Nasal Mucosal miRNA expression in RSV positive infants with mild or severe disease, compared to healthy controls
ABSTRACT: The aim of this investigation was two-fold: i) to describe miRNAs involved in the immune response to Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in a clinical setting in order to inform further research of immune system regulation by miRNAs in RSV or other infections; ii) to discover differences in miRNA expression between disease severity groups. We have therefore profiled miRNA in cytology brushings of the nasal mucosa in infants with RSV disease, comparing them to healthy infants. miRNA microarray identified 26 differentially regulated miRNA which were subsequently analyzed by RT-qPCR. Overall design: Nasal mucosal samples were taken from RSV positive infants using cytology brushes on admission to hospital after aspiration of nasal secretions. Samples were taken from healthy controls without clinical symptoms of respiratory infection using the same procedure.
INSTRUMENT(S): Agilent-029297 Human miRNA Microarray (probe name version)
Project description:Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is a common cause of pediatric hospitalization. microRNA, key regulators of the immune system, have not previously been investigated in respiratory specimens during viral infection. We investigated microRNA expression in the nasal mucosa of 42 RSV-positive infants, also comparing microRNA expression between disease severity subgroups.Nasal mucosa cytology specimens were collected from RSV-positive infants and healthy controls. 32 microRNA were selected by microarray for qPCR verification in 19 control, 16 mild, 7 moderate and 19 severe disease samples.Compared to healthy controls, RSV-positive infants downregulated miR-34b, miR-34c, miR-125b, miR-29c, mir125a, miR-429 and miR-27b and upregulated miR-155, miR-31, miR-203a, miR-16 and let-7d. On disease subgroups analysis, miR-125a and miR-429 were downregulated in mild disease (p=0.03 and 0.02, respectively), but not in severe disease (p=0.3 and 0.3).microRNA expression in nasal epithelium cytology brushings of RSV-positive infants shows a distinct profile of immune-associated miRNA. miR-125a has important functions within NF-?B signaling and macrophage function. The lack of downregulation of miR-125a and miR-429 in severe disease may help explain differences in disease manifestations on infection with RSV.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in children under 1 y of age in the USA. The host immune response is believed to contribute to RSV-induced disease. We hypothesize that severe RSV infection in infants is mediated by insufficient regulation of the host immune response of regulatory T cells (Tregs) resulting in immunopathology. METHODS:Blood and nasal aspirates from 23 RSV-infected and 17 control infants under 1 y of age were collected. Treg frequencies were determined by flow cytometry from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Analysis of 24 cytokines was measured by multiplex assay on nasal aspirates. RESULTS:We demonstrate that the frequency of activated Tregs is significantly reduced in the peripheral blood of RSV-infected infants compared with age-matched controls. Surprisingly, T helper (Th)17 related cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-17A, and IL-23 were associated with a reduction in clinical symptoms of respiratory distress. In addition, the amount of IL-33 protein in nasal washes, a cytokine important in maintaining Treg homeostasis in mucosal tissues, was decreased in RSV-infected children. CONCLUSION:These results suggest that decreased Treg numbers and an inability to properly control the host inflammatory response results in severe RSV infection.
