DGAT1 regulates retinol-dependent regulatory T cell generation and mediates autoimmune encephalomyelitis
ABSTRACT: This file contains gene microarray data from FACS purified mouse memory phenotype CD4+ T cells (CD44hiCD45RBloCD25-), which were isolated from lymph node and spinal cord tissues of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a widely studied model of human multiple sclerosis (MS). Memory phenotype CD4+ T cells infiltrating the CNS during EAE expressed high levels of mRNA for Dgat1 encoding diacylglycerol-O-acyltransferase-1 (DGAT1). We studied the biology of DGAT1 in EAE models and in assays of T cell differentiation and function. Overall design: We analyzed transcript expression data from memory phenotype CD4+ T cells derived from draining lymph nodes (n=3) and spinal cords (n=3) of mice with acute symptomatic EAE .
Project description:Inhibition of Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) has been a mechanism of interest for metabolic disorders. DGAT1 inhibition has been shown to be a key regulator in an array of metabolic pathways; however, based on the DGAT1 KO mouse phenotype the anticipation is that pharmacological inhibition of DGAT1 could potentially lead to skin related adverse effects. One of the aims in developing small molecule DGAT1 inhibitors that target key metabolic tissues is to avoid activity on skin-localized DGAT1 enzyme. In this report we describe a modeling-based approach to identify molecules with physical properties leading to differential exposure distribution. In addition, we demonstrate histological and RNA based biomarker approaches that can detect sebaceous gland atrophy pre-clinically that could be used as potential biomarkers in a clinical setting. Mice were treated with DGAT1 inhibitors for 14 days and dorsal skin biopsies (3-5 mm^2) were taken. RNA was profiled on custom Affymetrix microarrays. The primary goal was to identify robust and consistent biomarkers of DGAT1 inibition in skin.
Project description:Leanness is associated with increased lifespan and is linked to favorable metabolic conditions promoting life extension. We show here that deficiency of the lipid synthesis enzyme acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), which reduces body fat in mice, promotes longevity. Female DGAT1-deficient mice were protected from age-related increases in body fat, non-adipose tissue triglycerides, and markers of inflammation in white adipose tissue. These metabolic changes were accompanied by an increased mean and maximal lifespan of ~25% and ~10%, respectively. The gene expression profile of DGAT1-deficient mice was not highly correlated with calorie restriction of sex and age matched wild-type littermates. Our findings indicate that loss of DGAT1-mediated lipid synthesis results in leanness, protects against age-related metabolic consequences, and thus extends longevity. Overall design: Liver gene expression profiles between short-term calorie restricted wild-type (WTCR) and Dgat1 deficient (KO) middle-aged (15-16 mo) female mice were compared to determine if calorie restriction and Dgat1 deficiency rely on common regulatory pathways for the promotion of longevity. Both CR and KO were compared to middle-aged wild-type female littermates fed a standard chow diet ad libitum (WTAL).
Project description:Leanness is associated with increased lifespan and is linked to favorable metabolic conditions promoting life extension. We show here that deficiency of the lipid synthesis enzyme acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), which reduces body fat in mice, promotes longevity. Female DGAT1-deficient mice were protected from age-related increases in body fat, non-adipose tissue triglycerides, and markers of inflammation in white adipose tissue. These metabolic changes were accompanied by an increased mean and maximal lifespan of ~25% and ~10%, respectively. The gene expression profile of DGAT1-deficient mice was not highly correlated with calorie restriction of sex and age matched wild-type littermates. Our findings indicate that loss of DGAT1-mediated lipid synthesis results in leanness, protects against age-related metabolic consequences, and thus extends longevity. Liver gene expression profiles between short-term calorie restricted wild-type (WTCR) and Dgat1 deficient (KO) middle-aged (15-16 mo) female mice were compared to determine if calorie restriction and Dgat1 deficiency rely on common regulatory pathways for the promotion of longevity. Both CR and KO were compared to middle-aged wild-type female littermates fed a standard chow diet ad libitum (WTAL).
