Transcriptomics,Genomics

Dataset Information

44

A highly conserved bacterial effector localizes to the host plasma membrane and downregulates the expression of the NDR/HIN1-like 13 (NHL13) gene requiried for antibacterial immunity in Arabidopsis


ABSTRACT: Many bacterial pathogens of plants and humans cause infections by delivering effector proteins into host cells. Elucidation of how pathogen effector proteins function not only is critical for understanding bacterial pathogenesis, but also provides an important tool in discovering the functions of host genes. In this study, we characterized the Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 effector AvrE, the founding member of a widely distributed, yet functionally enigmatic, bacterial effector family. We show that AvrE is localized in the plasma membrane (PM) and PM-associated vesicle-like structures in the plant cell. AvrE contains two physically interacting domains, and the N terminal portion contains a plasma membrane localization signal. Genome-wide microarray analysis indicates that AvrE, as well as a functionally-redundant effector HopM1, down-regulates the expression of the NDR1/HIN1-Like 13 gene in Arabidopsis. Mutational analysis shows that NHL13 is required for plant immunity, as the nhl13 mutant plant displayed enhanced disease susceptibility. Our results defined the site of action of one of the most important bacterial virulence proteins in plants and the anti-bacterial immunity function of the NHL13 gene. To determine whether the type III effector AvrE’s virulence function is reflected by a possibly unique host gene expression signature, we conducted a genome-wide microarray analysis of Arabidopsis during Pst DC3000 infection. Because AvrE and another effector, HopM1, in Pst DC3000 are functionally redundant, the following bacterial strains were used to discern the shared and specific contributions of AvrE and HopM1 to host gene expression: Pst DC3000 (avrE+, hopM1+), the avrE mutant (hopM1+), the hopM1 mutant (avrE+) and the avrE hopM1 double mutant. Overall design: Leaves of 5-week-old Arabidopsis Col-0 plants were vacuum-infiltrated with Pst DC3000, the avrE mutant, the hopM1 mutant or the avrE hopM1 double mutant at 1x108 cfu/ml. Tissue samples were collected by snap-freezing in liquid nitrogen 7 h after bacterial infiltration and RNA was extracted using RNeasy plant mini kits (Qiagen). The Gene Chip Arabidopsis ATH1 genome array (Affymetrix) was used for microarray analysis in the Research Technology Support Facility at Michigan State University.

INSTRUMENT(S): [ATH1-121501] Affymetrix Arabidopsis ATH1 Genome Array

SUBMITTER: Sheng Yang He  

PROVIDER: GSE67179 | GEO | 2015-10-06

SECONDARY ACCESSION(S): PRJNA279184

REPOSITORIES: GEO

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Publications

Pseudomonas syringae Effector Avirulence Protein E Localizes to the Host Plasma Membrane and Down-Regulates the Expression of the NONRACE-SPECIFIC DISEASE RESISTANCE1/HARPIN-INDUCED1-LIKE13 Gene Required for Antibacterial Immunity in Arabidopsis.

Xin Xiu-Fang XF   Nomura Kinya K   Ding Xinhua X   Chen Xujun X   Wang Kun K   Aung Kyaw K   Uribe Francisco F   Rosa Bruce B   Yao Jian J   Chen Jin J   He Sheng Yang SY  

Plant physiology 20150723 1


Many bacterial pathogens of plants and animals deliver effector proteins into host cells to promote infection. Elucidation of how pathogen effector proteins function not only is critical for understanding bacterial pathogenesis but also provides a useful tool in discovering the functions of host genes. In this study, we characterized the Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 effector protein Avirulence Protein E (AvrE), the founding member of a widely distributed, yet functionally enigmatic, bac  ...[more]

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