Gene Transcription Profiles during Development of Mucosal Immunity
ABSTRACT: Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infection is a major chicken viral respiratory disease that causes significant economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. The local mucosal immune response plays a vital role against the infection of this respiratory virus. Previous studies have indicated that a variety of innate immunity and a Th1 based adaptive immunity are activated in the host’s early defense (3 days post inoculation, dpi) against IBV invasion and they are responsible for the rapid clearance of virus from the local infection. In the present study, we propose to use IBV as a model system to uncover the molecular mechanism of mucosal immunity development by characterizing the kinetics of the local gene transcription profiles in trachea tissues after administration with an attenuated IBV strain (IBV-Mass). More specifically, immune-related gene transcription profiles in trachea at 1, 3, 5, 8, 12 and 21 days after the primary immunization and at 1 and 2 days after a second immunization were monitored using chicken 13K cDNA Microarray. Keywords: time course, cDNA 13k chicken array from FHCRC, IBV-chicken model Overall design: The goal of the study was to uncover the molecular mechanism of mucosal immunity development using avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) as a model system. To achieve this goal, we monitored the kinetics of local gene transcription profiles in trachea tissues after administration of animals with an attenuated IBV strain (IBV-Mass) using chicken 13K cDNA Microarray. More specifically, immune-related gene transcription profiles in trachea at 1, 3, 5, 8, 12 and 21 days after the primary immunization and at 1 and 2 days after a second immunization were characterized. There are total 9 groups including 8 time points for vaccinated groups and 1 pooled age-matched control group. RNAs from each group were used to compare with RNAs from other four groups as determined by the loop-design. Four different RNA samples at each time point were used for hybridization with the respective four other groups. The use of loop-design allows the direct comparisons between the 9 groups, which would enhance the statistical power and lower the variation. This design is preferred over other methods when the goal of the study is to uncover the kinetics of gene transcription profiles.
Project description:To understand the mechanistic basis of local innate and adaptive immunity against infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) at the molecular level, we examined the gene transcription profile of tracheal epithelial layers at 3 days after infection of chickens with an attenuated IBV-Massachusetts strain. Keywords: Disease State Analysis, Early mucosal immune response, FHCRC 13k chicken array Overall design: For the DNA microarray experiment, total RNA was reverse transcribed and labeled with Cy3 and Cy5 fluorescent dyes and hybridized to the chicken 13K cDNA microarray (FHCRC, Seattle, WA) which contains 13,000 genes derived from both embryonic and adult chicken tissues including immune genes. The experiment was repeated four times using swapped Cy3 or Cy5 dye labeling.
Project description:Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), is a coronavirus which infects chickens (Gallus gallus), and is one of the foremost causes of economic loss within the poultry industry, affecting the performance of both meat-type and egg-laying birds. The virus replicates not only in the epithelium of upper and lower respiratory tract tissues, but also in many tissues along the alimentary tract and elsewhere e.g. kidney, oviduct and testes. It can be detected in both respiratory and faecal material. There is increasing evidence that IBV can infect species of bird other than the chicken. Interestingly breeds of chicken vary with respect to the severity of infection with IBV, which may be related to the immune response (Cavanagh, 2006). Here we examine differential expression of genes in the trachea of susceptible and resistant birds, in order to identify genes which may be involved in resistance to IBV.
Project description:Ribosome profiling (Ribo-Seq) (maps positions of translating ribosomes on the transcriptome) and RNA-Seq (quantifies the transcriptome) analysis of chicken (Gallus gallus) cells infected with Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV) strains Beaudette and M41.
