Impact of Vitamine D depletion and repletion on rat skeletal muscle
ABSTRACT: 15 months Old Wistar Rat were submitted to 3 differents diets: control, without vitamin D and without vitamin D followed by a supplementation in vitamin D. At sacrifice, skeletal muscle were recovered, quickly frozen in liquid nitrogen. RNA profiling by microarrays was performed. Overall design: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of vitamin D deficiency on muscle mitochondrial oxidative function in old sarcopenic rats. We hypothesized that suboptimal mitochondrial function contributes to the myopathy in vitamin D-deficient older individuals. 15-month-old Wistar rats were fed a vitamin D-deficient diet (VDD group) or a control diet (1000UI/Kg vit D) for 9 months (n=7-9/group) or a vitamin D-deficient diet followed by supplementation. Our results indicated a link between vitamin D status, muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacities, whole-body energy expenditure and change in body composition in old rats.
INSTRUMENT(S): Agilent-028282 Whole Rat Genome Microarray 4x44K v3 (Probe Name version)
Project description:Controversy exists as to whether supplementation with the antioxidants vitamin E and vitamin C blocks adaptation to exercise. Exercise is a first-line means to treat obesity and its complications. While diet-induced obesity alters mitochondrial function and induces insulin resistance (IR), no data exist as to whether supplementation with vitamin E and vitamin C modify responses to exercise in pre-existing obesity. We tested the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with vitamin E (0.4 g ?-tocopherol acetate/kg) and vitamin C (0.5 g/kg) blocks exercise-induced improvements on IR and mitochondrial content in obese rats maintained on a high-fat (45% fat energy (en)) diet. Diet-induced obese, sedentary rats had a 2-fold higher homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and larger insulin area under the curve following glucose tolerances test than rats fed a low-fat (10% fat en) diet. Exercising (12 weeks at 5 times per week in a motorized wheel) of obese rats normalized IR indices, an effect not modified by vitamin E and vitamin C. Vitamin E and vitamin C supplementation with exercise elevated mtDNA content in adipose and skeletal muscle to a greater extent (20%) than exercise alone in a depot-specific manner. On the other hand, vitamin C and vitamin E decreased exercise-induced increases in mitochondrial protein content for complex I (40%) and nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (35%) in a muscle-dependent manner. These data indicate that vitamin E and vitamin C supplementation in obese rodents does not modify exercise-induced improvements in insulin sensitivity but that changes in mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial protein expression may be modified by antioxidant supplementation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The concept of sarcopenic obesity refers to low muscle mass coupled with high adiposity in older adults. Sarcopenic obesity is a new medical challenge that imposes tremendous financial burdens on healthcare authorities worldwide. This study investigated the effects of resveratrol on high-fat diet-induced sarcopenic obesity in aged rats and palmitate acid-induced muscle atrophy in L6 myotubes and explored the underlying mechanisms. RESULTS:In vivo, resveratrol prevented muscle loss and myofiber size decrease, improved grip strength and abolished excessive fat accumulation. In vitro, resveratrol inhibited the palmitate acid-mediated reductions in myosin heavy chain content and myotube diameter. Moreover, resveratrol ameliorated mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, leading to an improvement in protein metabolism and contributing to the prevention of muscle atrophy. Furthermore, the protective effects of resveratrol on mitochondrial function, oxidative stress and muscle atrophy were abolished by PKA siRNA, LKB1 siRNA and AMPK siRNA transfection in vitro. CONCLUSIONS:Resveratrol prevented high-fat diet-induced muscle atrophy in aged rats by reversing mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, which was partially mediated by the PKA/LKB1/AMPK pathway. These findings indicate that resveratrol might have potential uses for the prevention and treatment of sarcopenic obesity.
