Gene expression based profiling of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infected primary murine osteoclasts.
ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium tuberculosis(Mtb) is known to reside in cells of innate immune system- macrophages and dendritic cells. A variety of non -conventional cell typeslike adipocytes, mesenchyal stem cells and osteoclasts can also be infected with Mtb. However, cellular transcriptional adapations enabling survival of Mtb in these cells remain known. We used microarrays to understand global changes in transcriptional profiling during macrophage to osteoclast transition in presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Overall design: Time-series changes in expression were seen in presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on 0, 2, 3 and 4 days post infection during macrophage to osteoclast transition.
Project description:Osteoarticular tuberculosis, a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection, has become a serious problem in China. The present study was conducted to determine the mechanism of action of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? in the pathogenesis of osteoarticular tuberculosis. The number of osteoclasts in osteoarticular tuberculosis tissue samples was detected by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. Autophagy and apoptosis of osteoclasts were detected by western blotting, reverse transcription-quantitative PCR, transmission electron microscopy and TUNEL staining. The results showed that autophagy and the number of osteoclasts increased in the lesions of patients with osteoarticular tuberculosis compared with osteoarthritis samples. Moreover, activation of osteoclast autophagy inhibited the apoptosis of osteoclasts infected with M.tb, and increased the expression level of TNF-?. The results showed that TNF-? enhanced the autophagic activity of M.tb-infected osteoclasts and inhibited cell apoptosis. These findings indicated that M.tb infection induced osteoclast production and inhibited osteoclast apoptosis by regulating TNF-?-mediated osteoclast autophagy, revealing a new mechanism for TNF-? in the pathogenesis of osteoarticular tuberculosis.
Project description:Osteoclasts are highly specialized cells of haematopoietic lineage that are uniquely responsible for bone resorption. In the past, osteoclasts were isolated as mature cells from chicken long bones, or were generated using osteoblasts or stromal cells to induce osteoclast formation in total bone marrow from mice or rabbits. The Copernican revolution in osteoclast biology began with the identification of macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator NFκB-ligand (RANKL ) as the key regulators of osteoclast formation, fusion and function. The availability of recombinant human and mouse M-CSF and RANKL has enabled researchers to reliably generate osteoclasts from primary monocyte/macrophage cells as well as from cell lines such as RAW 264.7. This article summarizes the most commonly used procedures for the isolation, generation and characterization of human, rodent and chicken osteoclasts in vitro. Lists of further reading and recommendations are included to facilitate a successful application by the reader.
Project description:Astronauts are at risk of losing 1.0% to 1.5% of their bone mass for every month they spend in space despite their adherence to diets and exercise regimens designed to protect their musculoskeletal systems. This loss is the result of microgravity-related impairment of osteocyte and osteoblast function and the consequent upregulation of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. This review describes the ontogeny of osteoclast hematopoietic stem cells and the contributions macrophage colony stimulating factor, receptor activator of the nuclear factor-kappa B ligand, and the calcineurin pathways make in osteoclast differentiation and provides details of bone formation, the osteoclast cytoskeleton, the immune regulation of osteoclasts, and osteoclast mechanotransduction on Earth, in space, and under conditions of simulated microgravity. The article discusses the need to better understand how osteoclasts are able to function in zero gravity and reviews current and prospective therapies that may be used to treat osteoclast-mediated bone disease.