Project description:Infectious bronchitis is a highly contagious respiratory disease of poultry caused by the coronavius infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Until recently is was thought that coronavirus virions were composed of the structural proteins nucleocapsid, envelope, spike and membrane proteins, but investigations of TGEV and SARS-CoV have shown the proteome of coronavirus virions also includes viral non-structural and group specific proteins as well as host cell proteins. To study the proteome of IBV virions, virus was grown in embryonated chicken eggs and purified by sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation. Purified virus was analysed using sensitive gel-free proteomic techniques to determine the proteome of IBV. Analysis of three preparations of purified IBV yielded a list of 39 proteins commonly associated with the IBV virion. Three of these proteins were the viral structural proteins spike, membrane and nucleocapsid, but none of the viral non-strucutral or groups specific proteins could be identified. The other 35 proteins commonly associated to the IBV virion were all found to be host cell proteins. These proteins were classified into 12 categories using pantherdb (pantherdb.org). These proteins were involved in a diverse range of functions such as cytoskeletal proteins, nucleic acid binding proteins and chaperone proteins. Some of these proteins were unique to this study, whilst others were found to be orthologous to proteins identified in the SARS-CoV protein, and indeed some were also identified in association with virions from a number of other RNA and DNA viruses.
Project description:Leber2015 - Mucosal immunity and gut
microbiome interaction during C. difficile infection
This model is described in the article:
Systems Modeling of
Interactions between Mucosal Immunity and the Gut Microbiome
during Clostridium difficile Infection.
Leber A, Viladomiu M, Hontecillas R,
Abedi V, Philipson C, Hoops S, Howard B, Bassaganya-Riera
PLoS ONE 2015; 10(7): e0134849
Clostridium difficile infections are associated with the use
of broad-spectrum antibiotics and result in an exuberant
inflammatory response, leading to nosocomial diarrhea, colitis
and even death. To better understand the dynamics of mucosal
immunity during C. difficile infection from initiation through
expansion to resolution, we built a computational model of the
mucosal immune response to the bacterium. The model was
calibrated using data from a mouse model of C. difficile
infection. The model demonstrates a crucial role of T helper 17
(Th17) effector responses in the colonic lamina propria and
luminal commensal bacteria populations in the clearance of C.
difficile and colonic pathology, whereas regulatory T (Treg)
cells responses are associated with the recovery phase. In
addition, the production of anti-microbial peptides by inflamed
epithelial cells and activated neutrophils in response to C.
difficile infection inhibit the re-growth of beneficial
commensal bacterial species. Computational simulations suggest
that the removal of neutrophil and epithelial cell derived
anti-microbial inhibitions, separately and together, on
commensal bacterial regrowth promote recovery and minimize
colonic inflammatory pathology. Simulation results predict a
decrease in colonic inflammatory markers, such as neutrophilic
influx and Th17 cells in the colonic lamina propria, and length
of infection with accelerated commensal bacteria re-growth
through altered anti-microbial inhibition. Computational
modeling provides novel insights on the therapeutic value of
repopulating the colonic microbiome and inducing regulatory
mucosal immune responses during C. difficile infection. Thus,
modeling mucosal immunity-gut microbiota interactions has the
potential to guide the development of targeted fecal
transplantation therapies in the context of precision medicine
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Project description:Background: Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is an acute and highly contagious disease of the upper-respiratory tract caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the interaction between innate and adaptive immune responses to IBV infection is a crucial element for further improvements in strategies to control IB. To this end, two chicken lines, selected for high and low serum concentration of mannose-binding lectin (MBL), a soluble pattern recognition receptor, were studied. In total, 32 birds from each line (designated L10H for high and L10L for low MBL serum concentration, respectively) were used. Sixteen birds from each line were infected with IBV at 3 weeks of age and sixteen birds were left uninfected. Eight uninfected and eight infected birds from each line were euthanized at 1 and 3 weeks post infection. RNA sequencing was performed on spleen samples from all 64 birds used in the experiment. Differential gene expression analysis was performed for four comparisons: L10L line versus L10H