Project description:Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a murine model of multiple sclerosis, a chronic neurodegenerative and inflammatory autoimmune condition of the central nervous system (CNS). Pathology is driven by the infiltration of autoreactive CD4+ lymphocytes into the CNS where they attack neuronal sheaths causing ascending paralysis. We used an isotope-coded protein labelling approach to investigate the proteome of CD4+ cells isolated from the spinal cord and brain of mice at various stages of EAE progression in two EAE disease models; PLP139-151-induced relapsing-remitting EAE and MOG35-55-induced chronic EAE, which emulate the two forms of human multiple sclerosis. A total of 1120 proteins were quantified across disease onset, peak-disease and remission phases of disease and of these, 13 up-regulated proteins of interest were identified with functions relating to the regulation of inflammation, leukocyte adhesion and migration, tissue repair and the regulation of transcription/translation. Proteins implicated in processes such as inflammation (S100A4 and S100A9) and tissue repair (Annexin A1), which represent key events during EAE progression were validated by quantitative PCR. This is the first targeted analysis of autoreactive cells purified from the CNS during EAE, highlighting fundamental CD4+ cell-driven processes that occur during the initiation of relapse and remission stages of disease.
Project description:Several studies have identified a specific metabolic program that is associated with the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Whereas much is known about the association between glucose metabolism and EMT, the contribution of lipid metabolism is not still completely understood. Here, we studied epithelial and mesenchymal breast cancer cells by proteomic and lipidomic approaches and identified significant differences that characterised these models concerning specific metabolic enzymes and metabolites including fatty acids and phospholipids. Higher levels of monounsaturated fatty acids together with increased expression of enzymes of de novo fatty acid synthesis is the distinct signature of epithelial with respect to mesenchymal cells that, on the contrary, show reduced lipogenesis, higher polyunsaturated fatty acids level and increased expression of genes involved in the triglyceride (TAG) synthesis and lipid droplets formation. In the mesenchymal model, the diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT)-1 appears to be the major enzyme involved in TAG synthesis and inhibition of DGAT1, but not DGAT2, drastically reduces the incorporation of labeled palmitate into TAG. Moreover, knockdown of β-catenin demonstrated that this metabolic phenotype in under the control of a network of transcriptional factors and that β-catenin has a specific role in the regulation of lipid metabolism in mesenchymal cells.
Project description:We isolated CD4+ T cells from draining lymph nodes 7 days post EAE from DA rats treated with vitamin D supplemented, vitamin D deprived or regular diet Overall design: EAE was induced with MOG in age matched DA rats. After isolation of CD4+ T cells with FACS, RNA was isolated and subjected to microarray analysis. We were interested in the effect of vitaimin D on the transcriptome of CD4+ T cells. Thus we did microarray analysis on 3 different groups: DA rats treated with vitamin D supplemented, vitamin D deprived or regular diet
Project description:The study assessed the efficacy of R-flurbiprofen in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models of multiple sclerosis in mice. R-flurbiprofen, also known as tarenflurbil, is the R-enantiomer of the cyclooxyygenase inhibitor S-flurbiprofen. It is ineffective in terms of cyclooxygenase inhibition and has no relevant toxicity in humans. Oral R-flurbiprofen prevented and attenuated primary progressive EAE in C57BL6/J mice and relapsing-remitting EAE in SJL mice, even if the treatment was initiated on or after the first flare of the disease. R-flurbiprofen reduced immune cell infiltration and microglia activation and inflammation in the spinal cord, brain and optic nerve and attenuated myelin destruction and EAE-evoked hyperalgesia. R-flurbiprofen treatment increased CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T-cells, CTLA4+ inhibitory T-cells and interleukin-10, whereas the EAE-evoked upregulation of pro-inflammatory genes in the spinal cord was strongly reduced (Sentrix6 results). The effects were associated with an increase of plasma and cortical endocannabinoids but decreased