Project description:Osteoclasts are bone-resorbing cells that play a pivotal role in bone remodeling. Osteoclasts form large multinuclear giant cells by fusion of mononuclear osteoclasts. How cell fusion is mediated, however, is unclear. We identify the dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), a putative seven-transmembrane protein, by a DNA subtraction screen between multinuclear osteoclasts and mononuclear macrophages. DC-STAMP is highly expressed in osteoclasts but not in macrophages. DC-STAMP-deficient mice were generated, and osteoclast cell fusion was completely abrogated in homozygotes despite normal expression of osteoclast markers and cytoskeletal structure. As osteoclast multinucleation was restored by retroviral introduction of DC-STAMP, loss of cell fusion was directly attributable to a lack of DC-STAMP. Defects in osteoclast multinucleation reduce bone-resorbing activity, leading to osteopetrosis. Similar to osteoclasts, foreign body giant cell formation by macrophage cell fusion was also completely abrogated in DC-STAMP-deficient mice. We have thus identified an essential regulator of osteoclast and macrophage cell fusion, DC-STAMP, and an essential role of osteoclast multinucleation in bone homeostasis.
Project description:In vitro differentiation into functional osteoclasts is routinely achieved by incubation of embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, or primary as well as cryopreserved spleen and bone marrow-derived cells with soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand and macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Additionally, osteoclasts can be derived from co-cultures with osteoblasts or by direct administration of soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand to RAW 264.7 macrophage lineage cells. However, despite their benefits for osteoclast-associated research, these different methods have several drawbacks with respect to differentiation yields, time and animal consumption, storage life of progenitor cells or the limited potential for genetic manipulation of osteoclast precursors. In the present study, we therefore established a novel protocol for the differentiation of osteoclasts from murine ER-Hoxb8-immortalized myeloid stem cells. We isolated and immortalized bone marrow cells from wild type and genetically manipulated mouse lines, optimized protocols for osteoclast differentiation and compared these cells to osteoclasts derived from conventional sources. In vitro generated ER-Hoxb8 osteoclasts displayed typical osteoclast characteristics such as multi-nucleation, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining of supernatants and cells, F-actin ring formation and bone resorption activity. Furthermore, the osteoclast differentiation time course was traced on a gene expression level. Increased expression of osteoclast-specific genes and decreased expression of stem cell marker genes during differentiation of osteoclasts from ER-Hoxb8-immortalized myeloid progenitor cells were detected by gene array and confirmed by semi-quantitative and quantitative RT-PCR approaches. In summary, we established a novel method for the quantitative production of murine bona fide osteoclasts from ER-Hoxb8 stem cells generated from wild type or genetically manipulated mouse lines. These cells represent a standardized and theoretically unlimited source for osteoclast-associated research projects.
Project description:Osteoclastogenesis is induced by the stimulation of RANKL. In the early stage of osteoclast differentiation, the osteoclast progenitor cells are primed by M-CSF, following a tightly controlled genetic program where specific sets of genes are up-regulated by RANKL. Some of them, for instance, control differentiation, cell-cell fusion and bone resorption. We used microarrays to detail the global program of gene expression underlying osteoclastogenesis and identified various up-regulated genes during this process. Overall design: Macrophages and osteoclasts were cultured for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays. We sought to obtain homogeneous populations of macrophages and osteoclasts in order to increase the temporal resolution of expression profiles. To that end, mouse bone marrow cells were cultured in the presence of M-CSF for three days and harvested as macrophage and oseteoclast common progenitor cells. Then common progenitor cells were further cultured in the presence of M-CSF alone for macrophages and M-CSF plus RANKL for osteoclasts, respectively.
Project description:Osteoclastogenesis is induced by the stimulation of RANKL. In the early stage of osteoclast differentiation, the osteoclast progenitor cells are primed by M-CSF, following a tightly controlled genetic program where specific sets of genes are up-regulated by RANKL. Some of them, for instance, control differentiation, cell-cell fusion and bone resorption. We used microarrays to detail the global program of gene expression underlying osteoclastogenesis and identified various up-regulated genes during this process. Macrophages and osteoclasts were cultured for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays. We sought to obtain homogeneous populations of macrophages and osteoclasts in order to increase the temporal resolution of expression profiles. To that end, mouse bone marrow cells were cultured in the presence of M-CSF for three days and harvested as macrophage and oseteoclast common progenitor cells. Then common progenitor cells were further cultured in the presence of M-CSF alone for macrophages and M-CSF plus RANKL for osteoclasts, respectively.