line for uninfected birds at weeks 1 and 3, respectively, and L10L line versus L10H line for infected birds at weeks 1 and 3, respectively. Functional analysis based on the differentially expressed genes was performed using Gene Ontology (GO) Immune System Process terms specific for Gallus gallus. Results: Comparing uninfected L10H and L10L birds, we identified 1698 and 1424 differentially expressed (DE) genes at weeks 1 and 3, respectively. For the IBV-infected birds, 1934 and 866 DE genes were identified between the two lines at weeks 1 and 3, respectively. In both cases DE genes had FDR-adjusted p-value <0.05. The two most enriched GO terms emerging from the comparison of uninfected birds between the two lines were “Lymphocyte activation involved in immune response” (GO:0002285) and “Somatic recombination of immunoglobulin genes involved in immune response” (GO:0002204) at weeks 1 and 3, respectively. When comparing IBV-infected birds between the two lines, the most enriched GO terms were “Alpha-beta T cell activation” (GO:0046631) and “Positive regulation of leukocyte activation” (GO:0002696) at weeks 1 and 3, respectively. Conclusion: Healthy birds from the two lines showed significant differences in expression profiles for subsets of both adaptive and innate immunity-related genes, whereas comparison of the IBV-infected birds from the two lines showed differences in expression of immunity-related genes involved in T cell activation and proliferation. The observed transcriptome differences between the two lines indicate that selection for MBL had a much wider effect than solely on serum MBL concentration, and in addition influenced the innate and adaptive immune responses. Future research will focus on identifying signatures of selection in order to further understand molecular pathways be responsible for differences between the two lines as well as for efficient IBV immune protection. Overall design: For this study 64 spleen samples were harvested and used for RNA sequencing from birds originating from the two Aarhus University inbred lines, L10H and L10L. The birds were infected at age of 3 weeks and they were sacrificed 1 and 3 weeks post infection by cervical dislocation and spleen samples were collected. At both time points, eight samples from the two lines, L10H and line L10L, from each group (uninfected and infected) were collected.
Project description:Background： Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was an major respiratory disease-causing agents that lead to significant losses in birds. Dendritic cells (DCs), an major antigen-presenting cells, influence viruses pathogenicity as well as host immune response. Expression of host non-coding mRNA changes markedly during infectious bronchitis virus (IBV ) infection of avian, but their role in regulating host immune function to defend IBV infection has not been explored. Here, microarray, including mRNAs, miRNAs and lncRNAs, were analysed to better understand the interaction between IBV and avian DCs. Results：Firstly, we found that IBV infection can effectively induce avian DCs to become mature. Interestingly, inactivated IBV possess high ability in inducing DC maturation and activating lymphocytes than that in actived IBV stimulated group. Then, result identified that IBV infection induced 1093 upregulated and 845 downregulated mRNAs in avian DCs. Analysis of Gene Ontology suggested that celluar macromolecule and protein location (GO-BP), as well as transcription factor binding (GO-MF) were abundance in IBV infected group. Whilst, pathway analyses suggested that oxidative phosphorylation and T cell receptor signalling pathways might activated in IBV group. Moreover, microRNA (miRNA) and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) alterations in IBV-stimulated avian DCs were observed. A total of 19 significantly altered (7 up and 12 down) miRNAs and 101 (75 up and 26 down) lncRNAs were identified in IBV-stimulated DCs. Furtherly insight analyses not only gain that regulation of actin cytoskeleton and MAPK signal pathway were contributed to IBV stimulated miRNAs target genes, but also build an regulatory networks based on co-expressed lncRNA and mRNA. Finally, our study identified 2 TF-miRNA (CEBPA-miR1772 and CEBPA-miR21), which we based on to constructed 53 transcription factor (TF)–miRNA–mRNA interactions involving 1 TF, 2 miRNAs, and 53 mRNAs in IBV-stimulated avian DCs. Overall design: In the study presented here,cultured avian BMDCs were randomly divided into control group and IBV stimulated group. Each group consisted of three wells of BMDCs from three chickens.
Project description:Sylvia Reemers: age-related chicken in vivo infection: timecourse, 1wk ni= 1-week-old non infected, 1wk i= 1-week-old infected, 4wk ni= 4-week-old non infected, 4wk i= 4-week-old infected, Tissue type= Trachea. The aim of this study was to determine differences in host responses to avian influenza virus infection at host transcriptional level between 1- and 4-week-old birds.