Project description:Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is a global health problem, which can lead to several pathophysiological consequences including cardiovascular diseases. Its impact on the cerebrovascular system is not well understood. The goal of the present work was to examine the effects of VDD on the morphological, biomechanical and functional properties of cerebral arterioles.Four-week-old male Wistar rats (n = 11 per group) were either fed with vitamin D deficient diet or received conventional rat chow with per os vitamin D supplementation. Cardiovascular parameters and hormone levels (testosterone, androstenedione, progesterone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D) were measured during the study. After 8 weeks of treatment anterior cerebral artery segments were prepared and their morphological, biomechanical and functional properties were examined using pressure microangiometry. Resorcin-fuchsin and smooth muscle actin staining were used to detect elastic fiber density and smooth muscle cell counts in the vessel wall, respectively. Sections were immunostained for eNOS and COX-2 as well.VDD markedly increased the wall thickness, the wall-to-lumen ratio and the wall cross-sectional area of arterioles as well as the number of smooth muscle cells in the tunica media. As a consequence, tangential wall stress was significantly lower in the VDD group. In addition, VDD increased the myogenic as well as the uridine 5'-triphosphate-induced tone and impaired bradykinin-induced relaxation. Decreased eNOS and increased COX-2 expression were also observed in the endothelium of VDD animals.VDD causes inward hypertrophic remodeling due to vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and enhances the vessel tone probably because of increased vasoconstrictor prostanoid levels in young adult rats. In addition, the decreased eNOS expression results in endothelial dysfunction. These morphological and functional alterations can potentially compromise the cerebral circulation and lead to cerebrovascular disorders in VDD.
Project description:Obesity and aging are characterized by decreased insulin sensitivity (IS) and muscle protein synthesis. Intramuscular ceramide accumulation has been implicated in insulin resistance during obesity. We aimed to measure IS, muscle ceramide level, protein synthesis, and activation of intracellular signaling pathways involved in translation initiation in male Wistar young (YR, 6-month) and old (OR, 25-month) rats receiving a low- (LFD) or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks. A corresponding cellular approach using C2C12 myotubes treated with palmitate to induce intracellular ceramide deposition was taken. A decreased ability of adipose tissue to store lipids together with a reduced adipocyte diameter and a development of fibrosis were observed in OR after the HFD. Consequently, OR fed the HFD were insulin resistant, showed a strong increase in intramuscular ceramide level and a decrease in muscle protein synthesis associated with increased eIF2? phosphorylation. The accumulation of intramuscular lipids placed a lipid burden on mitochondria and created a disconnect between metabolic and regulating pathways in skeletal muscles of OR. In C2C12 cells, palmitate-induced ceramide accumulation was associated with a decreased protein synthesis together with upregulated eIF2? phosphorylation. In conclusion, a reduced ability to expand adipose tissues was found in OR, reflecting a lower lipid buffering capacity. Muscle mitochondrial activity was affected in OR conferring a reduced ability to oxidize fatty acids entering the muscle cell. Hence, OR were more prone to ectopic muscle lipid accumulation than YR, leading to decreased muscle protein anabolism. This metabolic change is a potential therapeutic target to counter sarcopenic obesity.
Project description:Rats fed a vitamin E-depleted diet for 48 weeks had undetectable levels of vitamin E in the gastrocnemius muscle and liver, leading to elevated malondialdehyde levels in both tissues and an elevated GSH level in muscle. Skeletal-muscle mitochondria showed decreased mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) activities, whereas liver MRC activities were increased. Exposure of normal rat liver submitochondrial particles (SMPs) to an in vitro NADPH-dependent lipid peroxidation system resulted in a dose-dependent increase in lipid peroxidation and inhibition of complex I and complex IV activities. Complex I exhibited greater sensitivity to lipid peroxidation than complex IV. At low and high NADPH concentrations, the rate of lipid peroxidation and the level of enzyme inhibition were essentially the same in liver SMPs from both vitamin E-deficient and control rats, suggesting that under these conditions, the loss of vitamin E did not exacerbate the effects of either lipid peroxidation or enzyme inhibition. These results indicate that normal vitamin E levels in liver mitochondria are not required for protection against lipid peroxidation and are consistent with the normal liver mitochondrial function in vitamin E-deficient animals. This suggests other antioxidants, such as ubiquinol and GSH, may be more important in protecting liver mitochondria and MRC from lipid peroxidation.