spinal prostaglandins, the latter likely due to R- to S inversion. The promising results suggest potential efficacy of R-flurbiprofen in human MS. To assess effects of R-flurbiprofen on EAE evoked gene regulations in the spinal cord a genome wide expression analysis was performed using Illumina Sentrix 6 v2 BeadChips. For the microarray study female C57BL6/J mice were immunized according to a standard protocol using the Hooke Kit™ MOG35-55/CFA emulsion PTX (EK-2110, Hooke Labs, St Lawrence, MA), which contains 200 µg myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) 35-55 emulsified in 200 µl Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA). The emulsion was injected subcutaneously at two sites followed by two intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of 200 ng pertussis toxin (PTX) in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), the first 1-2 h after MOG35-55, and the second 24 h after MOG35-55. Control mice received CFA without MOG35-55 (sham mice). Treatment with R-flurbiprofen or vehicle (n = 12 per group) was started 5 days after immunization and was administered continuously via the drinking water up to the end. Spinal cords were dissected out during the flare of the disease, day 16 after immunization. For microarray analysis, total RNA was extracted from homogenizedlumbar spinal cord tissue with Trizol reagent, followed by clean-up and DNase I treatment with QIAGEN RNeasy mini kit. RNA quality was checked (Nanodrop ND-1000, Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer), and subsequently biotinylated and hybridized to Mouse Sentrix-6 V2 Expression BeadChips (Illumina). Each sample consisted of pooled lumbar spinal cord tissue from 3 animals and 3 replicate samples were analyzed per group, i.e. the analysis is based on 9 mice per group. Groups were CFA-control with vehicle treatment, CFA-control with R-flurbiprofen, EAE-vehicle and EAE-R-flurbiprofen treatment. Treatment was started 5 days after immunization. For dissection, pairs were matched according to the clinical scores. QC, labeling, hybridization and raw data evaluation and normalization were done according to standard protocols at the core facilities of the Deutsche Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg, Germany.
Project description:Non-lymphoid tissues (NLTs) harbour a pool of adaptive immune cells distinct from their counterparts in lymphoid tissues, and their development and phenotype remains largely unexplored. We used scRNA-seq to survey CD4+ T regulatory (Treg) and memory T (Tmem) cells in spleen, lymph nodes, skin and colon in an unbiased way, in mouse. This cross-tissues comparison allows us to obtain marker genes for immune populations in specific locations, as well as examine each population's heterogeneity. Additionally, a continuous phenotype of Treg migration can be modelled from the mouse data, unravelling the transcriptional stages through which these cells transition between tissues.
Project description:Assessment of whether endogenous IFN-I exerts genome-wide gene expression changes in splenic CD3 T cells and spinal cord during priming phase of EAE, we performed transcriptome analysis on T cells and spinal cord derived from 3-month old IFNAR1Texcl and WT animals on day 10 upon EAE induction.
Project description:CD4+ helper T (Th) cells are critical regulators of immune responses but their role in breast cancer is currently unknown. This work aims to characterize Th cells infiltrating invasive primary human breast tumors, analyze the influence by the tumor microenvironment and identify Th cell specific prognostic gene signatures. CD4+ T cells isolated from the tumor (TIL), axillary lymph node (LN) and blood (PB) of 10 patients were analyzed on Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 arrays. A confirmation set of 60 patients were studied by flow cytometry, qRT-PCR or immunohistochemistry and analyzed according to the extent of the tumor immune infiltrate. Gene expression profiles of freshly isolated TIL were also compared with TIL that had been rested overnight or with CD4+ T cells [non-stimulated (NS) or stimulated (S)] from healthy donor PB treated with tumor supernatant (SN). Analysis of CD4+ TIL with or without 24h ex-vivo rest, including donor blood memory CD4+ T cells treated in the same conditions as control CD4+ T cells isolated from primary tumors of 2 patients and memory CD4+ T cells from a healthy donor blood were immediately analyzed or incubated for 24h without stimulation before being analyzed on Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 arrays