Project description:BackgroundAlthough rhinovirus infection is associated with increased risks of acute and chronic respiratory outcomes during childhood compared with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We aimed to determine the differences in nasal airway microRNA profiles and their downstream effects between infants with rhinovirus and RSV bronchiolitis.MethodsAs part of a multicenter cohort study of infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis, we examined nasal samples obtained from 16 infants with rhinovirus and 16 infants with RSV. We tested nasal airway samples using microarrays to profile global microRNA expression and determine the predicted regulation of targeted transcripts. We also measured gene expression and cytokines for NF?B pathway components.ResultsBetween the virus groups, 386 microRNAs were differentially expressed (false discovery rate (FDR)<0.05). In infants with rhinovirus, the NF?B pathway was highly ranked as a predicted target for these differentially expressed microRNAs compared with RSV. Pathway analysis using measured mRNA expression data validated that rhinovirus infection had upregulation of NF?B family (RelA and NF?B2) and downregulation of inhibitor ?B family. Infants with rhinovirus had higher levels of NF?B-induced type-2 cytokines (IL-10 and IL-13; FDR<0.01).ConclusionIn infants with bronchiolitis, rhinovirus and RSV infections had different nasal airway microRNA profiles associated with NF?B signaling.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important viral cause of pneumonia in children. RSV-specific antibody (ab) protects infants from disease, and may be increased by a potential strategy of maternal RSV vaccination. OBJECTIVES:To describe the effect of RSV antibody on RSV infection risk in infants in a resource-limited setting. STUDY DESIGN:In a prospective study in Nepal, women were enrolled during pregnancy and maternal and infant cord blood were collected at birth. Weekly surveillance for respiratory illness was performed from birth to 180days. Nasal swabs were tested for RSV by PCR and serum was tested using an RSV antibody microneutralization assay. Antibody concentrations at time of RSV infection were estimated based on a decay rate of 0.026 log2/day. RESULTS:Cord:maternal RSV antibody transfer ratio was 1.03 (0.88-1.19), with RSV antibody concentration of log2 11.3 and log2 11.7 in 310 paired maternal and infant samples, respectively. Cord blood RSV antibody was log2 12.1 versus 11.6 in those with or without RSV infection (P=0.86). Among infants with RSV infection, estimated RSV antibody concentration at time of infection did not differ in infants with upper (n=8; log2 10.7) versus lower respiratory tract infection (n=21; log2 9.8; P=0.37). Cord blood RSV antibody concentrations did not correlate with age at primary RSV infection (R=0.11; P=0.57). CONCLUSIONS:Transplacental transfer of RSV antibody from mother to the fetus was highly efficient in mother-infant pairs in rural Nepal, though higher antibody concentrations were not protective against earlier or more severe RSV infection in infants.
Project description:Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants. Effective treatment for RSV infection is a significant unmet medical need. While new RSV therapeutics are now in development, there are very few animal models that mimic the pathogenesis of human RSV, making it difficult to evaluate new disease interventions. Experimental infection of Holstein calves with bovine RSV (bRSV) causes a severe respiratory infection that is similar to human RSV infection, providing a relevant model for testing novel therapeutic agents. In this model, viral load is readily detected in nasal secretions by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and cumulative symptom scoring together with histopathology evaluations of infected tissue allow for the assessment of disease severity. The bovine RSV model was used to evaluate the antiviral activity of an RSV fusion inhibitor, GS1, which blocks virus entry by inhibiting the fusion of the viral envelope with the host cell membrane. The efficacy of GS1, a close structural analog of GS-5806 that is being developed to treat RSV infection in humans was evaluated in two randomized, blind, placebo-controlled studies in bRSV-infected calves. Intravenous administration of GS1 at 4 mg/kg of body weight/day for 7 days starting 24 h or 72 h postinoculation provided clear therapeutic benefit by reducing the viral load, disease symptom score, respiration rate, and lung pathology associated with bRSV infection. These data support the use of the bovine RSV model for evaluation of experimental therapeutics for treatment of RSV.
Project description:Bovine respiratory syncytial virus, a major cause of respiratory disease in calves, is closely related to human RSV, a leading cause of respiratory disease in infants. Recently, promising human RSV-vaccine candidates have been engineered that stabilize the metastable fusion (F) glycoprotein in its prefusion state; however, the absence of a relevant animal model for human RSV has complicated assessment of these vaccine candidates. Here, we use a combination of structure-based design, antigenic characterization, and X-ray crystallography to translate human RSV F stabilization into the bovine context. A "DS2" version of bovine respiratory syncytial virus F with subunits covalently fused, fusion peptide removed, and pre-fusion conformation stabilized by cavity-filling mutations and intra- and inter-protomer disulfides was recognized by pre-fusion-specific antibodies, AM14, D25, and MPE8, and elicited bovine respiratory syncytial virus-neutralizing titers in calves >100-fold higher than those elicited by post-fusion F. When challenged with a heterologous bovine respiratory syncytial virus, virus was not detected in nasal secretions nor in respiratory tract samples of DS2-immunized calves; by contrast bovine respiratory syncytial virus was detected in all post-fusion- and placebo-immunized calves. Our results demonstrate proof-of-concept that DS2-stabilized RSV F immunogens can induce highly protective immunity from RSV in a native host with implications for the efficacy of prefusion-stabilized F vaccines in humans and for the prevention of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in calves.