Project description:Antioxidant (AOX) deficiencies are commonly observed in older adults and oxidative stress has been suggested to contribute to sarcopenia. Here we investigate if 1) low levels of dietary antioxidants had a negative impact on parameters of muscle mass, function and quality, and 2) to study if nutritional interventions with AOX and/or leucine-enriched whey protein could improve these muscle parameters in aged mice. 18-months-old mice were fed a casein-based antioxidant-deficient (lowox) diet or a casein-based control-diet (CTRL) for 7 months. During the last 3 months, lowox-mice were subjected to either: a) continued lowox, b) supplementation with vitamin A/E, Selenium and Zinc (AOX), c) substitution of casein with leucine-enriched whey protein (PROT) or d) a combination of both AOX and PROT (TOTAL). After 7 months lowox-mice displayed lower muscle strength and more muscle fatigue compared to CTRL. Compared to lowox-mice, PROT-mice showed improved muscle power, grip strength and less muscle fatigue. AOX-mice showed improved oxidative status, less muscle fatigue, improved grip strength and mitochondrial dynamics compared to lowox-mice. The TOTAL-mice showed the combined effects of both interventions compared to lowox-mice. In conclusion, nutritional intervention with AOX and/or leucine-enriched whey protein can play a role in improving muscle health in a AOX-deficient mouse model.
Project description:1. The liver intracellular distribution of (75)Se, (75)Se(2-) and (75)SeO(3) (2-) formed from orally administered Na(2) (75)SeO(3) was studied in rats given four different dietary treatments. 2. Subcellular fractionation was done by using sucrose density gradients in a B XIV zonal centrifuge rotor, and conditions were established so that separation of lysosomal, mitochondrial, smooth- and rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum, and soluble fractions was achieved. 3. Marker enzymes acid phosphatase, succinate-2 - p - iodophenyl - 3 - p -nitrophenyl - 5 - phenyltetrazolium reductase and glucose 6-phosphatase were used, together with electron microscopy, to establish the identity of the fractions. 4. The dietary treatments investigated were: (a) vitamin E-deficient diet for 3 months, re-fed with vitamin E during the terminal 5 days; (b) vitamin E-deficient diet; (c) adequate diet; (d) vitamin E- and selenium-deficient diet, re-fed with vitamin E during the terminal 5 days. 5. In adequately fed rats, selenide was particularly associated with the mitochondrial fractions; in vitamin E-deficient rats, little selenide was found and the buoyant density of the mitochondria was increased, whereas re-feeding with vitamin E showed a restoration of the normal pattern. In vitamin E- and selenium-deficient rats, re-fed with vitamin E, there was no tendency for selenide to be localized in the mitochondria. 6. In the microsomal regions of the gradients, adequately fed rats showed a concentration of selenide, particularly in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum fractions, and to a lesser extent in the rough endoplasmic reticulum fractions. This was not observed in vitamin E-deficient rats, and the normal pattern was restored on re-feeding with vitamin E, both in rats given the vitamin E-deficient diet and the vitamin E- and selenium-deficient diet. 7. Some selenide was also found in the soluble fractions, when vitamin E was present, and a substantial proportion of this selenide was found to pass through a dialysis membrane. 8. These results are taken to support our hypothesis that the active form of selenium may be selenide located in non-haem iron-containing proteins, and that the function of vitamin E may be to protect the selenide from oxidation.
