complex of Clostridium (Ruminiclostridium) thermocellum, the cellulosome, was studied here. C. thermocellum is known to assemble cellulosomes of various subunit (enzyme) compositions, in response to the available carbon source. In the current study, different carbon sources were used, and their influence on both cellulosomal composition and the resultant activity was investigated.Glucose, cellobiose, microcrystalline cellulose, alkaline-pretreated switchgrass, alkaline-pretreated corn stover, and dilute acid-pretreated corn stover were used as sole carbon sources in the growth media of C. thermocellum strain DSM 1313. The purified cellulosomes were compared for their activity on selected cellulosic substrates. Interestingly, cellulosomes derived from cells grown on lignocellulosic biomass showed no advantage in hydrolyzing the original carbon source used for their production. Instead, microcrystalline cellulose- and glucose-derived cellulosomes were equal or superior in their capacity to deconstruct lignocellulosic biomass. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed differential composition of catalytic and structural subunits (scaffoldins) in the different cellulosome samples. The most abundant catalytic subunits in all cellulosome types include Cel48S, Cel9K, Cel9Q, Cel9R, and Cel5G. Microcrystalline cellulose- and glucose-derived cellulosome samples showed higher endoglucanase-to-exoglucanase ratios and higher catalytic subunit-per-scaffoldin ratios compared to lignocellulose-derived cellulosome types.The results reported here highlight the finding that cellulosomes derived from cells grown on glucose and microcrystalline cellulose are more efficient in their action on cellulosic substrates than other cellulosome preparations. These results should be considered in the future development of C. thermocellum-based cellulolytic cocktails, designer cellulosomes, or engineering of improved strains for deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass.
Project description:Clostridium thermocellum is a Gram-positive, anaerobic, thermophilic bacterium that ferments cellulose into ethanol. It is a candidate industrial consolidated bioprocess (CBP) biocatalyst for lignocellulosic bioethanol production. However, C. thermocellum is relatively sensitive to ethanol compared to yeast. Previous studies have investigated the membrane and protein composition of wild-type and ethanol tolerant strains, but relatively little is known about the genome changes associated with the ethanol tolerant C. thermocellum strain. In this study, C. thermocellum cultures were grown to mid-exponential phase and then either shocked with the supplementation of ethanol to a final concentration of 3.95 g/L (equal to 0.5% [v/v]) or were untreated. Samples were taken pre-shock and 2, 12, 30, 60, 120, 240 min post-shock for multiple systems biology analyses. The addition of ethanol dramatically reduced the C. thermocellum growth and the final cell density was approximately half of the control fermentations, with concomitant reductions in substrate consumption in the treated cultures. The response of C. thermocellum to ethanol was dynamic and involved more than six hundred genes that were significantly and differentially expressed between the different conditions over time and every functional category was represented. Cellobiose was accumulated within the ethanol-shocked C. thermocellum cells, as well as the sugar phosphates such as fructose-6-P and cellobiose-6-P. The comparison and correlation among intracellular metabolites, proteomic and transcriptomics profiles as well as the ethanol effects on cellulosome, hydrogenase glycolysis and nitrogen metabolism are discussed, which led us to propose that C. thermocellum may utilize the nitrogen metabolism to bypass the arrested carbon metabolism in responding to ethanol stress shock, and the nitrogen metabolic pathway and redox balance may be the key target for improving ethanol tolerance and production in C. thermocellum. Overall design: A thirty array study using total RNA recovered from wild-type cultures of Clostridium thermocellum at different time points of 0, 12, 30, 60, 120, and 240 min post-inoculation with 3.95 g/L [0.5% (v/v)] treatment compred to that of control without ethanol supplementation. Two biological replicates for treatment and control condition.
Project description:Four C. thermocellum DSM-1313 derived strains were assessed using metabolite and DNA microarray tools in order to better understand carbon and electron flow within this organism. C. thermocellum is able to ferment cellulose into its fermentation end products L-lactate, acetate, formate, hydrogen gas, and ethanol, with the latter being the desired end product to be used as biorenewable fuel. In addition to the parent strain (genotype: hpt spo0A), strains with either or both of the genes encoding lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) and phosphate acetyltransferase (pta) deleted were studied. The strains used are a parent strain (M1726: genotype: hpt spo0A), and strains with either the gene encoding lactate dehydrogenase (M1629: hpt spo0A ldh) or phosphate acetyltransferase (M1630: hpt spo0A pta) deleted, or with both genes deleted (M1725: hpt spo0A ldh pta). Controlled batch fermentations using cellobiose as sole carbon source were grown for each strain, and samples in mid-exponential phase and at the time of carbon depletion were examined by DNA microarray. Overall design: Four strains were grown each as three independent biological replicates (fresh batch of media was made before each run). Per fermentation, two samples were taken for DNA microarray analysis as was determined by the optical density: mid-exponential was defined as O.D. 0.4 (measured by Dasgip probe); point of carbon depletion was defined by both the maximum O.D. reached and observation that no base was added to the fermentation to control pH. In total, 4 strains x 3 fermentation x 2 time points per fermentor = 24 arrays. Parent strain was used as reference strain.