Project description:Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage that degrade bone. Here, we used lineage tracing studies-labelling cells expressing Cx3cr1, Csf1r or Flt3-to identify the precursors of osteoclasts in mice. We identified an erythromyeloid progenitor (EMP)-derived osteoclast precursor population. Yolk-sac macrophages of EMP origin produced neonatal osteoclasts that can create a space for postnatal bone marrow haematopoiesis. Furthermore, EMPs gave rise to long-lasting osteoclast precursors that contributed to postnatal bone remodelling in both physiological and pathological settings. Our single-cell RNA-sequencing data showed that EMP-derived osteoclast precursors arose independently of the haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) lineage and the data from fate tracking of EMP and HSC lineages indicated the possibility of cell-cell fusion between these two lineages. Cx3cr1+ yolk-sac macrophage descendants resided in the adult spleen, and parabiosis experiments showed that these cells migrated through the bloodstream to the remodelled bone after injury.
Project description:Myonectin is a myokine, which is involved in the pathophysiology of diabetes and obesity, and various myokines are involved in the interactions between skeletal muscle and bone. However, roles of myonectin in bone have still remained unknown. We therefore examined the effects of myonectin on mouse osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation in vitro. Myonectin significantly suppressed the mRNA levels of osteogenic genes and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in mouse osteoblasts. As for osteoclasts, myonectin significantly suppressed osteoclast formation as well as the mRNA levels of osteoclast-related genes enhanced by receptor activator nuclear factor ?B ligand (RANKL) from mouse monocytic RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, myonectin significantly suppressed osteoclast formation from mouse bone marrow cells in the presence of macrophage-colony stimulating factor and RANKL. On the other hand, myonectin significantly suppressed RANKL-induced oxygen consumption rate and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator-1? mRNA levels in RAW264.7 cells, although myonectin did not affect these mitochondrial biogenesis parameters in mouse osteoblasts. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that myonectin suppresses the differentiation and ALP activity in mouse osteoblasts. Moreover, myonectin suppressed osteoclast differentiation from mouse bone marrow and RAW264.7 cells partly through an inhibition of mitochondrial biogenesis.
Project description:Sinomenine (SIN) is an alkaloid found in the roots and stems of Sinomenium acutum, which has been used to treat rheumatic arthritis in China and Japan. In this study we investigated the effects of SIN on osteoclast survival in vitro and the mechanisms of the actions.Mature osteoclasts were differentiated from murine monocyte/macrophage cell line RAW264.7 through incubation in the presence of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL, 100 ng/mL) for 4 d. The cell viability was detected using the CCK-8 method. The survival and actin ring construction of the osteoclasts were scored using TRACP staining and phalloidin-FITC staining, respectively. The apoptosis of the osteoclasts was detected by DNA fragmentation and Hoechst 33258 staining, and the cell necrosis was indicated by LDH activity. The activation of caspase-3 in osteoclasts was measured using Western blotting and the caspase-3 activity colorimetric method.SIN (0.25-2 mmol/L) inhibited the viability of mature osteoclasts in dose-dependent and time-dependent manners, but did not affect that of RAW264.7 cells. Consistently, SIN dose-dependently suppressed the survival of mature osteoclasts. The formation of actin ring, a marker associated with actively resorbing osteoclasts, was also impaired by the alkaloid. SIN (0.5 mmol/L) induced the apoptosis of mature osteoclasts, which was significantly attenuated in the presence of the caspase-3 inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CHO. SIN increased the cleavage of caspase-3 in mature osteoclasts in dose-dependent and time-dependent manners. Furthermore, SIN dose-dependently enhanced caspase-3 activity, which was blocked in the presence of Ac-DEVD-CHO.Sinomenine inhibits osteoclast survival in vitro through caspase-3-mediated apoptosis, thus it is a potential agent for treating excessive bone resorption diseases.