Project description:Hydroxocobalamin (HOCbl) is the dominating Cbl form in food, whereas cyanocobalamin (CNCbl) is common in vitamin pills and oral supplements. This study compares single-dose absorption and distribution of oral HO[57Co]Cbl and CN[57Co]Cbl in Cbl-deficient and normal rats.Male Wistar rats (7 weeks) were fed a 14-day diet with (n?=?15) or without (n?=?15) Cbl. We compared the uptakes of HO[57Co]Cbl (free or bound to bovine transcobalamin) and free CN[57Co]Cbl administered by gastric gavage (n?=?5 in each diet group). Rats were sacrificed after 24 h. Blood, liver, kidney, brain, heart, spleen, intestines, skeletal muscle, 24-h urine and faeces were collected, and the content of [57Co]Cbl was measured. Endogenous Cbl in tissues and plasma was analysed by routine methods.Mean endogenous plasma-Cbl was sevenfold lower in deficient vs. normal rats (190 vs. 1330 pmol/L, p?<?0.0001). Cbl depletion increased endogenous Cbl ratios (tissue/plasma?=?k in/k out) in all organs except for the kidney, where the ratio decreased considerably. Twenty-four-hour accumulation of labelled Cbl showed that HOCbl?>?CNCbl (liver) and CNCbl?>?HOCbl (brain, muscle and plasma).The Cbl status of rats and the administered Cbl form influence 24-h Cbl accumulation in tissues and plasma.
Project description:The role of sexual dimorphic adipose tissue fat accumulation in the development of insulin resistance is well known. However, whether vitamin A status and/or its metabolic pathway display any sex- or depot (visceral/subcutaneous)-specific pattern and have a role in sexual dimorphic adipose tissue development and insulin resistance are not completely understood. Therefore, to assess this, 5 weeks old Wistar male and female rats of eight from each sex were provided either control or diabetogenic (high fat, high sucrose) diet for 26 weeks. At the end, consumption of diabetogenic diet increased the visceral fat depots (p < 0.001) in the males and subcutaneous depot (p < 0.05) in the female rats, compared to their sex-matched controls. On the other hand, it caused adipocyte hypertrophy (p < 0.05) of visceral depot (retroperitoneal) in the females and subcutaneous depot of the male rats. Although vitamin A levels displayed sex- and depot-specific increase due to the consumption of diabetogenic diet, the expression of most of its metabolic pathway genes in adipose depots remained unaltered. However, the mRNA levels of some of lipid droplet proteins (perilipins) and adipose tissue secretory proteins (interleukins, lipocalin-2) did display sexual dimorphism. Nonetheless, the long-term feeding of diabetogenic diet impaired the insulin sensitivity, thus affected glucose clearance rate and muscle glucose-uptake in both the sexes of rats. In conclusion, the chronic consumption of diabetogenic diet caused insulin resistance in the male and female rats, but did not corroborate with sexual dimorphic adipose tissue fat accumulation or its vitamin A status.
Project description:Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common liver disorder in developed countries, and its incidence is increasing in all population groups. As an antioxidant, vitamin E is effective in the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, although the mechanism is still unclear. Methionine-choline deficient Wistar rats (n = 5) used as an experimental model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease were fed a vitamin E-enriched diet (500 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. The effects were assessed by measuring lipid peroxidation, ?-tocopherol levels, and the expression of ?-tocopherol-related proteins in the liver. In vitamin E-treated methionine-choline deficient rats, lipid peroxidation was reduced, but liver histopathological changes were not improved. Hepatic ?-tocopherol levels in these rats were significantly elevated compared to normal rats treated with vitamin E. Expression of liver ?-tocopherol transfer protein in vitamin E-treated methionine-choline deficient rats was significantly repressed compared to methionine-choline deficient rats. The expression of liver cytochrome P450 4F2 and ATP-binding cassette transporter protein 1, involved in metabolism and transport of ?-tocopherol, respectively, was significantly repressed in vitamin E-treated methionine-choline deficient rats. In methionine-choline deficient rats, vitamin E treatment altered the hepatic ?-tocopherol-related protein expression, which may affect ?-tocopherol status in the liver, leading to reduced lipid peroxidation.