Project description:Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause for respiratory illness that requires hospitalization in infancy. High levels of maternal antibodies can protect against RSV infection. However, RSV-infected infants can suffer from severe disease symptoms even in the presence of high levels of RSV-specific antibodies. This study analyzes several serological characteristics to explore potential deficiencies or surpluses of antibodies that could relate to severe disease symptoms. We compare serum antibodies from hospitalized patients who suffered severe symptoms as well as uninfected infants. Disease severity markers were oxygen therapy, tachypnea, oxygen saturation, admission to the intensive care unit and duration of hospitalization. Antibodies against RSV G protein and a prefusion F epitope correlated with in vitro neutralization. Avidity of RSV-specific IgG antibodies was lower in RSV-infected infants compared to uninfected controls. Severe disease symptoms were unrelated to RSV-specific IgG antibody titers, avidity of RSV-IgG, virus neutralization capacity or titers against pre- and postfusion F or G protein ectodomains and the prefusion F antigenic site Ø. In conclusion, the detailed serological characterization did not indicate dysfunctional or epitope-skewed composition of serum antibodies in hospitalized RSV-infected infants suffering from severe disease symptoms. It remains unclear, whether specific antibody fractions could diminish disease symptoms.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a global cause of severe respiratory morbidity and mortality in infants. While preventive and therapeutic interventions are being developed, including antivirals, vaccines and monoclonal antibodies, little is known about the global molecular epidemiology of RSV. INFORM is a prospective, multicenter, global clinical study performed by ReSViNET to investigate the worldwide molecular diversity of RSV isolates collected from children less than 5?years of age. METHODS:The INFORM study is performed in 17 countries spanning all inhabited continents and will provide insight into the molecular epidemiology of circulating RSV strains worldwide. Sequencing of >?4000 RSV-positive respiratory samples is planned to detect temporal and geographical molecular patterns on a molecular level over five consecutive years. Additionally, RSV will be cultured from a subset of samples to study the functional implications of specific mutations in the viral genome including viral fitness and susceptibility to different monoclonal antibodies. DISCUSSION:The sequencing and functional results will be used to investigate susceptibility and resistance to novel RSV preventive or therapeutic interventions. Finally, a repository of globally collected RSV strains and a database of RSV sequences will be created.
Project description:RSV is the leading cause of lower respiratory-tract infections in infants and therefore demands in-depth epidemiological characterization. We investigated here the distribution of RSV types in Israel between the years 2005-2012. Clinical samples were collected from 11,018 patients hospitalized due to respiratory illnesses and were evaluated for the presence of various respiratory viruses, including RSV A and RSV B. Until 2008, each year was characterized by the presence of one dominant type of RSV. However, from 2008, both RSV A and B types were detected at significant levels, particularly among infants aged 0-2 years. Furthermore, significant changes in the RSV A and RSV B subtypes circulating in Israel since 2008 were observed. Finally, we demonstrate that, irrespectively of the changes observed in RSV epidemiology, when the pandemic H1N1pdm09 influenza virus appeared in 2009, RSV infections were delayed and were detected when infection with H1N1pdm09 had declined.
Project description:Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common respiratory pathogen in infants and young children worldwide. Lower respiratory tract infection due to RSV is one of the most common causes of hospitalization for infants, especially those born premature or with chronic lung or heart disease. Furthermore, RSV infection is an important cause of morbidity in adults, particularly in the elderly and immunocompromised individuals. The acute phase of this infection is often followed by episodes of wheezing that recur for months or years and usually lead to a physician diagnosis of asthma. RSV was discovered more than 50 years ago, and despite extensive research to identify pharmacological therapies, the most effective management of this infection remains supportive care. The trial of a formalin-inactivated RSV vaccine in the 1960s resulted in priming the severe illness upon natural infection. Currently, Palivizumab is the only available option for RSV prophylaxis, and because of restricted clinical benefits and high costs, it has been limited to a group of high-risk infants. There are several ongoing trials in preclinical, Phase-I, Phase-II, or Phase-III clinical stages for RSV vaccine development based on various strategies. Here we review the existing available prophylactic options, the current stages of RSV vaccine clinical trials, different strategies, and major hurdles in the development of an effective RSV vaccine.