Project description:The development of new antimalarial compounds remains a pivotal part of the strategy for malaria elimination. Recent large-scale phenotypic screens have provided a wealth of potential starting points for hit-to-lead campaigns. One such public set is explored, employing an open source research mechanism in which all data and ideas were shared in real time, anyone was able to participate, and patents were not sought. One chemical subseries was found to exhibit oral activity but contained a labile ester that could not be replaced without loss of activity, and the original hit exhibited remarkable sensitivity to minor structural change. A second subseries displayed high potency, including activity within gametocyte and liver stage assays, but at the cost of low solubility. As an open source research project, unexplored avenues are clearly identified and may be explored further by the community; new findings may be cumulatively added to the present work.
Project description:In commercial research and development projects, public disclosure of new chemical compounds often takes place in patents. Only a small proportion of these compounds are published in journals, usually a few years after the patent. Patent authorities make available the patents but do not provide systematic continuous chemical annotations. Content databases such as Elsevier's Reaxys provide such services mostly based on manual excerptions, which are time-consuming and costly. Automatic text-mining approaches help overcome some of the limitations of the manual process. Different text-mining approaches exist to extract chemical entities from patents. The majority of them have been developed using sub-sections of patent documents and focus on mentions of compounds. Less attention has been given to relevancy of a compound in a patent. Relevancy of a compound to a patent is based on the patent's context. A relevant compound plays a major role within a patent. Identification of relevant compounds reduces the size of the extracted data and improves the usefulness of patent resources (e.g. supports identifying the main compounds). Annotators of databases like Reaxys only annotate relevant compounds. In this study, we design an automated system that extracts chemical entities from patents and classifies their relevance. The gold-standard set contained 18 789 chemical entity annotations. Of these, 10% were relevant compounds, 88% were irrelevant and 2% were equivocal. Our compound recognition system was based on proprietary tools. The performance (F-score) of the system on compound recognition was 84% on the development set and 86% on the test set. The relevancy classification system had an F-score of 86% on the development set and 82% on the test set. Our system can extract chemical compounds from patents and classify their relevance with high performance. This enables the extension of the Reaxys database by means of automation.
Project description:Bioluminescent imaging is an emerging biomedical surveillance strategy that uses external cameras to detect in vivo light generated in small animal models of human physiology or in vitro light generated in tissue culture or tissue scaffold mimics of human anatomy. The most widely utilized of reporters is the firefly luciferase (luc) gene; however, it generates light only upon addition of a chemical substrate, thus only generating intermittent single time point data snapshots. To overcome this disadvantage, we have demonstrated substrate-independent bioluminescent imaging using an optimized bacterial bioluminescence (lux) system. The lux reporter produces bioluminescence autonomously using components found naturally within the cell, thereby allowing imaging to occur continuously and in real-time over the lifetime of the host. We have validated this technology in human cells with demonstrated chemical toxicological profiling against exotoxin exposures at signal strengths comparable to existing luc systems (~1.33 × 107 photons/second). As a proof-in-principle demonstration, we have engineered breast carcinoma cells to express bioluminescence for real-time screening of endocrine disrupting chemicals and validated detection of 17?-estradiol (EC50 = ~ 10 pM). These and other applications of this new reporter technology will be discussed as potential new pathways towards improved models of target chemical bioavailability, toxicology, efficacy, and human safety.
Project description:Trend analysis techniques to detect glaucomatous progression typically assume a constant rate of change. This study uses data from the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study to assess whether this assumption decreases sensitivity to changes in progression rate, by including earlier periods of stability.Series of visual fields (mean 24 per eye) completed at 6-month intervals from participants randomized initially to observation were split into subseries before and after the initiation of treatment (the "split-point"). The mean deviation rate of change (MDR) was derived using these entire subseries, and using only the window length (W) tests nearest the split-point, for different window lengths of W tests. A generalized estimating equation model was used to detect changes in MDR occurring at the split-point.Using shortened subseries with W = 7 tests, the MDR slowed by 0.142 dB/y upon initiation of treatment (P < 0.001), and the proportion of eyes showing "rapid deterioration" (MDR <-0.5 dB/y with P < 5%) decreased from 11.8% to 6.5% (P < 0.001). Using the entire sequence, no significant change in MDR was detected (P = 0.796), and there was no change in the proportion of eyes progressing (P = 0.084). Window lengths 6 ? W ? 9 produced similar benefits.Event analysis revealed a beneficial treatment effect in this dataset. This effect was not detected by linear trend analysis applied to entire series, but was detected when using shorter subseries of length between six and nine fields. Using linear trend analysis on the entire field sequence may not be optimal for detecting and monitoring progression. Nonlinear analyses may be needed for long series of fields. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00000125.).
Project description:Identification of newer compounds to modulate dendritic cell functions. Overall design: Total RNA obtained from bone marrow-derived dendritic cells treated for 6 hours with small chemical compounds or vehicle alone in the presence or absence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS).
Project description:Identification of newer compounds to modulate dendritic cell functions. Total RNA obtained from bone marrow-derived dendritic cells treated for 6 hours with small chemical compounds or vehicle alone in the presence or absence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Epigenetic code modifications by histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have been proposed as potential new therapies for lymphoid malignancies. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common type of aggressive lymphoma for which standard first line treatment is the chemotherapy regimen CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone) combined with the monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody rituximab (R-CHOP). The HDACi valproate, which has for long been utilized in anti-convulsive therapy, has been shown to sensitize to chemotherapy in vitro. Valproate upregulates expression of CD20 in lymphoma cell lines; therefore, 48 hour pre-treatment with valproate before first line R-CHOP in DLBCL stages II-IV is evaluated in the phase I clinical trial VALFRID; Valproate as First line therapy in combination with Rituximab and CHOP in Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. FINDINGS:Pretreatment with valproate at oral doses comparable to anti-convulsive therapy, resulted in upregulation of CD20 mRNA and CD20 protein on the cell surface as measured by qPCR and FACS analysis in lymphoma biopsies from three evaluated patients from the VALFRID study. Valproate-treatment corresponded to increased acetylation of Histone3Lysine9 (H3K9ac) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), which were employed as surrogate tissue for valproate-related epigenetic modifications. CONCLUSIONS:Valproate treatment at pharmacologically relevant doses resulted in upregulation of CD20 in vivo, and also in expected epigenetic modifications. This suggests that pre-treatment with valproate or other HDACis before anti-CD20 therapy could be advantageous in CD20-low B-cell lymphomas. Further studies are warranted to evaluate this conclusion.
Project description:Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) represent a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of schizophrenia. Starting from an acetylene-based lead from high throughput screening, an evolved bicyclic dihydronaphthyridinone was identified. We describe further refinements leading to both dihydronaphthyridinone and tetrahydronaphthyridine mGlu5 PAMs containing an alkoxy-based linkage as an acetylene replacement. Exploration of several structural features including western pyridine ring isomers, positional amides, linker connectivity/position, and combinations thereof, reveal that these bicyclic modulators generally exhibit steep SAR and within specific subseries display a propensity for pharmacological mode switching at mGlu5 as well as antagonist activity at mGlu3. Structure-activity relationships within a dihydronaphthyridinone subseries uncovered 12c (VU0405372), a selective mGlu5 PAM with good in vitro potency, low glutamate fold-shift, acceptable DMPK properties, and in vivo efficacy in an amphetamine-based model of psychosis.